• GERMANIC MIGRATIONS AND
  • FRANKISH KINGDOM
  • JOHANNES REUCHLIN
  • THE WEIMAR CONSTITUTION
  • W
  • INFLATION, REPARATIONS, AND
  • THE STRESEMANN ERA, 19231929
  • STABILIZATION AND LOCARNO,
  • CULTURE AND SOCIETY
  • ROAD TO DICTATORSHIP,
  • T
  • CONSOLIDATION OF POWER
  • THE NAZI TOTAL STATE
  • ULRICH VON HUTTEN
  • PERSECUTION OF THE JEWS
  • RELIGION AND THE CHURCHES
  • FOREIGN POLICY
  • W
  • THE BATTLE OF BRITAIN
  • INVASION OF RUSSIA
  • HITLERS PLANS FOR EUROPE
  • TURNING OF THE TIDE,
  • THE HOME FRONT
  • THE RESISTANCE
  • PHILIP MELANCHTHON
  • D-DAY TO DEFEAT NAZI GERMANY
  • THE HOLOCAUST
  • A
  • ALLIED PLANS AND CONFERENCES
  • DENAZIFICATION
  • POLITICAL PARTIES AND TRADE
  • LOCAL STATE FORMATION
  • PARLIAMENTARY COUNCIL AND THE
  • ECONOMIC RECONSTRUCTION
  • T
  • ERASMUS OF ROTTERDAM
  • BUNDESTAG ELECTION AND
  • REGAINING SOVEREIGNTY AND INTEGRATION
  • RECONSTRUCTION AND THE ECONOMIC
  • TRANSITIONAL YEARS AND
  • THE GRAND COALITION AND YOUTH
  • THE SOCIAL-LIBERAL COALITION
  • OSTPOLITIK (FOREIGN POLICY
  • CULTURE AND SOCIETY
  • SOCIAL STRUCTURE
  • SCHMIDT ERA: SOCIAL UNREST,
  • PRINTING AND MEDICINE
  • THE KOHL ERA, 19821998
  • T
  • UPRISING OF JUNE 17, 1953
  • ECONOMIC SYSTEM
  • SOCIETY, EDUCATION, AND
  • RELATIONS WITH THE FEDERAL
  • R
  • CONSEQUENCES AND PROBLEMS OF
  • ECONOMIC UNIFICATION,
  • P
  • RENAISSANCE ART
  • UNIFICATION POLITICS AND ITS
  • FOREIGN POLICY
  • GOVERNMENT AND ELECTIONS,
  • HISTORICAL DICTIONARY A
  • A
  • Abwehr
  • Adenauer, Konrad
  • Afrika Korps
  • Agadir Incident
  • Agrarian League
  • NEED FOR CHURCH REFORM
  • Agricola, Rudolf
  • Air Force
  • Albert (Albrecht) of
  • Albert V
  • Algeciras, Conference of
  • Allied Control Council
  • Alsace-Lorraine
  • Altdorfer, Albrecht
  • Amiens, Battle of
  • Anabaptists
  • P
  • Anglo-German Naval Treaty
  • Anschluss
  • Anti-Comintern Pact
  • anti-Semitism/Jew hatred
  • anti-Semitism
  • Anti-Socialist Law
  • Ardennes, Battle of the
  • Arendt, Hannah
  • Armed Forces (Wehrmacht)
  • Armed Forces (Bundeswehr):
  • LUTHER AND MELANCHTHON
  • Army (Prussian to 1860)
  • Army (Second Empire,
  • Asylum Law
  • Atlantic, Battle of the
  • Auerstadt, Battle of
  • Augsburg, Diet of
  • Augsburg, Religious Peace of
  • Augsburg, War of the League
  • Augsburg Confession
  • Augspurg, Anita
  • LUTHER AND ZWINGLI
  • Auschwitz-Birkenau
  • Austerlitz, Battle of
  • Austria
  • Austrian Succession, War of
  • autarchy
  • autobahns
  • Axis, The
  • B
  • Baden-Württemberg
  • Ballin, Albert
  • CAROLINGIAN EMPIRE
  • KNIGHTS REVOLT AND GREAT
  • Barbie, Klaus
  • Barmen Declaration
  • Barth, Karl
  • Basic Treaty
  • Bauernschutz
  • Bauhaus
  • Baumer, Gertrud
  • Bavaria
  • Bavarian Peoples Party (BVP)
  • Bavarian Succession, War of
  • REFORMATION AND THE TOWNS
  • Bayer AG
  • Bayreuth
  • Bebel, August
  • Beck, Ludwig August Theodor
  • Beckmann, Max
  • Beer-Hall Putsch of 1923
  • Beethoven, Ludwig van
  • Benjamin, Walter
  • Benn, Gottfried
  • Bennigsen, Rudolf von
  • ANABAPTISM AND MÜNTZER
  • Benz, Carl Friedrich
  • Bergen-Belsen
  • Berghof
  • Berlin
  • Berlin, Battle for (Fall of)
  • Berlin, Congress of
  • Berlin-Baghdad Railway
  • Berlin Blockade
  • Berlin Conference
  • Berlin Wall
  • CALVINISM IN GERMANY
  • Bernstein, Eduard
  • Bethmann Hollweg, Theobald
  • Biedermeier
  • Biermann, Wolf
  • Bismarck, Otto Eduard Leopold
  • blank check
  • Bleichröder, Gerson von
  • Blenheim, Battle of
  • Blomberg, Werner von
  • Blücher, Gebhard
  • CHARLES V AND THE REFORMATION
  • Böll, Heinrich
  • Bonhoeffer, Dietrich
  • Bonn
  • Bormann, Martin
  • Born, Max
  • Borsig, August
  • Bosch, Robert
  • Bosnia-Herzegovina
  • Brahms, Johannes
  • Brandenburg
  • C
  • Brauchitsch, Walther von
  • Braun, Eva
  • Braun, Karl Ferdinand
  • Braun, Otto
  • Braun, Wernher von
  • Brecht, Bertolt
  • Bremen/Bremerhaven
  • Brentano, Elizabeth Bettina
  • Breslau
  • The Bridge
  • THE THIRTY YEARS WAR
  • Britain, Battle of
  • Brüning, Heinrich
  • Buchenwald
  • Bülow, Bernhard von
  • Bundesrat
  • Bundestag
  • Burschenschaft
  • C
  • Canisius, Peter
  • canton system
  • A
  • Carlsbad Decrees
  • Celtis, Conrad
  • Center Party
  • Chamberlain, Houston Stewart
  • Charles V
  • Charles VI
  • Charles VII
  • Charlottenburg, Palace of
  • Christian Democratic Union
  • Christian Social Union
  • LITERATURE
  • Civil Code, German (Revised
  • Clausewitz, Carl von
  • Concordat of 1933
  • Condor Legion
  • The Confederation of the Rhine was a
  • Confessing Church
  • Congress of Vienna
  • conservatism
  • constitutional traditions
  • Counter-Reformation
  • MUSIC
  • Cranach, Lucas, the Elder
  • cultured elites
  • D
  • Daimler, Gottlieb
  • Danish War
  • Danzig
  • Dawes Plan
  • D-Banks
  • D-Day
  • Degenerate Art
  • SAXON AND SALIAN DYNASTIES,
  • SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION
  • denazification
  • Denck, Hans
  • Depression, The Great
  • Depressions
  • détente
  • Diesel, Rudolf
  • Dietrich, Josef Sepp
  • Diplomatic Revolution of 1756
  • Dix, Otto
  • Döblin, Alfred
  • GOTTFRIED WILHELM VON LEIBNIZ
  • Dönitz, Karl
  • Dresden
  • Droste-Hülshoff, Annette
  • Dual Alliance
  • Dürer, Albrecht
  • Düsseldorf
  • E
  • Edict of Toleration
  • Ehrlich, Paul
  • Eichendorff, Joseph von
  • PIETISM
  • Eichmann, Adolf
  • Eicke, Theodor
  • Einsatzgruppen
  • Einstein, Albert
  • Eisner, Kurt
  • El Alamein, Battles of
  • Elbe River
  • Ems Telegram
  • Enabling Act
  • Engels, Friedrich
  • ROCOCO
  • ENIGMA/ULTRA
  • Enlightenment
  • Erasmus, Desiderius
  • Erfurt Program
  • Erhard, Ludwig
  • Ernst, Max
  • Erzberger, Matthias
  • Eugene, prince of Savoy
  • European Coal and Steel
  • European Defense Community
  • A
  • European Economic Community
  • European Union
  • euthanasia
  • expressionism
  • Falkenhayn, Erich von
  • F
  • Fatherland Party
  • Federal Constitutional Court
  • Federal Republic of Germany
  • Federation of German Industry
  • TURKISH WARS
  • Federation of German Womens
  • feminism, 18151945
  • feminism, 19452005
  • Ferdinand II
  • Feuerbach, Ludwig Andreas
  • Fichte, Johann Gottlieb
  • Final Solution
  • Fischer, Josef Joschka
  • Fischer von Erlach, John
  • Fontane, Theodor
  • WARS OF AUSTRIAN SUCCESSION
  • Four Year Plan
  • Francis II
  • Frank, Anne
  • Frank, Hans
  • Frankfurt am Main
  • Frankfurt Parliament
  • Frederick I
  • Frederick II, The Great
  • Frederick III
  • Frederick III, The Wise
  • STATE REFORMS
  • Frederick William
  • Frederick William I
  • Frederick William II
  • Frederick William III
  • Frederick William IV
  • Free Corps
  • Free Democratic Party
  • Freemasonry/Illuminati
  • French Revolutionary Wars
  • Freytag, Gustav
  • FOREIGN POLICY AND KAUNITZ
  • Friedrich, Caspar David
  • Fritsch, Werner von
  • Fugger, Jacob the Rich
  • Führerprinzip
  • G
  • Galen, Clemens August von
  • Gellert, Christian
  • General Directory
  • Genscher, Hans-Dietrich
  • Gentz, Friedrich
  • JOSEPH II AND REFORM
  • German Christians
  • German Communist Party
  • German Confederation
  • German Conservative Party
  • German Democratic Party
  • German Democratic Republic
  • German Labor Front
  • German National Peoples
  • German Peoples Party
  • German Progressive Party
  • HOHENSTAUFEN DYNASTY,
  • VIENNA AND ARCHITECTURE
  • German Reich (Imperial) Party
  • German Womens Bureau
  • German Workers Party
  • Germany Treaty
  • R
  • FREDERICK III
  • FREDERICK WILLIAM I, THE
  • FREDERICK THE GREAT
  • SEVEN YEARS WAR
  • S
  • ECONOMY
  • POLITICAL DECENTRALIZATION
  • SOCIAL STRUCTURE
  • HABSBURG DYNASTY
  • CULTURE
  • THE ENLIGHTENMENT
  • LITERATURE AND DRAMA
  • PHILOSOPHY
  • SECRET SOCIETIES
  • T
  • R
  • THE ROMANTIC MOVEMENT
  • NATIONALISM AND LIBERALISM
  • EARLY INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
  • CITIES AND CRAFT GUILDS
  • REVOLUTIONS OF 1848
  • ARMY REFORM AND PARLIAMENTARY
  • O
  • THE DANISH WAR, 1864
  • AUSTRO-PRUSSIAN WAR, 1866
  • THE FRANCO-PRUSSIAN WAR,
  • COLLAPSE OF THE SECOND FRENCH
  • I
  • N
  • ART AND ARCHITECTURE
  • ORIGINS OF CAPITALISM
  • SOCIAL STRUCTURE AND WOMEN
  • EDUCATION
  • T
  • POLITICAL PARTIES
  • THE KULTURKAMPF, SOCIALISM,
  • FOREIGN POLICY AND ALLIANCE
  • BISMARCKS DISMISSAL
  • WILHELMINE GERMANY
  • T
  • THE QUESTION OF
  • LATE MEDIEVAL CULTURE
  • CONDUCT OF THE WAR
  • PEACE RESOLUTION, REFORM, AND
  • AN UNPLANNED REVOLUTION
  • N
  • POLITICAL PARTIES UNPREPARED
  • A REVOLUTIONARY PATTERN
  • WORKERS AND SOLDIERS
  • KURT EISNER AND REVOLUTION IN
  • A REPUBLIC PROCLAIMED
  • A SEVERE ARMISTICE
  • T
  • ESTABLISHMENT OF A REVOLUTIONARY
  • EBERT MAKES A DEAL WITH THE
  • THE SPARTACISTS
  • INTERPRETATION OF THE
  • A VENGEFUL PEACE
  • V
  • THE GOALS OF THE PEACEMAKERS
  • TERMS OF THE TREATY
  • WAR GUILT AND REPARATIONS
  • DENUNCIATION AND RELUCTANT
  • GERMANIC MIGRATIONS AND
  • N

    style='font-size:31.5pt;font-family:ATClassicRoman;color:black'>INETEENTH-CENTURY CULTURE AND SOCIETY

     

    Karl Friedrich Schinkel (17811841), suggested vocational schools as did the

    Hamburg-born architect Gottfried Semper (180379), famous for his buildings

    in Dresden and Vienna. The industrialist Raiffeisen founded rural credit cooperatives,

    and Franz Hermann Schulze-Delitzsch (180883) started credit associations

    for small businesses. Consumer cooperatives and trade unions were

    formed. The Catholic and Protestant Churches also advocated reforms to

    improve conditions, as in the case of Bishop Wilhelm von Kettler (181177),

    and the operation of charitable and vocational associations for tradesmen and

    workers, as in the case of Adolf Kolping (181365). Both of these were the

    founders of the German Social-Catholic movement. These and others sought

    to reform the existing capitalist and industrial system.

    The most prominent of those who opposed mere reform and demanded fundamental

    change in economic relations were Karl Marx (181883) and Friedrich

    Engels (182095). They insisted that the capitalist system had to be destroyed.

    During the 1848 revolution they had written The Manifesto of the Communist

    Party. It was written for Belgian workers, but it did not have any impact on that

    revolutionary year. Karl Marx was exiled and took up residence in London,

    while Friedrich Engels had set up factories in England. Marx began to research

    the forces and trends of the capitalist system in order to prove that a proletarian

    revolution was inevitable. In 1867 Marx published the first volume of Das

    Kapital. Workers themselves had set up the first workers associations in the

    wake of the 1848 revolution. These were repressed, but the establishment of

    trade unions continued. In 1863 Ferdinand Lassalle (182564) founded the

    General German Workers Association, which demanded equal and universal

    suffrage and state-supported companies. In 1869 a Marxist oriented Workers

    Party was formed in Eisenach by August Bebel (18401913) and Wilhelm

    Liebknecht (18261900). Eventually, the party of Lassalle and that in Eisenach

    merged in 1875 in Gotha to form a united workers party. In the Gotha program

    the Social Democratic Workers Party advocated a mix of Marxist and Lassallean

    ideas.

    Industrial Revolution 87

    The cultural trends of the latter half of the 19th century included realism, naturalism,

    materialism, impressionism, and expressionism, as well as the rise of

    modern anti-Semitism. Some of the intellectuals involved would praise the

    accomplishments of Bismarck and German society, while others reflected or

    severely criticized the materialism and militarization of German society. The

    romantic movement came to an end as the modern world tore apart its veil of

    fantasy and colorful illusions. The spread of the logic of Hegels idealistic philosophy,

    the political struggles of liberalism against the old authoritarian monarchical

    order, the failure of the revolutions of 1848, the rising nationalistic spirit,

    the progress of natural science, the onslaught of the early Industrial Revolution

    and its factories and industrial working classall were creating a world that

    needed to be described in new terms. Realism provided that new objectivity. The

    best literary works of realism were in the novels of such writers as Wilhelm

    Raabe (18311910), Theodor Storm (181788), and Theodor Fontane

    (181998). Fontane was the greatest of these novelists, while the age also

    brought forth one of the most outstanding lyric poets in the history of German

    literature, Annette von Droste-Hülshoff. She was deeply religious and combined

    realistic observation and deep psychological insight. One of her novels, The Jews

    Beech Tree (1842), was the finest tragic narrative of the middle of the century.

    On the other hand, there were those like the historian Heinrich von Treitschke,

    who praised the creation of the Second Reich and the use of military power

    to accomplish national goals. He influenced many of Imperial Germanys future

    leaders. Just as his writings reflected the militarization of the bourgeoisie, his

    interpretation of the problems of German industrial society was to blame the

    Jews as Germanys national misfortune. His work reflected and contributed

    to the growth of anti-Semitism, a trend already seen in Gustav Freytag

    (181595), who in Debit and Credit (1855) sought to mirror the German problems

    of his time. He wrote one of the great realistic historical novels of the earlier

    19th century in which he praises the enterprising spirit of German

    merchants. Another of the foremost realist novelists was Wilhelm Raabe, often

    called the German Charles Dickens. His pessimism about the materialism and

    nationalism of his age is apparent in his distinguished novel Der Hungerpastor

    (1864), which depicts the struggles of average people trying to achieve success

    and love in overcoming lifes challenges. In other novels he dealt with greedy

    people and their morals and how some could be destroyed by the lies and the

    meanness of modern life. Both Freytag and Raabe, however, were influenced

    in their anti-Semitism by the thinking of the infamous anti-Semitic Frenchman

    88

    Count Gobineau. Although prejudice against the Jews had a long history, in

    1873 Wilhelm Marr used the term anti-Semitism for the first time and alleged

    that Germanys problems were the result of a Jewish conspiracy.

    Out of realism emerged the more extreme literary form of naturalism. It had

    its forerunner in the socialistic novels of Friedrich Spielhagen (18291911) and

    the social perspectives of Theodor Fontane (181998). More important were the

    foreign influences of Leo Tolstoi, Henrik Ibsen, Émile Zola, Charles Darwin, and

    the scientific positivism and empiricism of the late 19th century. Before he

    turned against naturalism and socialism, Friedrich Nietzsche was also influential.

    The naturalist authors emphasized the misery of the slums, capitalistic

    exploitation, and social inequality. The middle class also was a target of the naturalists,

    and class struggle was emphasized. The vulgar language and the dialects

    of the common people were used effectively. Life was explained on a scientific

    basis, and sexual questions were freely discussed. The principal naturalist

    authors were Arno Holz (18631929), Gerhart Hauptmann (18621946), Hermann

    Sudermann (18571928), and Frank Wedekind (18641918). Influenced

    by the Swedish dramatist and novelist August Strindberg (18491956),

    Widekind started in the naturalist tradition but tended toward symbolism,

    employing grotesque and tempestuous messages in order to justify the power of

    mans sexual instincts, and he preached a gospel of amorality. In Widekinds

    attack on the rulers and middle class of Wilhelmine society he warned that dangerous

    forces of destruction were adrift. Considered by some to be a genius of

    smut, his powerful dramas undermined the contemporary naturalist theater,

    paving the way for the expressionist dramas of the future. One of the writers

    of the realistic and naturalist schools whose writings were a clear reflection of

    problems connected with industrial, urban, and social change was Heinrich

    Mann. He wrote satirical novels criticizing bigotry, hypocrisy, and chauvinistic

    patriotism. Manns In the Land of Cockaigne (1900) described the shallow humor

    and cheap intellectual ambitiousness of the newly rich in Berlin, where the population

    had more than doubled from 1870 to 1914 to around 2 million residents.

    His philosophy was one of radicalized realism, which emphasized a psychological,

    social, and material determinism. In Professor Unrath (1905) he examined

    the power of sexual attraction and the ruination of a professor by a cheap

    nightclub entertainer. Mann also wrote a powerful condemnation of Imperial

    Germany in the trilogy The Empire, where he denounced government officials,

    middle-class servility, and the general German lack of civic virtue. His best

    novel, The Patrioteer (Der Untertan), was the first in this series. Thomas Mann

    should also be mentioned in any discussion of naturalism, for early in his career

    he wrote Buddenbrooks (1901), which expressed with great refinement the decay

    of a proud patrician merchant family and its old middle-class values overcome

    by the challenges of industrialism and materialism.

    Theodor Fontane (181998) wrote fascinating novels in the genre of social

    realism dealing with the conflict between a formerly dominant aristocracy and

    the newly rich bourgeoisie. He began his career as a journalist, then distinguished

    himself as a ballad writer, and only later did he become a novelist. He

    wrote one of Europes greatest realistic psychological novels, Effi Briest (1895),

    the story of a German Madame Bovary married to a stern Prussian official and

    Nineteenth-Century Culture and Society 89

    who is unfaithful in a short affair with a young major. There is a sense of being

    trapped as the young woman after an indiscretion is crushed by the lack of

    compassion of society. Infidelity was an unforgivable crime for the wife, but the

    double standard existed for the husband. Another novel on a different theme

    is the humorous satire of the rich and pretentious bourgeoisie in Jenny Treibel

    (1892). The city was the focus of Fontanes social realism as it also was for the

    contemporary writers, Friedrich Spielhagen (18291911) and Herman Sudermann

    (18571928). Spielhagen, like Freytag, sought to mirror the social problems

    of his time, especially the dangers of materialism and nihilism and the

    reactionary feudalism of Bismarck.

    While Spielhagen belonged to the realist movement, Hermann Sudermann

    was a naturalist author and one of the most popular playwrights of his time.

    His dramas concerned such themes as the double standards in wealthy families

    as well as the conflicts between Prussian fathers and their daughters. The naturalist

    authors took up the battle for humankinds emancipation where the earlier

    generation of the storm and stress poets and the young Germans had left

    off. The naturalists, however, were much more radical and depressing in their

    descriptions of German life. They emphasized the raw and uncouth elements

    in life where the aesthetic elements of realism gave way to the propagandistic

    descriptions of the misery of the slums, as well as social hypocrisy and economic

    exploitation.

    In Berlin a new era of theater also began. Die Freie Bühne founded in 1889

    was dedicated to the modern drama. It presented the plays of Ibsen and Strindberg.

    Such German playwrights as Gerhart Hauptmann and Frank Wedekind, a

    forerunner of expressionism, had their works performed here. One of Germanys

    greatest playwrights was Gerhart Hauptmann, whose naturalist dramas vibrantly

    elicited compassion for the poor and mans powerlessness in a world of hostile

    forces. Hauptmanns naturalist drama Before Dawn (Vor Sonnenaufgang) (1889) is

    the story of an alcohol-infected family afflicted by despair and suicide. Hauptmanns

    greatest work was The Weavers (Die Weber) (1892), a socialist drama depicting

    the suffering and despair of Silesian weavers and their futile rebellion in 1844.

    Abandoning naturalism in the 1890s, Hauptmann turned to symbolism.

    Two geniuses of this period whose influence had a far-reaching impact on

    German history and particularly National Socialism were Friedrich Nietzsche

    (18441900) and Richard Wagner (181383). Friedrich Nietzsche sarcastically

    criticized the materialism and philistinism of his generation. In the Twilight of

    the Idols (1888) Nietzsche lambasted his countrymen as being stupid, resulting

    from Germans power and prosperity. Trained as a classical philologist,

    Nietzsche led a radical revolt against the values and traditions of Western civilization.

    His famous themes included the god is dead gospel, the superman

    and the will to power. Nietzsches ideas anticipated Sigmund Freuds concept

    of the unconscious and the existentialist search for the meaning of life.

    Richard Wagner was also a prominent critic of German society, a leading propagandist

    of Nordic racialism, and a brilliant composer of melodramatic operas

    based on medieval German legends. Along with Nietzsche he believed that

    Western civilization was in decline. He concluded that the German people could

    only be regenerated by returning to their ancient racial myths. He condemned

    90 Germany

    Jewish influence in German cultural life in his essay Judaism and Music, blaming

    the Jews for Germanys cultural decline. Wagner also opposed the liberalism,

    materialism, and intellectual progress of the middle class.

    German music continued its excellence throughout the 19th century. Just as

    Mozart and Beethoven had dominated the musical scene in the late 18th and

    early 19th centuries, Felix Mendelssohn (180947) and Robert Schumann

    (181056) were the most important composers until mid-century. Both

    Mendelssohn and Schumann exemplified the romantic tradition, the former in

    his experiments and recycling of thematic material, and the latter in his moody

    nature and receptiveness to literary stimuli, and his demise through insanity.

    Schumann set to music poems by Heine, Körner, Eichendorff, Rückert, and

    Chamisso. Carl Maria von Weber (17861826) should also be remembered as a

    leading contributor to the romantic and nationalist movement and especially for

    his opera The Free Shooter (Die Freischütz). Franz Liszt (181186), who was half

    Hungarian and half German, does not fall neatly into the German symphonic tradition,

    yet his contributions were enormous. Not only was he an outstanding

    pianist, he also was the equivalent of the renowned Paganini. Liszts decadelong

    career in Weimar produced the Faust symphony and many symphonic poems.

    Two musical giants who dominated the second half of the 19th century were

    Johannes Brahms (188397) and Richard Wagner, although closely followed

    by Richard Strauss (18641949) and the Austrian composers Anton Bruckner

    (182496) and Gustav Mahler (18601911). Brahms was one of the greatest

    symphonic composers of the century; his German Requiem (Deutsches Requiem)

    (1868) and his Violin Concerto were among his greatest accomplishments.

    On the other hand, Richard Wagner believed that he was creating the music

    of the future, which inspired him to compose his music dramas, Der Ring des

    Nibelungen, Tristan und Isolde, Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg, and Parsifal. It was

    his goal to achieve an organic union of music and drama in which each

    remained independent, the music reflecting the mood and passion while the

    drama carried the action. His heavy and pessimistic music was dazzlingly different

    from previous composers. Wagner experienced both marital and financial

    difficulties and was befriended by King Ludwig II of Bavaria who paid off

    his debts. It was therefore not until June 10, 1865, in Munich that Tristan und

    Isolde was first performed. Wagner also marks the transition from the more

    moderately liberal and nationalistic earlier 19th century to the more cynical

    and materialistic late 19th and 20th century.

    On the more popular side are the operettas of Jacques Offenbach (181980)

    and the immortal Viennese waltzes by Johann Strauss the Elder (180449) and

    the Younger (182599). Offenbach was of German-Jewish origin but performed

    most of his burlesque operas in France. He is remembered mostly for his Tales

    of Hoffman. It was Offenbach who encouraged the younger Johann Strauss to

    write operettas, his most successful being Die Fledermaus. Just as Gilbert and Sullivan

    personified Victorian England and Offenbach the Second Empire in

    France, it was Johann Strauss and his son who dominated the musical life of

    Vienna. They composed waltzes, polkas, marches, and quadrilles, and the

    younger became known as the Waltz King, two of his most popular being The

    Blue Danube and Tales from the Vienna Woods.

    Nineteenth-Century Culture and Society 91

    were   GERMANC   Germany   Party   their   Prussians   army   state   government   became   they   during   Austrian   CHURCHES   French   political   Frederick   Nazis   Social   Hitler   after   against   economic   some   republican