• GERMANIC MIGRATIONS AND
  • FRANKISH KINGDOM
  • JOHANNES REUCHLIN
  • THE WEIMAR CONSTITUTION
  • W
  • INFLATION, REPARATIONS, AND
  • THE STRESEMANN ERA, 19231929
  • STABILIZATION AND LOCARNO,
  • CULTURE AND SOCIETY
  • ROAD TO DICTATORSHIP,
  • T
  • CONSOLIDATION OF POWER
  • THE NAZI TOTAL STATE
  • ULRICH VON HUTTEN
  • PERSECUTION OF THE JEWS
  • RELIGION AND THE CHURCHES
  • FOREIGN POLICY
  • W
  • THE BATTLE OF BRITAIN
  • INVASION OF RUSSIA
  • HITLERS PLANS FOR EUROPE
  • TURNING OF THE TIDE,
  • THE HOME FRONT
  • THE RESISTANCE
  • PHILIP MELANCHTHON
  • D-DAY TO DEFEAT NAZI GERMANY
  • THE HOLOCAUST
  • A
  • ALLIED PLANS AND CONFERENCES
  • DENAZIFICATION
  • POLITICAL PARTIES AND TRADE
  • LOCAL STATE FORMATION
  • PARLIAMENTARY COUNCIL AND THE
  • ECONOMIC RECONSTRUCTION
  • T
  • ERASMUS OF ROTTERDAM
  • BUNDESTAG ELECTION AND
  • REGAINING SOVEREIGNTY AND INTEGRATION
  • RECONSTRUCTION AND THE ECONOMIC
  • TRANSITIONAL YEARS AND
  • THE GRAND COALITION AND YOUTH
  • THE SOCIAL-LIBERAL COALITION
  • OSTPOLITIK (FOREIGN POLICY
  • CULTURE AND SOCIETY
  • SOCIAL STRUCTURE
  • SCHMIDT ERA: SOCIAL UNREST,
  • PRINTING AND MEDICINE
  • THE KOHL ERA, 19821998
  • T
  • UPRISING OF JUNE 17, 1953
  • ECONOMIC SYSTEM
  • SOCIETY, EDUCATION, AND
  • RELATIONS WITH THE FEDERAL
  • R
  • CONSEQUENCES AND PROBLEMS OF
  • ECONOMIC UNIFICATION,
  • P
  • RENAISSANCE ART
  • UNIFICATION POLITICS AND ITS
  • FOREIGN POLICY
  • GOVERNMENT AND ELECTIONS,
  • HISTORICAL DICTIONARY A
  • A
  • Abwehr
  • Adenauer, Konrad
  • Afrika Korps
  • Agadir Incident
  • Agrarian League
  • NEED FOR CHURCH REFORM
  • Agricola, Rudolf
  • Air Force
  • Albert (Albrecht) of
  • Albert V
  • Algeciras, Conference of
  • Allied Control Council
  • Alsace-Lorraine
  • Altdorfer, Albrecht
  • Amiens, Battle of
  • Anabaptists
  • P
  • Anglo-German Naval Treaty
  • Anschluss
  • Anti-Comintern Pact
  • anti-Semitism/Jew hatred
  • anti-Semitism
  • Anti-Socialist Law
  • Ardennes, Battle of the
  • Arendt, Hannah
  • Armed Forces (Wehrmacht)
  • Armed Forces (Bundeswehr):
  • LUTHER AND MELANCHTHON
  • Army (Prussian to 1860)
  • Army (Second Empire,
  • Asylum Law
  • Atlantic, Battle of the
  • Auerstadt, Battle of
  • Augsburg, Diet of
  • Augsburg, Religious Peace of
  • Augsburg, War of the League
  • Augsburg Confession
  • Augspurg, Anita
  • LUTHER AND ZWINGLI
  • Auschwitz-Birkenau
  • Austerlitz, Battle of
  • Austria
  • Austrian Succession, War of
  • autarchy
  • autobahns
  • Axis, The
  • B
  • Baden-Württemberg
  • Ballin, Albert
  • CAROLINGIAN EMPIRE
  • KNIGHTS REVOLT AND GREAT
  • Barbie, Klaus
  • Barmen Declaration
  • Barth, Karl
  • Basic Treaty
  • Bauernschutz
  • Bauhaus
  • Baumer, Gertrud
  • Bavaria
  • Bavarian Peoples Party (BVP)
  • Bavarian Succession, War of
  • REFORMATION AND THE TOWNS
  • Bayer AG
  • Bayreuth
  • Bebel, August
  • Beck, Ludwig August Theodor
  • Beckmann, Max
  • Beer-Hall Putsch of 1923
  • Beethoven, Ludwig van
  • Benjamin, Walter
  • Benn, Gottfried
  • Bennigsen, Rudolf von
  • ANABAPTISM AND MÜNTZER
  • Benz, Carl Friedrich
  • Bergen-Belsen
  • Berghof
  • Berlin
  • Berlin, Battle for (Fall of)
  • Berlin, Congress of
  • Berlin-Baghdad Railway
  • Berlin Blockade
  • Berlin Conference
  • Berlin Wall
  • CALVINISM IN GERMANY
  • Bernstein, Eduard
  • Bethmann Hollweg, Theobald
  • Biedermeier
  • Biermann, Wolf
  • Bismarck, Otto Eduard Leopold
  • blank check
  • Bleichröder, Gerson von
  • Blenheim, Battle of
  • Blomberg, Werner von
  • Blücher, Gebhard
  • CHARLES V AND THE REFORMATION
  • Böll, Heinrich
  • Bonhoeffer, Dietrich
  • Bonn
  • Bormann, Martin
  • Born, Max
  • Borsig, August
  • Bosch, Robert
  • Bosnia-Herzegovina
  • Brahms, Johannes
  • Brandenburg
  • C
  • Brauchitsch, Walther von
  • Braun, Eva
  • Braun, Karl Ferdinand
  • Braun, Otto
  • Braun, Wernher von
  • Brecht, Bertolt
  • Bremen/Bremerhaven
  • Brentano, Elizabeth Bettina
  • Breslau
  • The Bridge
  • THE THIRTY YEARS WAR
  • Britain, Battle of
  • Brüning, Heinrich
  • Buchenwald
  • Bülow, Bernhard von
  • Bundesrat
  • Bundestag
  • Burschenschaft
  • C
  • Canisius, Peter
  • canton system
  • A
  • Carlsbad Decrees
  • Celtis, Conrad
  • Center Party
  • Chamberlain, Houston Stewart
  • Charles V
  • Charles VI
  • Charles VII
  • Charlottenburg, Palace of
  • Christian Democratic Union
  • Christian Social Union
  • LITERATURE
  • Civil Code, German (Revised
  • Clausewitz, Carl von
  • Concordat of 1933
  • Condor Legion
  • The Confederation of the Rhine was a
  • Confessing Church
  • Congress of Vienna
  • conservatism
  • constitutional traditions
  • Counter-Reformation
  • MUSIC
  • Cranach, Lucas, the Elder
  • cultured elites
  • D
  • Daimler, Gottlieb
  • Danish War
  • Danzig
  • Dawes Plan
  • D-Banks
  • D-Day
  • Degenerate Art
  • SAXON AND SALIAN DYNASTIES,
  • SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION
  • denazification
  • Denck, Hans
  • Depression, The Great
  • Depressions
  • détente
  • Diesel, Rudolf
  • Dietrich, Josef Sepp
  • Diplomatic Revolution of 1756
  • Dix, Otto
  • Döblin, Alfred
  • GOTTFRIED WILHELM VON LEIBNIZ
  • Dönitz, Karl
  • Dresden
  • Droste-Hülshoff, Annette
  • Dual Alliance
  • Dürer, Albrecht
  • Düsseldorf
  • E
  • Edict of Toleration
  • Ehrlich, Paul
  • Eichendorff, Joseph von
  • PIETISM
  • Eichmann, Adolf
  • Eicke, Theodor
  • Einsatzgruppen
  • Einstein, Albert
  • Eisner, Kurt
  • El Alamein, Battles of
  • Elbe River
  • Ems Telegram
  • Enabling Act
  • Engels, Friedrich
  • ROCOCO
  • ENIGMA/ULTRA
  • Enlightenment
  • Erasmus, Desiderius
  • Erfurt Program
  • Erhard, Ludwig
  • Ernst, Max
  • Erzberger, Matthias
  • Eugene, prince of Savoy
  • European Coal and Steel
  • European Defense Community
  • A
  • European Economic Community
  • European Union
  • euthanasia
  • expressionism
  • Falkenhayn, Erich von
  • F
  • Fatherland Party
  • Federal Constitutional Court
  • Federal Republic of Germany
  • Federation of German Industry
  • TURKISH WARS
  • Federation of German Womens
  • feminism, 18151945
  • feminism, 19452005
  • Ferdinand II
  • Feuerbach, Ludwig Andreas
  • Fichte, Johann Gottlieb
  • Final Solution
  • Fischer, Josef Joschka
  • Fischer von Erlach, John
  • Fontane, Theodor
  • WARS OF AUSTRIAN SUCCESSION
  • Four Year Plan
  • Francis II
  • Frank, Anne
  • Frank, Hans
  • Frankfurt am Main
  • Frankfurt Parliament
  • Frederick I
  • Frederick II, The Great
  • Frederick III
  • Frederick III, The Wise
  • STATE REFORMS
  • Frederick William
  • Frederick William I
  • Frederick William II
  • Frederick William III
  • Frederick William IV
  • Free Corps
  • Free Democratic Party
  • Freemasonry/Illuminati
  • French Revolutionary Wars
  • Freytag, Gustav
  • FOREIGN POLICY AND KAUNITZ
  • Friedrich, Caspar David
  • Fritsch, Werner von
  • Fugger, Jacob the Rich
  • Führerprinzip
  • G
  • Galen, Clemens August von
  • Gellert, Christian
  • General Directory
  • Genscher, Hans-Dietrich
  • Gentz, Friedrich
  • JOSEPH II AND REFORM
  • German Christians
  • German Communist Party
  • German Confederation
  • German Conservative Party
  • German Democratic Party
  • German Democratic Republic
  • German Labor Front
  • German National Peoples
  • German Peoples Party
  • German Progressive Party
  • HOHENSTAUFEN DYNASTY,
  • VIENNA AND ARCHITECTURE
  • German Reich (Imperial) Party
  • German Womens Bureau
  • German Workers Party
  • Germany Treaty
  • R
  • FREDERICK III
  • FREDERICK WILLIAM I, THE
  • FREDERICK THE GREAT
  • SEVEN YEARS WAR
  • S
  • ECONOMY
  • POLITICAL DECENTRALIZATION
  • SOCIAL STRUCTURE
  • HABSBURG DYNASTY
  • CULTURE
  • THE ENLIGHTENMENT
  • LITERATURE AND DRAMA
  • PHILOSOPHY
  • SECRET SOCIETIES
  • T
  • R
  • THE ROMANTIC MOVEMENT
  • NATIONALISM AND LIBERALISM
  • EARLY INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
  • CITIES AND CRAFT GUILDS
  • REVOLUTIONS OF 1848
  • ARMY REFORM AND PARLIAMENTARY
  • O
  • THE DANISH WAR, 1864
  • AUSTRO-PRUSSIAN WAR, 1866
  • THE FRANCO-PRUSSIAN WAR,
  • COLLAPSE OF THE SECOND FRENCH
  • I
  • N
  • ART AND ARCHITECTURE
  • ORIGINS OF CAPITALISM
  • SOCIAL STRUCTURE AND WOMEN
  • EDUCATION
  • T
  • POLITICAL PARTIES
  • THE KULTURKAMPF, SOCIALISM,
  • FOREIGN POLICY AND ALLIANCE
  • BISMARCKS DISMISSAL
  • WILHELMINE GERMANY
  • T
  • THE QUESTION OF
  • LATE MEDIEVAL CULTURE
  • CONDUCT OF THE WAR
  • PEACE RESOLUTION, REFORM, AND
  • AN UNPLANNED REVOLUTION
  • N
  • POLITICAL PARTIES UNPREPARED
  • A REVOLUTIONARY PATTERN
  • WORKERS AND SOLDIERS
  • KURT EISNER AND REVOLUTION IN
  • A REPUBLIC PROCLAIMED
  • A SEVERE ARMISTICE
  • T
  • ESTABLISHMENT OF A REVOLUTIONARY
  • EBERT MAKES A DEAL WITH THE
  • THE SPARTACISTS
  • INTERPRETATION OF THE
  • A VENGEFUL PEACE
  • V
  • THE GOALS OF THE PEACEMAKERS
  • TERMS OF THE TREATY
  • WAR GUILT AND REPARATIONS
  • DENUNCIATION AND RELUCTANT
  • GERMANIC MIGRATIONS AND
  • T

    style='font-size:31.5pt;font-family:ATClassicRoman;color:black'>HE ERA OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND NAPOLEON

    17891815

    Among German rulers the image of the revolution was generally negative.

    Convinced that the success of the revolutionary doctrines would mean the

    overthrow of the established monarchical and aristocratic elites of Germany

    and the rest of Europe, the rulers of Austria and Prussia concluded a defensive

    alliance against the French in February 1792. In late summer 1792 small Austrian

    and Prussian forces marched through Luxembourg into Champagne with

    no very definite military plan, and in humiliating skirmishes were forced to

    retreat back over the Rhine as far as Frankfurt. With the execution of Louis XVI

    and the republicans challenging the princes and monarchs of Europe with

    death and destruction, the First Coalition was formed, which included Prussia

    and Austria, Great Britain, Holland, Spain, Sardinia, and Naples. After two years

    of fighting, little was accomplished, the alliance was dissolved, and the king of

    Prussia even made a separate peace with France in April 1795. From the beginning

    of 1796 Napoleon Bonaparte became commander in chief of the republican

    forces, and the French proved to be victorious against the Second and Third

    Coalitions. French armies defeated the Austrians at Marengo and Hohenlinden

    (1800), which was followed by the Peace of Lunéville (February 1801), in

    which Germany lost more than 3 million people and considerable territory. This

    partition of Germany begun by Napoleon was continued by the German

    princes, who compensated themselves for their losses. At the Diet of Ratisbon

    in February 1803 the ecclesiastical territories were secularized, and some 4 million

    subjects changed rulers. The medium-size states profited the most. In May

    1804 Napoleon was crowned emperor of the French. Perhaps seeing the writing

    on the wall, the Holy Roman Emperor, Francis II of Austria, decided to constitute

    his Austrian territories as a hereditary empire. In 1805 Napoleon was

    victorious against the Third Coalition at the battle of the Three Emperors, also

    known as Austerlitz. In the Treaty of Pressburg (December 1805), which followed

    Austrias defeat, it ceded to France Italian territories and recognized

    Napoleon as king of Italy. More important, the rulers of Bavaria, Württemberg,

    and Baden were rewarded with German territory, and the first two were made

    kings. In 1806 Napoleon formed the Confederation of the Rhine, which consisted

    of 16 German princes. That same year the Holy Roman Empire was ignominiously

    dissolved and Francis II made it official with his formal abdication.

    One of the most profound results of the Prussian defeat at the hands of

    Napoleon was the reform of the Prussian state, laying the foundations not only

    for its successful participation in Napoleons defeat, but also for its future role

    in the unification of Germany. From 1807 to 1813 Prussia endured its humiliation.

    At the same time the reforms of farseeing statesmen like Baron vom Stein

    (17571831), Baron von Hardenberg (17501852), and Wilhelm von Humboldt

    (17671835), along with those of generals like Gerhardt von Scharnhorst

    (17561813), Neithardt von Gneisenau (17601831), and Gebhard Leberecht

    Blücher (17421819) were initiated. The chief architect of reform was Baron

    vom Stein from Nassau, who was an ardent opponent of the French Revolution,

    but who wanted to abandon the old systems of absolutism and centralization

    and mobilize the physical, intellectual, and moral energies of the people

    to serve their fatherland. The civic reformers believed that political and civic

    freedom would provide for the unity and security of the state. Their reforms

    The Era of the French Revolution and Napoleon 65

    were social, economic, administrative, educational, and military. The bold laws

    of Stein and Hardenberg abolished the legal aspects of serfdom and permitted

    peasants to assume mortgages and to freely marry and select occupations.

    Medieval economic corporations and regulations were eliminated, and freedom

    of occupation and contract were established. The reforms conferred on the

    towns extensive powers of self-government, thereby converting dependent

    subjects who had been divided into estates (Stände) into free citizens and modern

    social classes. Under the influence of Humboldt the educational system was

    reformed and extended. The unified school replaced the socially separate

    schools, and the University of Berlin was founded. A modern bureaucracy was

    organized in Prussia, which became a model of efficiency. Nothing materialized

    out of plans for a legislative assembly, which was not established until 1848.

    Patriotism was stimulated by the eloquent Addresses to the German Nation by

    Johann Gottlieb Fichte (17621814), and inspiring songs from poets like Ernst

    Moritz Arndt (17691860), Theodor Körner (17911813), and Friedrich

    Rüchert (17881866). Simultaneously the army was reformed, and many of

    the defects and abuses eliminated. For instance, the system of flogging was abolished

    as were the hereditary rights of the officer class. A system of universal

    service and a reserve militia (Landwehr) were institutedthe reserve pool of

    trained soldiers to secretly overcome the limitations imposed by Napoleon

    which served to quickly expand the army during the War of Liberation and

    which provided a model for the German general staff after World War I.

    The beginning of the end for Napoleons domination of Europe was the

    catastrophic failure of his invasion of Russia in 1812. By 1813 Prussia and Austria

    were joined by Russia, Sweden and also Great Britain in what has been

    known in Prussian history as the War of Liberation. The engagements culminated

    in the great three-day Battle of Leipzig (October 1618), which was

    fought in Saxony and which ended in complete victory for the allies. By the

    end of March 1814 the victorious allies marched into Paris. Although the first

    Peace of Paris (May 30, 1814) restored the Bourbon family to the throne in the

    person of Louis XVIII, France was treated rather magnanimously and required

    only to withdraw her boundaries to the frontiers of 1792. The details were

    worked out at the Congress of Vienna, which met at the end of October 1814,

    but was interrupted by Napoleons return from banishment on the island of

    Elba. On June 18, 1815, Napoleon and his armies were finally defeated at the

    Battle of Waterloo. The Second Peace of Paris was concluded on November 29,

    1815. The allies forced France to withdraw its boundaries to those of 1790 and

    to pay for reparations and for a five-year occupation by allied forces.

    As was to be expected, the Congress of Vienna, also called the dancing

    congress because of its numerous festivities, made some major alterations in

    the map of Germany. After the long French domination and the end of the Holy

    Roman Empire the boundaries of many states had been changed and many

    abolished. Even though there was widespread sentiment for the restoration of

    the old Empire, Prince Clemens von Metternich, the foreign minister of Austria,

    opposed it. In the end the negotiations at the Congress of Vienna and the

    resulting compromises were not completely satisfying or disappointing. Metternich

    was an exponent of the principle of legitimacy, which favored the

    66 Germany

    restoration of former monarchies where possible. This was done in France and

    Spain and in some Italian states. On the other hand, the principle of compensation

    operated when it was in the interest of the allies. On the whole Prussia

    did quite well and was compensated for its loss of Polish lands with two-fifths

    of Saxony, though it desired to annex all of it. It also received part of Westphalia

    and the left/western territory along the Rhine. On the other hand, Prussia

    ceded some territories to Hanover. The new kingdom of Bavaria received Ansbach

    and Bayreuth from Prussia and Würzburg and Aschaffenburg from Austria.

    In turn Bavaria ceded the Tyrol and the famous city of Salzburg to Austria.

    Austria was compensated with the Italian provinces of Lombardy and Venetia

    for its loss of the Austrian Netherlands.

    The Era of the French Revolution and Napoleon 67

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