• GERMANIC MIGRATIONS AND
  • FRANKISH KINGDOM
  • JOHANNES REUCHLIN
  • THE WEIMAR CONSTITUTION
  • W
  • INFLATION, REPARATIONS, AND
  • THE STRESEMANN ERA, 19231929
  • STABILIZATION AND LOCARNO,
  • CULTURE AND SOCIETY
  • ROAD TO DICTATORSHIP,
  • T
  • CONSOLIDATION OF POWER
  • THE NAZI TOTAL STATE
  • ULRICH VON HUTTEN
  • PERSECUTION OF THE JEWS
  • RELIGION AND THE CHURCHES
  • FOREIGN POLICY
  • W
  • THE BATTLE OF BRITAIN
  • INVASION OF RUSSIA
  • HITLERS PLANS FOR EUROPE
  • TURNING OF THE TIDE,
  • THE HOME FRONT
  • THE RESISTANCE
  • PHILIP MELANCHTHON
  • D-DAY TO DEFEAT NAZI GERMANY
  • THE HOLOCAUST
  • A
  • ALLIED PLANS AND CONFERENCES
  • DENAZIFICATION
  • POLITICAL PARTIES AND TRADE
  • LOCAL STATE FORMATION
  • PARLIAMENTARY COUNCIL AND THE
  • ECONOMIC RECONSTRUCTION
  • T
  • ERASMUS OF ROTTERDAM
  • BUNDESTAG ELECTION AND
  • REGAINING SOVEREIGNTY AND INTEGRATION
  • RECONSTRUCTION AND THE ECONOMIC
  • TRANSITIONAL YEARS AND
  • THE GRAND COALITION AND YOUTH
  • THE SOCIAL-LIBERAL COALITION
  • OSTPOLITIK (FOREIGN POLICY
  • CULTURE AND SOCIETY
  • SOCIAL STRUCTURE
  • SCHMIDT ERA: SOCIAL UNREST,
  • PRINTING AND MEDICINE
  • THE KOHL ERA, 19821998
  • T
  • UPRISING OF JUNE 17, 1953
  • ECONOMIC SYSTEM
  • SOCIETY, EDUCATION, AND
  • RELATIONS WITH THE FEDERAL
  • R
  • CONSEQUENCES AND PROBLEMS OF
  • ECONOMIC UNIFICATION,
  • P
  • RENAISSANCE ART
  • UNIFICATION POLITICS AND ITS
  • FOREIGN POLICY
  • GOVERNMENT AND ELECTIONS,
  • HISTORICAL DICTIONARY A
  • A
  • Abwehr
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  • Afrika Korps
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  • NEED FOR CHURCH REFORM
  • Agricola, Rudolf
  • Air Force
  • Albert (Albrecht) of
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  • Allied Control Council
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  • Amiens, Battle of
  • Anabaptists
  • P
  • Anglo-German Naval Treaty
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  • anti-Semitism/Jew hatred
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  • Arendt, Hannah
  • Armed Forces (Wehrmacht)
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  • LUTHER AND MELANCHTHON
  • Army (Prussian to 1860)
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  • Augsburg, Diet of
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  • LUTHER AND ZWINGLI
  • Auschwitz-Birkenau
  • Austerlitz, Battle of
  • Austria
  • Austrian Succession, War of
  • autarchy
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  • Axis, The
  • B
  • Baden-Württemberg
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  • CAROLINGIAN EMPIRE
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  • Barbie, Klaus
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  • Basic Treaty
  • Bauernschutz
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  • Bavaria
  • Bavarian Peoples Party (BVP)
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  • REFORMATION AND THE TOWNS
  • Bayer AG
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  • Bebel, August
  • Beck, Ludwig August Theodor
  • Beckmann, Max
  • Beer-Hall Putsch of 1923
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  • Benjamin, Walter
  • Benn, Gottfried
  • Bennigsen, Rudolf von
  • ANABAPTISM AND MÜNTZER
  • Benz, Carl Friedrich
  • Bergen-Belsen
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  • Berlin
  • Berlin, Battle for (Fall of)
  • Berlin, Congress of
  • Berlin-Baghdad Railway
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  • CALVINISM IN GERMANY
  • Bernstein, Eduard
  • Bethmann Hollweg, Theobald
  • Biedermeier
  • Biermann, Wolf
  • Bismarck, Otto Eduard Leopold
  • blank check
  • Bleichröder, Gerson von
  • Blenheim, Battle of
  • Blomberg, Werner von
  • Blücher, Gebhard
  • CHARLES V AND THE REFORMATION
  • Böll, Heinrich
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  • Bonn
  • Bormann, Martin
  • Born, Max
  • Borsig, August
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  • Bosnia-Herzegovina
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  • Brandenburg
  • C
  • Brauchitsch, Walther von
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  • Braun, Otto
  • Braun, Wernher von
  • Brecht, Bertolt
  • Bremen/Bremerhaven
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  • Breslau
  • The Bridge
  • THE THIRTY YEARS WAR
  • Britain, Battle of
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  • Buchenwald
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  • Bundesrat
  • Bundestag
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  • C
  • Canisius, Peter
  • canton system
  • A
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  • Christian Democratic Union
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  • LITERATURE
  • Civil Code, German (Revised
  • Clausewitz, Carl von
  • Concordat of 1933
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  • conservatism
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  • MUSIC
  • Cranach, Lucas, the Elder
  • cultured elites
  • D
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  • Diplomatic Revolution of 1756
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  • Döblin, Alfred
  • GOTTFRIED WILHELM VON LEIBNIZ
  • Dönitz, Karl
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  • Dual Alliance
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  • Düsseldorf
  • E
  • Edict of Toleration
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  • PIETISM
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  • A
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  • F
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  • JOSEPH II AND REFORM
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  • R
  • FREDERICK III
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  • FREDERICK THE GREAT
  • SEVEN YEARS WAR
  • S
  • ECONOMY
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  • O
  • THE DANISH WAR, 1864
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  • I
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  • BISMARCKS DISMISSAL
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  • T
  • THE QUESTION OF
  • LATE MEDIEVAL CULTURE
  • CONDUCT OF THE WAR
  • PEACE RESOLUTION, REFORM, AND
  • AN UNPLANNED REVOLUTION
  • N
  • POLITICAL PARTIES UNPREPARED
  • A REVOLUTIONARY PATTERN
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  • KURT EISNER AND REVOLUTION IN
  • A REPUBLIC PROCLAIMED
  • A SEVERE ARMISTICE
  • T
  • ESTABLISHMENT OF A REVOLUTIONARY
  • EBERT MAKES A DEAL WITH THE
  • THE SPARTACISTS
  • INTERPRETATION OF THE
  • A VENGEFUL PEACE
  • V
  • THE GOALS OF THE PEACEMAKERS
  • TERMS OF THE TREATY
  • WAR GUILT AND REPARATIONS
  • DENUNCIATION AND RELUCTANT
  • GERMANIC MIGRATIONS AND
  • Fischer von Erlach, John

    Bernard

    (16561723)

    architect and sculptor

    Fischer von Erlach was one of the most important

    architects of the age of the baroque. Along with

    Johann Lukas von Hildebrandt (16601750) he

    became a standard bearer of the new baroque

    style. Fischer received many commissions from

    the Austrian emperor.

    Born in Graz, AUSTRIA, John Bernard was

    trained as a sculptor by his father. He received

    further training in Italy and perhaps was even

    influenced by Bernini. Returning to Austria in

    1686, Fischer worked on small projects, medals,

    sculpturing, gardens, and vases. In 1689 he

    became the architectural instructor to Joseph I,

    king of Hungary. In 1691 following Josephs

    coronation as Holy Roman Emperor he was

    appointed superintendent of imperial buildings

    and given the task of designing the triumphal

    arches for which he achieved public recognition.

    Fischer adorned the arches with a same sun

    motif utilized by Louis XIV of France and did so

    a second time in 1699, after Josephs wedding to

    Wilhelmine Amalia of Brunswick-Lüneburg.

    Fischers grandiose plans for Josephs palace

    at Schönbrun represented a direct response to

    Versailles. Although a design that would have

    made the Austrian palace grander than Versailles

    was first considered, the more modest alternative

    plan was adopted. The onset of construction

    of Schönbrun in 169495 inspired the ARISTOCRACY

    to build their own palaces with extravagant

    artificial gardens and many outbuildings. Besides

    Schönbrun Fischer designed the church of St.

    Charles Borromeo (Karlskirche), which, standing

    on grassy slopes outside of Vienna, became

    the most monumental baroque church in

    Vienna. It is a richly articulated building on an

    oval plan. After 1693 he worked for the archbishop

    of Salzburg and for other church and

    political dignitaries, such as Prince EUGENE of

    Savoy. After CHARLES VI became emperor, Fischer

    was reappointed as superintendent of

    imperial buildings after he presented to the

    emperor a series of monumental engravings.

    After John Bernards death, his son, Josef

    Emmanuel, who was born in 1693 and also

    became an architect, completed the unfinished

    buildings of his father, including the imperial

    library and St. Charles Borromeo.

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