• GERMANIC MIGRATIONS AND
  • FRANKISH KINGDOM
  • JOHANNES REUCHLIN
  • THE WEIMAR CONSTITUTION
  • W
  • INFLATION, REPARATIONS, AND
  • THE STRESEMANN ERA, 19231929
  • STABILIZATION AND LOCARNO,
  • CULTURE AND SOCIETY
  • ROAD TO DICTATORSHIP,
  • T
  • CONSOLIDATION OF POWER
  • THE NAZI TOTAL STATE
  • ULRICH VON HUTTEN
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  • RELIGION AND THE CHURCHES
  • FOREIGN POLICY
  • W
  • THE BATTLE OF BRITAIN
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  • THE RESISTANCE
  • PHILIP MELANCHTHON
  • D-DAY TO DEFEAT NAZI GERMANY
  • THE HOLOCAUST
  • A
  • ALLIED PLANS AND CONFERENCES
  • DENAZIFICATION
  • POLITICAL PARTIES AND TRADE
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  • ECONOMIC RECONSTRUCTION
  • T
  • ERASMUS OF ROTTERDAM
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  • REGAINING SOVEREIGNTY AND INTEGRATION
  • RECONSTRUCTION AND THE ECONOMIC
  • TRANSITIONAL YEARS AND
  • THE GRAND COALITION AND YOUTH
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  • OSTPOLITIK (FOREIGN POLICY
  • CULTURE AND SOCIETY
  • SOCIAL STRUCTURE
  • SCHMIDT ERA: SOCIAL UNREST,
  • PRINTING AND MEDICINE
  • THE KOHL ERA, 19821998
  • T
  • UPRISING OF JUNE 17, 1953
  • ECONOMIC SYSTEM
  • SOCIETY, EDUCATION, AND
  • RELATIONS WITH THE FEDERAL
  • R
  • CONSEQUENCES AND PROBLEMS OF
  • ECONOMIC UNIFICATION,
  • P
  • RENAISSANCE ART
  • UNIFICATION POLITICS AND ITS
  • FOREIGN POLICY
  • GOVERNMENT AND ELECTIONS,
  • HISTORICAL DICTIONARY A
  • A
  • Abwehr
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  • Agricola, Rudolf
  • Air Force
  • Albert (Albrecht) of
  • Albert V
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  • Allied Control Council
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  • Amiens, Battle of
  • Anabaptists
  • P
  • Anglo-German Naval Treaty
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  • Anti-Comintern Pact
  • anti-Semitism/Jew hatred
  • anti-Semitism
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  • Ardennes, Battle of the
  • Arendt, Hannah
  • Armed Forces (Wehrmacht)
  • Armed Forces (Bundeswehr):
  • LUTHER AND MELANCHTHON
  • Army (Prussian to 1860)
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  • Augsburg, Diet of
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  • LUTHER AND ZWINGLI
  • Auschwitz-Birkenau
  • Austerlitz, Battle of
  • Austria
  • Austrian Succession, War of
  • autarchy
  • autobahns
  • Axis, The
  • B
  • Baden-Württemberg
  • Ballin, Albert
  • CAROLINGIAN EMPIRE
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  • Barbie, Klaus
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  • Bavaria
  • Bavarian Peoples Party (BVP)
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  • REFORMATION AND THE TOWNS
  • Bayer AG
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  • Bebel, August
  • Beck, Ludwig August Theodor
  • Beckmann, Max
  • Beer-Hall Putsch of 1923
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  • Benn, Gottfried
  • Bennigsen, Rudolf von
  • ANABAPTISM AND MÜNTZER
  • Benz, Carl Friedrich
  • Bergen-Belsen
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  • Berlin, Battle for (Fall of)
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  • CALVINISM IN GERMANY
  • Bernstein, Eduard
  • Bethmann Hollweg, Theobald
  • Biedermeier
  • Biermann, Wolf
  • Bismarck, Otto Eduard Leopold
  • blank check
  • Bleichröder, Gerson von
  • Blenheim, Battle of
  • Blomberg, Werner von
  • Blücher, Gebhard
  • CHARLES V AND THE REFORMATION
  • Böll, Heinrich
  • Bonhoeffer, Dietrich
  • Bonn
  • Bormann, Martin
  • Born, Max
  • Borsig, August
  • Bosch, Robert
  • Bosnia-Herzegovina
  • Brahms, Johannes
  • Brandenburg
  • C
  • Brauchitsch, Walther von
  • Braun, Eva
  • Braun, Karl Ferdinand
  • Braun, Otto
  • Braun, Wernher von
  • Brecht, Bertolt
  • Bremen/Bremerhaven
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  • Breslau
  • The Bridge
  • THE THIRTY YEARS WAR
  • Britain, Battle of
  • Brüning, Heinrich
  • Buchenwald
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  • Bundesrat
  • Bundestag
  • Burschenschaft
  • C
  • Canisius, Peter
  • canton system
  • A
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  • Charles V
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  • Christian Democratic Union
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  • LITERATURE
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  • Clausewitz, Carl von
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  • D
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  • Dietrich, Josef Sepp
  • Diplomatic Revolution of 1756
  • Dix, Otto
  • Döblin, Alfred
  • GOTTFRIED WILHELM VON LEIBNIZ
  • Dönitz, Karl
  • Dresden
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  • Düsseldorf
  • E
  • Edict of Toleration
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  • PIETISM
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  • A
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  • F
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  • R
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  • SEVEN YEARS WAR
  • S
  • ECONOMY
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  • O
  • THE DANISH WAR, 1864
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  • I
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  • BISMARCKS DISMISSAL
  • WILHELMINE GERMANY
  • T
  • THE QUESTION OF
  • LATE MEDIEVAL CULTURE
  • CONDUCT OF THE WAR
  • PEACE RESOLUTION, REFORM, AND
  • AN UNPLANNED REVOLUTION
  • N
  • POLITICAL PARTIES UNPREPARED
  • A REVOLUTIONARY PATTERN
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  • KURT EISNER AND REVOLUTION IN
  • A REPUBLIC PROCLAIMED
  • A SEVERE ARMISTICE
  • T
  • ESTABLISHMENT OF A REVOLUTIONARY
  • EBERT MAKES A DEAL WITH THE
  • THE SPARTACISTS
  • INTERPRETATION OF THE
  • A VENGEFUL PEACE
  • V
  • THE GOALS OF THE PEACEMAKERS
  • TERMS OF THE TREATY
  • WAR GUILT AND REPARATIONS
  • DENUNCIATION AND RELUCTANT
  • GERMANIC MIGRATIONS AND
  • WARS OF AUSTRIAN SUCCESSION

    The succession to the Austrian throne was an issue of top priority even at the

    beginning of the reign of Charles VI. After his firstborn male heir died in 1716

    and the birth of three daughters followed by 1724, it was hard to suppress fears

    of challenges to a female successor. In 1718 the Austrian government publicly

    announced the Pragmatic Sanction (1713), by which Maria Theresa was to succeed

    her father, Charles VI (16851740), to the Habsburg throne. The Pragmatic

    Sanction was first approved by all the estates of the Austrian Empire by 1732, signifying

    the importance given to the indivisibility of the Habsburg empire, which

    was to be further demonstrated during the crisis years of the 1740s. The assent

    of foreign states and the Holy Roman Empire was obtained in the 1730s. Yet, no

    sooner did Charles die in 1740 than a number of sovereigns withdrew their

    assent to the Pragmatic Sanction. Maria Theresas enemies who contested her

    succession were the elector of Bavaria, Charles Albert Wittelsbach (16971745),

    Philip V of Spain (16831746), Augustus III of Poland and Saxony (16961763),

    and Frederick II Hohenzollern, who in 1740 had just become king of Prussia.

    During the Wars of Austrian Succession that followed, the archduchess, Maria

    Theresa (174080), was challenged and humiliated most of all by Frederick the

    Great of Prussia. Maria had inherited her fathers aged ministers, who favored

    compromise instead of resistance. No one would have been surprised if the

    monarchy had collapsed and Vienna no longer been the capital of a great

    power.

    Frederick II was determined to take advantage of the situation by laying

    claim to Lower Silesia. Under the pretext that Austria was no longer strong

    enough to protect the Silesians, Frederick occupied the province in a surprise

    42 Germany

    coup. Then, in order to obtain recognition to his claim, Frederick offered Maria

    Theresa an alliance and promised in compensation to support her husband, Francis

    of Lorraine (170865) as a candidate for Holy Roman Emperor. After his offer

    was rejected, Bavaria and France soon joined in an attack on Silesia. A Franco-

    Bavarian army captured Prague on November 26, 1741, and the Bavarian elector

    Charles became emperor Charles VII. Maria had to flee Vienna but succeeded

    in rallying the Habsburg cause, enlisting the support of the Hungarians and Great

    Absolutism in the Habsburg Austrian Empire 43

    Statue of Frederick

    the Great, Berlin

    (Library of Congress)

    Britain. A Hungarian army occupied Munich. Great Britain now actively supported

    Austria with an army led by George II, who was also the elector of

    Hanover. Great Britain, the Netherlands, and Austria concluded, the Treaty of

    Warsaw, which recognized the Pragmatic Sanction. In September 1745 Maria

    Theresas husband, Francis of Lorraine, was elected Emperor Francis I. Still hoping

    to recover Silesia, the Austro-Saxon army was defeated by the Prussian cavalry,

    for which Frederick came to be known as the Great. The second Silesian

    war ended with the Treaty of Dresden (December 25, 1745), in which Frederick

    II recognized Francis I as emperor. More fighting continued. Peace was

    finally concluded in the Treaty of Aachen (1748). The succession of Maria

    Theresa was confirmed, but disappointingly, Prussias retention of Silesia, one

    of Austrias richest provinces, was recognized as well. Austria also lost Italian

    districts of Parma, Piacenza, and Gustalla to France. The years between the

    Peace of Aachen and the beginning of the Seven Years War (175663) were

    filled with intrigue and diplomacy, which produced a reversal of alliances

    known as the Diplomatic Revolution.

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