• GERMANIC MIGRATIONS AND
  • FRANKISH KINGDOM
  • JOHANNES REUCHLIN
  • THE WEIMAR CONSTITUTION
  • W
  • INFLATION, REPARATIONS, AND
  • THE STRESEMANN ERA, 19231929
  • STABILIZATION AND LOCARNO,
  • CULTURE AND SOCIETY
  • ROAD TO DICTATORSHIP,
  • T
  • CONSOLIDATION OF POWER
  • THE NAZI TOTAL STATE
  • ULRICH VON HUTTEN
  • PERSECUTION OF THE JEWS
  • RELIGION AND THE CHURCHES
  • FOREIGN POLICY
  • W
  • THE BATTLE OF BRITAIN
  • INVASION OF RUSSIA
  • HITLERS PLANS FOR EUROPE
  • TURNING OF THE TIDE,
  • THE HOME FRONT
  • THE RESISTANCE
  • PHILIP MELANCHTHON
  • D-DAY TO DEFEAT NAZI GERMANY
  • THE HOLOCAUST
  • A
  • ALLIED PLANS AND CONFERENCES
  • DENAZIFICATION
  • POLITICAL PARTIES AND TRADE
  • LOCAL STATE FORMATION
  • PARLIAMENTARY COUNCIL AND THE
  • ECONOMIC RECONSTRUCTION
  • T
  • ERASMUS OF ROTTERDAM
  • BUNDESTAG ELECTION AND
  • REGAINING SOVEREIGNTY AND INTEGRATION
  • RECONSTRUCTION AND THE ECONOMIC
  • TRANSITIONAL YEARS AND
  • THE GRAND COALITION AND YOUTH
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  • OSTPOLITIK (FOREIGN POLICY
  • CULTURE AND SOCIETY
  • SOCIAL STRUCTURE
  • SCHMIDT ERA: SOCIAL UNREST,
  • PRINTING AND MEDICINE
  • THE KOHL ERA, 19821998
  • T
  • UPRISING OF JUNE 17, 1953
  • ECONOMIC SYSTEM
  • SOCIETY, EDUCATION, AND
  • RELATIONS WITH THE FEDERAL
  • R
  • CONSEQUENCES AND PROBLEMS OF
  • ECONOMIC UNIFICATION,
  • P
  • RENAISSANCE ART
  • UNIFICATION POLITICS AND ITS
  • FOREIGN POLICY
  • GOVERNMENT AND ELECTIONS,
  • HISTORICAL DICTIONARY A
  • A
  • Abwehr
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  • Afrika Korps
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  • Agrarian League
  • NEED FOR CHURCH REFORM
  • Agricola, Rudolf
  • Air Force
  • Albert (Albrecht) of
  • Albert V
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  • Allied Control Council
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  • Amiens, Battle of
  • Anabaptists
  • P
  • Anglo-German Naval Treaty
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  • anti-Semitism/Jew hatred
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  • Ardennes, Battle of the
  • Arendt, Hannah
  • Armed Forces (Wehrmacht)
  • Armed Forces (Bundeswehr):
  • LUTHER AND MELANCHTHON
  • Army (Prussian to 1860)
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  • Atlantic, Battle of the
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  • Augsburg, Diet of
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  • LUTHER AND ZWINGLI
  • Auschwitz-Birkenau
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  • Austrian Succession, War of
  • autarchy
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  • Axis, The
  • B
  • Baden-Württemberg
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  • CAROLINGIAN EMPIRE
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  • Basic Treaty
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  • Bavaria
  • Bavarian Peoples Party (BVP)
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  • REFORMATION AND THE TOWNS
  • Bayer AG
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  • Beck, Ludwig August Theodor
  • Beckmann, Max
  • Beer-Hall Putsch of 1923
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  • Benjamin, Walter
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  • Bennigsen, Rudolf von
  • ANABAPTISM AND MÜNTZER
  • Benz, Carl Friedrich
  • Bergen-Belsen
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  • Berlin, Battle for (Fall of)
  • Berlin, Congress of
  • Berlin-Baghdad Railway
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  • CALVINISM IN GERMANY
  • Bernstein, Eduard
  • Bethmann Hollweg, Theobald
  • Biedermeier
  • Biermann, Wolf
  • Bismarck, Otto Eduard Leopold
  • blank check
  • Bleichröder, Gerson von
  • Blenheim, Battle of
  • Blomberg, Werner von
  • Blücher, Gebhard
  • CHARLES V AND THE REFORMATION
  • Böll, Heinrich
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  • Bonn
  • Bormann, Martin
  • Born, Max
  • Borsig, August
  • Bosch, Robert
  • Bosnia-Herzegovina
  • Brahms, Johannes
  • Brandenburg
  • C
  • Brauchitsch, Walther von
  • Braun, Eva
  • Braun, Karl Ferdinand
  • Braun, Otto
  • Braun, Wernher von
  • Brecht, Bertolt
  • Bremen/Bremerhaven
  • Brentano, Elizabeth Bettina
  • Breslau
  • The Bridge
  • THE THIRTY YEARS WAR
  • Britain, Battle of
  • Brüning, Heinrich
  • Buchenwald
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  • Bundesrat
  • Bundestag
  • Burschenschaft
  • C
  • Canisius, Peter
  • canton system
  • A
  • Carlsbad Decrees
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  • Center Party
  • Chamberlain, Houston Stewart
  • Charles V
  • Charles VI
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  • Charlottenburg, Palace of
  • Christian Democratic Union
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  • LITERATURE
  • Civil Code, German (Revised
  • Clausewitz, Carl von
  • Concordat of 1933
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  • The Confederation of the Rhine was a
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  • conservatism
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  • MUSIC
  • Cranach, Lucas, the Elder
  • cultured elites
  • D
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  • Depression, The Great
  • Depressions
  • détente
  • Diesel, Rudolf
  • Dietrich, Josef Sepp
  • Diplomatic Revolution of 1756
  • Dix, Otto
  • Döblin, Alfred
  • GOTTFRIED WILHELM VON LEIBNIZ
  • Dönitz, Karl
  • Dresden
  • Droste-Hülshoff, Annette
  • Dual Alliance
  • Dürer, Albrecht
  • Düsseldorf
  • E
  • Edict of Toleration
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  • Eichendorff, Joseph von
  • PIETISM
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  • El Alamein, Battles of
  • Elbe River
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  • ROCOCO
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  • Eugene, prince of Savoy
  • European Coal and Steel
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  • A
  • European Economic Community
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  • euthanasia
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  • Falkenhayn, Erich von
  • F
  • Fatherland Party
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  • feminism, 18151945
  • feminism, 19452005
  • Ferdinand II
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  • Final Solution
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  • WARS OF AUSTRIAN SUCCESSION
  • Four Year Plan
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  • Frankfurt am Main
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  • Frederick I
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  • STATE REFORMS
  • Frederick William
  • Frederick William I
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  • Frederick William IV
  • Free Corps
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  • G
  • Galen, Clemens August von
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  • General Directory
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  • Gentz, Friedrich
  • JOSEPH II AND REFORM
  • German Christians
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  • R
  • FREDERICK III
  • FREDERICK WILLIAM I, THE
  • FREDERICK THE GREAT
  • SEVEN YEARS WAR
  • S
  • ECONOMY
  • POLITICAL DECENTRALIZATION
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  • O
  • THE DANISH WAR, 1864
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  • I
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  • T
  • THE QUESTION OF
  • LATE MEDIEVAL CULTURE
  • CONDUCT OF THE WAR
  • PEACE RESOLUTION, REFORM, AND
  • AN UNPLANNED REVOLUTION
  • N
  • POLITICAL PARTIES UNPREPARED
  • A REVOLUTIONARY PATTERN
  • WORKERS AND SOLDIERS
  • KURT EISNER AND REVOLUTION IN
  • A REPUBLIC PROCLAIMED
  • A SEVERE ARMISTICE
  • T
  • ESTABLISHMENT OF A REVOLUTIONARY
  • EBERT MAKES A DEAL WITH THE
  • THE SPARTACISTS
  • INTERPRETATION OF THE
  • A VENGEFUL PEACE
  • V
  • THE GOALS OF THE PEACEMAKERS
  • TERMS OF THE TREATY
  • WAR GUILT AND REPARATIONS
  • DENUNCIATION AND RELUCTANT
  • GERMANIC MIGRATIONS AND
  • Frederick William IV

    lang=EN-US style='font-size:10.5pt;font-family:"Meridien-Medium","serif"; color:black'>(17951861)

    king of Prussia

    Frederick William IV was born on October 15,

    1795, in BERLIN and became king of Prussia in

    1840. He was very sensitive to criticism and selfconscious.

    On the other hand, he was sincerely

    a lover of peace, was broadly educated, and had

    good artistic tastes. As crown prince he was a student

    of the arts and had as close friends F. K. von

    Savigny, F. W. J. von Schelling, K. F. SCHINKEL, A.

    W. von SCHLEGEL, L. TIECK, Leopold von RANKE,

    Alexander von HUMBOLDT, and other leaders of

    the romantic movement. His national sentiment

    was stimulated by the WARS OF LIBERATION. On

    the other hand, he had developed a nostalgic

    admiration for the Middle Ages and thought it to

    be the apex of German history. The HOLY ROMAN

    EMPIRE represented the divine order on earth.

    He saw the GERMAN CONFEDERATION created by

    the CONGRESS OF VIENNA as the embodiment of

    the essential national traditions. He even wanted

    to create a unified German defense organization

    and nationally integrated economic policies. He

    was willing to let AUSTRIA renew the imperial

    Roman crown and to have PRUSSIAs kings be

    the hereditary marshals of the military forces.

    Frederick William was even more unyielding to

    liberal ideas than his father. Favoring a paternalistic

    monarchy based on divine right, he

    thought that constitutionalism, LIBERALISM, and

    democracy were products of irreligious rationalism.

    He was willing to have the king consult

    with a representative of the historical estates,

    but he would not be bound by parliamentary

    decisions. Popular humor around Berlin said of

    the king: The Ghost of Frederick the Great is

    moving around the Palace of Sans-Souci, but

    without his head.

    Frederick had a fervent desire to promote

    religion, but his choice of a minister of education

    and church affairs, J. A. F. Eichhorn, managed to

    alienate the universities and a large number of

    clergymen. Professors were again dismissed, one

    of which was Hoffman von Fallersleben, the

    author of the future German national hymn

    (Deutschland über alles . . .). More widespread

    was the reaction of church ministers against the

    pressure to conform to orthodoxy. Rationalistic

    ministers were forced to leave the church; they

    set up free churches and protested against the

    authoritarianism of church government. The

    movement of the Illuminati (see FREEMASONRY)

    was also strengthened and turned to promote

    common political ideals. A German Catholic

    movement also sprang up led by a suspended

    Silesian priest who protested against the hierarchical

    direction of the church and promised to

    free it from Roman bondage. He failed to have

    much of a following. Frederick also brought

    right-wing intellectuals to Berlin to uphold

    Christian dogma against what he considered the

    subversion of the philosophical ideas of Georg

    Wilhelm Friedrich HEGEL.

    The central question was whether the king

    would move Prussia closer to a policy of liberal

    reform. Frederick William had drifted toward an

    authoritarian regime, but finally decided to

    implement the promise of his father to establish

    general estates. Instead of calling a popularly

    394 Frederick William IV

    elected body, Frederick William called a united

    diet (Landtag) which was to be composed of the

    estates of the eight Prussian provinces. While the

    diet was asked to grant taxes and loans, it was

    not granted the right to meet regularly.

    When the 1848 REVOLUTION broke out, Frederick

    was compelled to make an act of public

    mourning in the presence of the bodies of the

    revolutionaries whom his soldiers had shot. This

    was bitterly resented by conservatives as a

    humiliation of the monarchy. Two days later,

    Frederick William rode through the streets in a

    deliberate but unsuccessful attempt to appear as

    a popular leader and take over the Revolution.

    As far as German unity was concerned, he had

    no wish to exclude Austria from the new German

    state. The all-German FRANKFURT PARLIAMENT,

    on March 28, 1849, elected him emperor,

    and on April 3 a delegation offered him the

    imperial crown. The king declined the imperial

    title but declared his willingness to become the

    head of a federal state, though the princes had

    to give their approval. Many groups, including

    aristocrats, wanted him to accept the offer, but

    he rejected the popularly elected Frankfurt Parliament

    and its constitution. Frederick William

    IV had played the crucial role in wrecking the

    revolution and the hopes for German unity.

    Afterward, an attempt by his adviser J. von

    Radowitz to create a union of German princes

    under Prussian leadership failed when combined

    pressure by Austria and Russia forced Frederick

    William to capitulate at OLMÜTZ in 1850. After

    that failure the king withdrew to his private

    artistic pursuits and left politics in the hands of

    his ministers. He suffered a stroke in October

    1857 and mentally collapsed. His brother, William,

    ruled as regent until Frederick Williams death in

    Potsdam on January 2, 1861.

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