• GERMANIC MIGRATIONS AND
  • FRANKISH KINGDOM
  • JOHANNES REUCHLIN
  • THE WEIMAR CONSTITUTION
  • W
  • INFLATION, REPARATIONS, AND
  • THE STRESEMANN ERA, 19231929
  • STABILIZATION AND LOCARNO,
  • CULTURE AND SOCIETY
  • ROAD TO DICTATORSHIP,
  • T
  • CONSOLIDATION OF POWER
  • THE NAZI TOTAL STATE
  • ULRICH VON HUTTEN
  • PERSECUTION OF THE JEWS
  • RELIGION AND THE CHURCHES
  • FOREIGN POLICY
  • W
  • THE BATTLE OF BRITAIN
  • INVASION OF RUSSIA
  • HITLERS PLANS FOR EUROPE
  • TURNING OF THE TIDE,
  • THE HOME FRONT
  • THE RESISTANCE
  • PHILIP MELANCHTHON
  • D-DAY TO DEFEAT NAZI GERMANY
  • THE HOLOCAUST
  • A
  • ALLIED PLANS AND CONFERENCES
  • DENAZIFICATION
  • POLITICAL PARTIES AND TRADE
  • LOCAL STATE FORMATION
  • PARLIAMENTARY COUNCIL AND THE
  • ECONOMIC RECONSTRUCTION
  • T
  • ERASMUS OF ROTTERDAM
  • BUNDESTAG ELECTION AND
  • REGAINING SOVEREIGNTY AND INTEGRATION
  • RECONSTRUCTION AND THE ECONOMIC
  • TRANSITIONAL YEARS AND
  • THE GRAND COALITION AND YOUTH
  • THE SOCIAL-LIBERAL COALITION
  • OSTPOLITIK (FOREIGN POLICY
  • CULTURE AND SOCIETY
  • SOCIAL STRUCTURE
  • SCHMIDT ERA: SOCIAL UNREST,
  • PRINTING AND MEDICINE
  • THE KOHL ERA, 19821998
  • T
  • UPRISING OF JUNE 17, 1953
  • ECONOMIC SYSTEM
  • SOCIETY, EDUCATION, AND
  • RELATIONS WITH THE FEDERAL
  • R
  • CONSEQUENCES AND PROBLEMS OF
  • ECONOMIC UNIFICATION,
  • P
  • RENAISSANCE ART
  • UNIFICATION POLITICS AND ITS
  • FOREIGN POLICY
  • GOVERNMENT AND ELECTIONS,
  • HISTORICAL DICTIONARY A
  • A
  • Abwehr
  • Adenauer, Konrad
  • Afrika Korps
  • Agadir Incident
  • Agrarian League
  • NEED FOR CHURCH REFORM
  • Agricola, Rudolf
  • Air Force
  • Albert (Albrecht) of
  • Albert V
  • Algeciras, Conference of
  • Allied Control Council
  • Alsace-Lorraine
  • Altdorfer, Albrecht
  • Amiens, Battle of
  • Anabaptists
  • P
  • Anglo-German Naval Treaty
  • Anschluss
  • Anti-Comintern Pact
  • anti-Semitism/Jew hatred
  • anti-Semitism
  • Anti-Socialist Law
  • Ardennes, Battle of the
  • Arendt, Hannah
  • Armed Forces (Wehrmacht)
  • Armed Forces (Bundeswehr):
  • LUTHER AND MELANCHTHON
  • Army (Prussian to 1860)
  • Army (Second Empire,
  • Asylum Law
  • Atlantic, Battle of the
  • Auerstadt, Battle of
  • Augsburg, Diet of
  • Augsburg, Religious Peace of
  • Augsburg, War of the League
  • Augsburg Confession
  • Augspurg, Anita
  • LUTHER AND ZWINGLI
  • Auschwitz-Birkenau
  • Austerlitz, Battle of
  • Austria
  • Austrian Succession, War of
  • autarchy
  • autobahns
  • Axis, The
  • B
  • Baden-Württemberg
  • Ballin, Albert
  • CAROLINGIAN EMPIRE
  • KNIGHTS REVOLT AND GREAT
  • Barbie, Klaus
  • Barmen Declaration
  • Barth, Karl
  • Basic Treaty
  • Bauernschutz
  • Bauhaus
  • Baumer, Gertrud
  • Bavaria
  • Bavarian Peoples Party (BVP)
  • Bavarian Succession, War of
  • REFORMATION AND THE TOWNS
  • Bayer AG
  • Bayreuth
  • Bebel, August
  • Beck, Ludwig August Theodor
  • Beckmann, Max
  • Beer-Hall Putsch of 1923
  • Beethoven, Ludwig van
  • Benjamin, Walter
  • Benn, Gottfried
  • Bennigsen, Rudolf von
  • ANABAPTISM AND MÜNTZER
  • Benz, Carl Friedrich
  • Bergen-Belsen
  • Berghof
  • Berlin
  • Berlin, Battle for (Fall of)
  • Berlin, Congress of
  • Berlin-Baghdad Railway
  • Berlin Blockade
  • Berlin Conference
  • Berlin Wall
  • CALVINISM IN GERMANY
  • Bernstein, Eduard
  • Bethmann Hollweg, Theobald
  • Biedermeier
  • Biermann, Wolf
  • Bismarck, Otto Eduard Leopold
  • blank check
  • Bleichröder, Gerson von
  • Blenheim, Battle of
  • Blomberg, Werner von
  • Blücher, Gebhard
  • CHARLES V AND THE REFORMATION
  • Böll, Heinrich
  • Bonhoeffer, Dietrich
  • Bonn
  • Bormann, Martin
  • Born, Max
  • Borsig, August
  • Bosch, Robert
  • Bosnia-Herzegovina
  • Brahms, Johannes
  • Brandenburg
  • C
  • Brauchitsch, Walther von
  • Braun, Eva
  • Braun, Karl Ferdinand
  • Braun, Otto
  • Braun, Wernher von
  • Brecht, Bertolt
  • Bremen/Bremerhaven
  • Brentano, Elizabeth Bettina
  • Breslau
  • The Bridge
  • THE THIRTY YEARS WAR
  • Britain, Battle of
  • Brüning, Heinrich
  • Buchenwald
  • Bülow, Bernhard von
  • Bundesrat
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  • Burschenschaft
  • C
  • Canisius, Peter
  • canton system
  • A
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  • Center Party
  • Chamberlain, Houston Stewart
  • Charles V
  • Charles VI
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  • Charlottenburg, Palace of
  • Christian Democratic Union
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  • LITERATURE
  • Civil Code, German (Revised
  • Clausewitz, Carl von
  • Concordat of 1933
  • Condor Legion
  • The Confederation of the Rhine was a
  • Confessing Church
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  • conservatism
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  • Counter-Reformation
  • MUSIC
  • Cranach, Lucas, the Elder
  • cultured elites
  • D
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  • Danish War
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  • denazification
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  • Depression, The Great
  • Depressions
  • détente
  • Diesel, Rudolf
  • Dietrich, Josef Sepp
  • Diplomatic Revolution of 1756
  • Dix, Otto
  • Döblin, Alfred
  • GOTTFRIED WILHELM VON LEIBNIZ
  • Dönitz, Karl
  • Dresden
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  • Dual Alliance
  • Dürer, Albrecht
  • Düsseldorf
  • E
  • Edict of Toleration
  • Ehrlich, Paul
  • Eichendorff, Joseph von
  • PIETISM
  • Eichmann, Adolf
  • Eicke, Theodor
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  • El Alamein, Battles of
  • Elbe River
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  • ROCOCO
  • ENIGMA/ULTRA
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  • Ernst, Max
  • Erzberger, Matthias
  • Eugene, prince of Savoy
  • European Coal and Steel
  • European Defense Community
  • A
  • European Economic Community
  • European Union
  • euthanasia
  • expressionism
  • Falkenhayn, Erich von
  • F
  • Fatherland Party
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  • TURKISH WARS
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  • feminism, 18151945
  • feminism, 19452005
  • Ferdinand II
  • Feuerbach, Ludwig Andreas
  • Fichte, Johann Gottlieb
  • Final Solution
  • Fischer, Josef Joschka
  • Fischer von Erlach, John
  • Fontane, Theodor
  • WARS OF AUSTRIAN SUCCESSION
  • Four Year Plan
  • Francis II
  • Frank, Anne
  • Frank, Hans
  • Frankfurt am Main
  • Frankfurt Parliament
  • Frederick I
  • Frederick II, The Great
  • Frederick III
  • Frederick III, The Wise
  • STATE REFORMS
  • Frederick William
  • Frederick William I
  • Frederick William II
  • Frederick William III
  • Frederick William IV
  • Free Corps
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  • Freemasonry/Illuminati
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  • Freytag, Gustav
  • FOREIGN POLICY AND KAUNITZ
  • Friedrich, Caspar David
  • Fritsch, Werner von
  • Fugger, Jacob the Rich
  • Führerprinzip
  • G
  • Galen, Clemens August von
  • Gellert, Christian
  • General Directory
  • Genscher, Hans-Dietrich
  • Gentz, Friedrich
  • JOSEPH II AND REFORM
  • German Christians
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  • German Confederation
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  • German Democratic Party
  • German Democratic Republic
  • German Labor Front
  • German National Peoples
  • German Peoples Party
  • German Progressive Party
  • HOHENSTAUFEN DYNASTY,
  • VIENNA AND ARCHITECTURE
  • German Reich (Imperial) Party
  • German Womens Bureau
  • German Workers Party
  • Germany Treaty
  • R
  • FREDERICK III
  • FREDERICK WILLIAM I, THE
  • FREDERICK THE GREAT
  • SEVEN YEARS WAR
  • S
  • ECONOMY
  • POLITICAL DECENTRALIZATION
  • SOCIAL STRUCTURE
  • HABSBURG DYNASTY
  • CULTURE
  • THE ENLIGHTENMENT
  • LITERATURE AND DRAMA
  • PHILOSOPHY
  • SECRET SOCIETIES
  • T
  • R
  • THE ROMANTIC MOVEMENT
  • NATIONALISM AND LIBERALISM
  • EARLY INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
  • CITIES AND CRAFT GUILDS
  • REVOLUTIONS OF 1848
  • ARMY REFORM AND PARLIAMENTARY
  • O
  • THE DANISH WAR, 1864
  • AUSTRO-PRUSSIAN WAR, 1866
  • THE FRANCO-PRUSSIAN WAR,
  • COLLAPSE OF THE SECOND FRENCH
  • I
  • N
  • ART AND ARCHITECTURE
  • ORIGINS OF CAPITALISM
  • SOCIAL STRUCTURE AND WOMEN
  • EDUCATION
  • T
  • POLITICAL PARTIES
  • THE KULTURKAMPF, SOCIALISM,
  • FOREIGN POLICY AND ALLIANCE
  • BISMARCKS DISMISSAL
  • WILHELMINE GERMANY
  • T
  • THE QUESTION OF
  • LATE MEDIEVAL CULTURE
  • CONDUCT OF THE WAR
  • PEACE RESOLUTION, REFORM, AND
  • AN UNPLANNED REVOLUTION
  • N
  • POLITICAL PARTIES UNPREPARED
  • A REVOLUTIONARY PATTERN
  • WORKERS AND SOLDIERS
  • KURT EISNER AND REVOLUTION IN
  • A REPUBLIC PROCLAIMED
  • A SEVERE ARMISTICE
  • T
  • ESTABLISHMENT OF A REVOLUTIONARY
  • EBERT MAKES A DEAL WITH THE
  • THE SPARTACISTS
  • INTERPRETATION OF THE
  • A VENGEFUL PEACE
  • V
  • THE GOALS OF THE PEACEMAKERS
  • TERMS OF THE TREATY
  • WAR GUILT AND REPARATIONS
  • DENUNCIATION AND RELUCTANT
  • GERMANIC MIGRATIONS AND
  • I

    style='font-size:31.5pt;font-family:ATClassicRoman;color:black'>NDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

    SECOND GERMAN EMPIRE AND NEW EUROPEAN ERA

    At Versailles near Paris, King William I of Prussia was proclaimed German

    emperor on January 18, 1871, with most of the German princes in attendance.

    All over Germany victory and unity celebrations took place in a spirit of militaristic

    nationalism and religious fervor. Most Germans were elated over unification

    and believed that their victory was a manifestation of the favor of

    divine Providence.

    The Franco-Prussian War ushered in a new era. It broke the long peace

    among the major powers that had lasted since the Congress of Vienna. It created

    a new and very strong German nation, the Second Empire. It also emphasized

    the value of large, well-trained, and well-equipped armies. It left a

    heritage of bitterness between France and Germany and aroused a fiercer

    nationalism throughout all of Europe. Instead of bringing peace among nations

    80 Germany

    as the romantic nationalists had hoped, German and Italian unification was not

    accomplished by the people but from above by governments and armies. The

    seeds of discord and violations of international treaties contributed in the long

    run to the causes of both the First and Second World Wars.

    Otto von Bismarck and German Unification 81

    The Industrial Revolution was a great dynamic processor that transformed all

    the conditions and institutions under which peoplein any nationlived. In

    Germany it strengthened the paternalistic state, powerful economic interest

    groups, and militarism but weakened the liberalism of the middle class and created

    an atmosphere hostile to urban life. Industrialization had already begun

    in England some hundred years earlier and France thereafter, but was to occur

    in Germany during the latter half of the 19th century, much later, more quickly

    and thoroughly. Germanys economic transformation from a predominantly

    agrarian nation to a modern, highly efficient industrial and technological state

    occurred mostly during three decades. In England that process had taken more

    than 100 years and produced different results, strengthening the middle class

    and parliamentary government. Germany, on the other hand, had to borrow

    technical inventions, capital, and examples of business and industrial organization

    from abroad. Once adopted, however, the Germans systematically

    exploited and improved on these and by 1913 had become the leading competitor

    of Britain and the United States in steel production, world trade, banking,

    insurance, and shipping. The period of proto-industrialization before 1850

    was not very promising in Germany. It cannot be said that the German people

    between 1815 and 1848 had become better off economically. Economic growth

    had hardly kept ahead of rapid population growth. Nonetheless, important

    social and economic changes were taking place. During the restoration period

    some rulers as in Prussia had liberated individuals from the corporate restrictions

    of the guilds, making possible a new system of production based on factories.

    In agriculture capitalistic enterprise was limited, and the emancipation

    of the peasants did not substantially improve their conditions. Migration to

    cities increased these markets and the availability of a mobile labor force. Textile

    factories were built. In capital-poor Germany between 1818 and 1849 only

    18 limited companies were formed, but that was a start. An example of an early

    industrialist was Friedrich Harkort (17931880), who established a factory in

    the Rhineland that produced iron and machines, with the help of English engineers.

    Later, he also became involved in railroads and shipping. He strongly

    believed in economic nationalism and propagated the idea of individual initiative

    and self-reliance. Friedrich List (17891846), on the other hand, was more

    of a visionary who dreamt of a protectionist middle European customs union

    that could challenge Englands industrial supremacy. Economic liberalism,

    however, was the predominant economic philosophy of the time. The real

    industrial revolution began in the 1850s and was linked with a general

    82

    improvement in the world economy. The economic progress of the 1850s and

    60s laid the foundation for the progress that was to follow with political unification

    in 1871. Political unity created an environment conducive to economic

    growth, including a unified market, unified economic legislation, a common

    system of weights and measures, a new unified currency based on the gold

    standard, and the establishment of a central Reichsbank in 1875.

    The first major growth industries were the railroads and heavy industry such

    as machine tools. The coal and iron and steel industries were also fundamental.

    But the major development in railway construction and the building of a

    network began with small lines. By 1848 the existing German railroads radiated

    from a number of regional centers such as Berlin, Leipzig, Hanover, Hamburg,

    Cologne, Frankfurt, and Munich. The expansion of the 1840s, however,

    placed Germany ahead of France in railroad building. The railroads actually created

    a common market out of the Prussian Customs Union established in 1834.

    Although only 3,280 kilometers of track existed around 1845, this jumped by

    1860 to 11,633 and to 18,560 in 1870, increasing to 41,818 in 1890, 49,878 in

    1900, and to 59,031 in 1910. The railroads were highly profitable and paid out

    dividends of up to 20 percent in the 1860s. Private capitalization predominated

    in the early period, but as governments later became involved, Prussia brought

    its railroads under state control between 1879 and 1884. Ownership by the

    state of all German railroads took place after 1918.

    As the railroads expanded, heavy industry in the production of steam engines

    and machine tools for other purposes expanded significantly. The accelerated

    exchange of goods and the widespread availability of coal now made the Customs

    Union into an engine of growth. Most of the big machine factories originated

    in this period, such as the Borsig Locomotive Works in Berlin. Using a

    model from the United States, August Borsig (180454) in four years produced

    the first railroad engine and within a decade was able to supply the requirements

    of the whole Prussian railroad system. Josef Anton Maffei (17901870) founded

    his machine factory in Munich, as did other industrialists in Karlsruhe, Esslingen,

    and in Kassel. The most significant growth, however, took place in the coal

    and iron industries. The principal coal fields were in the Ruhr in Westphalia, the

    Saar basin in Upper and Lower Silesia, and Zwickau in Saxony. One of the most

    powerful coal syndicates in Europe was organized in the Ruhr. The marriage of

    coal and iron produced the most powerful iron and steel industry in Europe. For

    instance, just in the period from 1871 to 1874 a tremendous number of iron

    industries and engineering firms were established in Prussia. To the Borsig factory

    in Berlin were added the Krupp industry founded by Alfred Krupp

    (181287), the Thyssen steel works in the Ruhr established by August Thyssen

    (18421926), and the iron and steel empire established by Karl Freiherr von

    Stumm-Halberg (18361901). In Silesia Prince Guido Henckel von Donnersmarck

    (18301926) expanded his coal and iron industry to become the secondrichest

    man in Germany next to Alfred Krupp.

    By the eve of World War I Germany had been able to forge ahead of England

    and was second only to the United States in iron and steel production. An earlier

    limitation of highly phosphoric iron ore deposits was overcome by the

    invention and importation of the Thomas-Gilchrist open-hearth method of

    Industrial Revolution 83

    smelting ore. This enabled Germany to exploit the iron ores found in Lorraine,

    which Germany had annexed after the Franco-Prussian War, and linked these

    with the rich coal deposits in the Ruhr. The annexation of Alsace-Lorraine also

    brought a mature textile industry and potash deposits for fertilizer, providing

    Germany with a near monopoly in Europe. The increased production of steel

    was used in machine tools, cutlery, and precision instruments, but predominantly

    to build up the railroads, to develop a great merchant and naval fleet,

    the armaments industry, and much later the automobile industry. The shipbuilding

    industry experienced a remarkable growth after 1880, transforming

    the merchant fleet to steam-powered steel ships. The major shipbuilding cities

    were Hamburg, Bremen, Stettin, Elbing, and Kiel. Only Great Britain led Germany

    in total tonnage. German shipyards produced for the mercantile fleet but

    also for the massive naval building program advocated by Admiral Tirpitz

    (18491930). The two largest shipping companies were the Hamburg-Amerika

    Linie (HAPAG) founded by Albert Ballin (18571918), a Hamburg Jew, and the

    North German Lloyd of Bremen founded in 1857 by Heinrich Herman Meier

    (18091898).

    The chemical and electrical industries experienced their massive growth after

    1880. Germany had more than adequate resources in salt, potassium, and the

    derivatives of coal and lignite, which were transformed by the talents of highly

    84 Germany

    The SS Bremen of the

    North German Lloyd

    Company, 1905

    (Library of Congress)

    trained chemists. These industries produced chemicals for industrial uses as well

    as pharmaceuticals. The most spectacular developments came in the field of

    synthetic dyes, synthetic substitutes for rubber, oil, nitrates, photographic supplies,

    anesthetics, and pharmaceuticals. Important corporations were Agfa,

    Badische Analin, Bayer, Höchst, and IG Farben.

    Electrical engineering had its beginning with the introduction of the telegraph

    in the 1840s, but it was the telephone industry that stimulated the production

    of telecommunications equipment after 1877. One of the founders of

    this industry was Werner von Siemens (181692) who invented the first

    dynamo, which made it possible to generate electricity anywhere. Siemens also

    introduced the electric railways. Another pioneer of the industry was Emil

    Rathenau (18381915), who founded the German Edison Company (AEG) in

    1883. In the 1890s the process of electrification of cities was undertaken as was

    the building of an electrical trolley system of transportation. The problems of

    long-distance electrical transmission were overcome as well as those of hydroelectric

    power. By the eve of World War I Germany was producing some 50 percent

    of the worlds electrical equipment.

    At the beginning of the Industrial Revolution in Germany the availability of

    capital for investment was very limited. The demand for capital was satisfied by

    the expansion of joint-stock investment companies and the development of

    large commercial banks. While in the 1840s only 18 investment companies

    existed, by 1859 another 251 had been added. While the number of industrial

    corporations grew by 295 between 1851 and 1870 a phenomenal increase of

    857 occurred between 1870 and 1874. Political unification in 1871 and the

    influx from France of thousands of millions of marks as the result of the huge

    indemnity imposed by the victorious Prussians led to an unprecedented economic

    boom. The establishment of hundreds of companies led to unwise

    investments. In 1873 the stock exchanges in Vienna and then Berlin collapsed.

    As was the case in boom times industrial production exceeded demand and

    many companies went bankrupt. Some companies that had been formed without

    a solid basis, but with an expectation of future profits, did not survive this

    crisis. The German response to this phenomenon was to organize cartels or trusts

    by which companies controlled the market and fixed prices. This provided economic

    security in times of recession, but also limited competition. The crash of

    1873 also shattered the self-confidence of the middle class and created a pessimistic

    outlook that dominated during the following years. A depression lasted

    until 1877, followed by a decade of slow recovery, then another depression

    occurred lasting to 1895. The new electrical industry sparked a boom between

    1895 and 1900, followed by another recession until 1907. During the years prior

    to the First World War there was general economic expansion and prosperity.

    The nature and growth of the German banking system was what facilitated

    the rapid growth of commerce and industry. German banks played a different

    role in the economy than did those of England or the United States. By comparison

    the German banks provided credit to companies to promote production

    and not credit for consumers. German banks were a combination of commercial

    bank, investment bank, and investment trust. They participated in the

    establishment of enterprises and participated directly in their management.

    Industrial Revolution 85

    Exports were financed by them as were large-scale industries abroad, including

    railroads, telegraph, and many others. German banks helped finance the

    Northern Pacific Railroad in the United States and the famous Berlin to Baghdad

    Railroad.

    The solution to the problem of finding adequate capital for financing Germanys

    industrial development was found in the example of the French jointstock

    institution, the Crédit Mobilier. The first banks to follow this example

    were the Schaaffhausensche Bankverein founded by Gustav Mevissen and the

    Diskonto Gesellschaft founded by David Hansemann in 1851, followed by the

    Darmstädter Bank cofounded by Abraham Oppenheimer of Mannheim. The

    Berliner Handelsgesellschaft was founded in the 1850s, but expanded under

    Carl Fürstenberg, who had been trained by Bismarcks Jewish banker, Gerson

    Bleichröder. Although there were many banks that facilitated German industrialization,

    the greatest was the Deutsche Bank founded in 1870 by Georg von

    Siemens (18391901), a cousin of Werner von Siemens (181692), who was

    a famous leader in the electrical industry. Another was the Dresdner Bank

    established in 1872.

    The building of the railroads and the expansion of heavy industry required

    an unprecedented growth in a nonagricultural workforce. As was the case elsewhere

    in Europe, population was growing rapidly during the 18th and 19th centuries.

    At the opening of the 19th century the total population of what became

    Imperial Germany was just a little over 24 million, which increased to 41 million

    in 1870, and by 1914 that number had multiplied to just under 68 million.

    Although the birth rate had climbed throughout the century, between 1900 and

    1905 the absolute highest birth rate in German history occurred. The population

    in 1871 living in urban areas was only 36 percent, while in 1910 the percentages

    were almost reversed (60 percent), which meant that the movement

    of people into cities occurred very rapidly. Psychologically, however, Germans

    expressed negative feelings toward urban life. Emancipation of the rural population

    had proceeded apace (in Prussia serfdom was ended in 1810), which

    meant that internal migration could occur. Emigration to foreign lands, especially

    to the United States, had been high in the middle of the century, but as

    industrialization advanced fewer Germans took that route to a better life. A

    wave of internal migration created a human reservoir that the industrialists

    could tap. Between 1850 and 1870 the earlier agricultural and artisan proletariat

    was now being transformed into an industrial proletariat. Even artisans who previously

    had maintained their independence now sought work in the factories.

    The migration of a huge numbers of former agricultural workers from east of

    the Elbe River now became the workers in the factories of Rhineland-Westphalia.

    Working and living conditions in most instances were wretched. On the

    outskirts of Berlin and other industrial cities shanty towns grew up. Tenement

    houses were also built where on average six to seven people lived in one room.

    Workers often labored for 18 hours a day, and wages were so low that they often

    had to rely on bread lines. Child labor was common.

    Workers educational associations were formed, and many workers joined

    these self-help organizations. Numerous new types of organizations were established.

    The great Prussian architect and conservator of ancient monuments,

    86 Germany

    were   GERMANC   Germany   Party   their   Prussians   army   state   government   became   they   during   Austrian   CHURCHES   French   political   Frederick   Nazis   Social   Hitler   after   against   economic   some   republican