• GERMANIC MIGRATIONS AND
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  • JOHANNES REUCHLIN
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  • W
  • INFLATION, REPARATIONS, AND
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  • CONSEQUENCES AND PROBLEMS OF
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  • blank check
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  • GERMANIC MIGRATIONS AND
  • FOREIGN POLICY AND KAUNITZ

    Although France had been Austrias principal antagonist to this point, Maria

    Theresa now had to focus on the dangers posed by Austrias new principal

    enemy, Prussia and Frederick II. Along with the revolution in governmental

    organization, Maria Theresa now adopted new foreign policy objectives.

    Absolutism in the Habsburg Austrian Empire 45

    Although Silesia had been reluctantly ceded to Prussia, the recovery of the lost

    province became the principal long-term objective of Austrian policy. She discovered

    the appropriate diplomat among her ambassadors, Wenzel Anton,

    Count Kaunitz (171194), who possessed great political vision and was influenced

    by the mechanistic rationalism of the Enlightenment. He had acted as

    her plenipotentiary at the Congress of Aix-la-Chappelle. In 1749 he was

    appointed the youngest member of the supreme advisory council, the Conference,

    then as ambassador to France, and finally in 1753 as head of foreign

    affairs as chancellor of state. With patience, daring, and rational calculation

    Kaunitz abandoned Austrias alliance with Great Britain and achieved an

    alliance with France. As the architect of this diplomatic revolution, Kaunitz

    became Maria Theresas most influential adviser.

    The so-called Diplomatic Revolution of 1756 came about in response to the

    danger that Prussia posed to Austrias goal of recovering Silesia. The alliance

    with France enabled Kaunitz to also bring Russia into a war with Prussia. In

    1756 Austria was at the center of a strong alliance in which she could set her

    strong army against Prussia. At the Battle of Leuthen (December 5, 1757) Frederick

    defeated an Austrian army twice as strong as his, and the Battle of Rossbach

    (1757) stimulated a great deal of admiration for Prussia in Germany. While

    Austrias alliance with France was extremely unpopular in Germany, the military

    skill of Prussia was admired, which enabled Frederick to replenish his

    army with German troops. On February 16, 1763, the treaty of Hubertusberg

    was signed by a victorious Prussia, which retained Silesia after stopping one of

    the most powerful coalitions ever assembled in Europe.

    After the Seven Years War (175663) Austria abandoned the idea of regaining

    Silesia and adopted a peaceful foreign policy. Maria Theresa reluctantly took

    part in the first partition of Poland (1772) and the War of Bavarian Succession

    (177879). She was opposed to the further expansion of Prussia and Russia. In

    the 1772 partition Austria received Galicia. Prussia agreed to a compromise peace

    ending the Potato War, in which Bavaria ceded the Inn Quarter to Austria.

    were   GERMANC   Germany   Party   their   Prussians   army   state   government   became   they   during   Austrian   CHURCHES   French   political   Frederick   Nazis   Social   Hitler   after   against   economic   some   republican