• GERMANIC MIGRATIONS AND
  • FRANKISH KINGDOM
  • JOHANNES REUCHLIN
  • THE WEIMAR CONSTITUTION
  • W
  • INFLATION, REPARATIONS, AND
  • THE STRESEMANN ERA, 19231929
  • STABILIZATION AND LOCARNO,
  • CULTURE AND SOCIETY
  • ROAD TO DICTATORSHIP,
  • T
  • CONSOLIDATION OF POWER
  • THE NAZI TOTAL STATE
  • ULRICH VON HUTTEN
  • PERSECUTION OF THE JEWS
  • RELIGION AND THE CHURCHES
  • FOREIGN POLICY
  • W
  • THE BATTLE OF BRITAIN
  • INVASION OF RUSSIA
  • HITLERS PLANS FOR EUROPE
  • TURNING OF THE TIDE,
  • THE HOME FRONT
  • THE RESISTANCE
  • PHILIP MELANCHTHON
  • D-DAY TO DEFEAT NAZI GERMANY
  • THE HOLOCAUST
  • A
  • ALLIED PLANS AND CONFERENCES
  • DENAZIFICATION
  • POLITICAL PARTIES AND TRADE
  • LOCAL STATE FORMATION
  • PARLIAMENTARY COUNCIL AND THE
  • ECONOMIC RECONSTRUCTION
  • T
  • ERASMUS OF ROTTERDAM
  • BUNDESTAG ELECTION AND
  • REGAINING SOVEREIGNTY AND INTEGRATION
  • RECONSTRUCTION AND THE ECONOMIC
  • TRANSITIONAL YEARS AND
  • THE GRAND COALITION AND YOUTH
  • THE SOCIAL-LIBERAL COALITION
  • OSTPOLITIK (FOREIGN POLICY
  • CULTURE AND SOCIETY
  • SOCIAL STRUCTURE
  • SCHMIDT ERA: SOCIAL UNREST,
  • PRINTING AND MEDICINE
  • THE KOHL ERA, 19821998
  • T
  • UPRISING OF JUNE 17, 1953
  • ECONOMIC SYSTEM
  • SOCIETY, EDUCATION, AND
  • RELATIONS WITH THE FEDERAL
  • R
  • CONSEQUENCES AND PROBLEMS OF
  • ECONOMIC UNIFICATION,
  • P
  • RENAISSANCE ART
  • UNIFICATION POLITICS AND ITS
  • FOREIGN POLICY
  • GOVERNMENT AND ELECTIONS,
  • HISTORICAL DICTIONARY A
  • A
  • Abwehr
  • Adenauer, Konrad
  • Afrika Korps
  • Agadir Incident
  • Agrarian League
  • NEED FOR CHURCH REFORM
  • Agricola, Rudolf
  • Air Force
  • Albert (Albrecht) of
  • Albert V
  • Algeciras, Conference of
  • Allied Control Council
  • Alsace-Lorraine
  • Altdorfer, Albrecht
  • Amiens, Battle of
  • Anabaptists
  • P
  • Anglo-German Naval Treaty
  • Anschluss
  • Anti-Comintern Pact
  • anti-Semitism/Jew hatred
  • anti-Semitism
  • Anti-Socialist Law
  • Ardennes, Battle of the
  • Arendt, Hannah
  • Armed Forces (Wehrmacht)
  • Armed Forces (Bundeswehr):
  • LUTHER AND MELANCHTHON
  • Army (Prussian to 1860)
  • Army (Second Empire,
  • Asylum Law
  • Atlantic, Battle of the
  • Auerstadt, Battle of
  • Augsburg, Diet of
  • Augsburg, Religious Peace of
  • Augsburg, War of the League
  • Augsburg Confession
  • Augspurg, Anita
  • LUTHER AND ZWINGLI
  • Auschwitz-Birkenau
  • Austerlitz, Battle of
  • Austria
  • Austrian Succession, War of
  • autarchy
  • autobahns
  • Axis, The
  • B
  • Baden-Württemberg
  • Ballin, Albert
  • CAROLINGIAN EMPIRE
  • KNIGHTS REVOLT AND GREAT
  • Barbie, Klaus
  • Barmen Declaration
  • Barth, Karl
  • Basic Treaty
  • Bauernschutz
  • Bauhaus
  • Baumer, Gertrud
  • Bavaria
  • Bavarian Peoples Party (BVP)
  • Bavarian Succession, War of
  • REFORMATION AND THE TOWNS
  • Bayer AG
  • Bayreuth
  • Bebel, August
  • Beck, Ludwig August Theodor
  • Beckmann, Max
  • Beer-Hall Putsch of 1923
  • Beethoven, Ludwig van
  • Benjamin, Walter
  • Benn, Gottfried
  • Bennigsen, Rudolf von
  • ANABAPTISM AND MÜNTZER
  • Benz, Carl Friedrich
  • Bergen-Belsen
  • Berghof
  • Berlin
  • Berlin, Battle for (Fall of)
  • Berlin, Congress of
  • Berlin-Baghdad Railway
  • Berlin Blockade
  • Berlin Conference
  • Berlin Wall
  • CALVINISM IN GERMANY
  • Bernstein, Eduard
  • Bethmann Hollweg, Theobald
  • Biedermeier
  • Biermann, Wolf
  • Bismarck, Otto Eduard Leopold
  • blank check
  • Bleichröder, Gerson von
  • Blenheim, Battle of
  • Blomberg, Werner von
  • Blücher, Gebhard
  • CHARLES V AND THE REFORMATION
  • Böll, Heinrich
  • Bonhoeffer, Dietrich
  • Bonn
  • Bormann, Martin
  • Born, Max
  • Borsig, August
  • Bosch, Robert
  • Bosnia-Herzegovina
  • Brahms, Johannes
  • Brandenburg
  • C
  • Brauchitsch, Walther von
  • Braun, Eva
  • Braun, Karl Ferdinand
  • Braun, Otto
  • Braun, Wernher von
  • Brecht, Bertolt
  • Bremen/Bremerhaven
  • Brentano, Elizabeth Bettina
  • Breslau
  • The Bridge
  • THE THIRTY YEARS WAR
  • Britain, Battle of
  • Brüning, Heinrich
  • Buchenwald
  • Bülow, Bernhard von
  • Bundesrat
  • Bundestag
  • Burschenschaft
  • C
  • Canisius, Peter
  • canton system
  • A
  • Carlsbad Decrees
  • Celtis, Conrad
  • Center Party
  • Chamberlain, Houston Stewart
  • Charles V
  • Charles VI
  • Charles VII
  • Charlottenburg, Palace of
  • Christian Democratic Union
  • Christian Social Union
  • LITERATURE
  • Civil Code, German (Revised
  • Clausewitz, Carl von
  • Concordat of 1933
  • Condor Legion
  • The Confederation of the Rhine was a
  • Confessing Church
  • Congress of Vienna
  • conservatism
  • constitutional traditions
  • Counter-Reformation
  • MUSIC
  • Cranach, Lucas, the Elder
  • cultured elites
  • D
  • Daimler, Gottlieb
  • Danish War
  • Danzig
  • Dawes Plan
  • D-Banks
  • D-Day
  • Degenerate Art
  • SAXON AND SALIAN DYNASTIES,
  • SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION
  • denazification
  • Denck, Hans
  • Depression, The Great
  • Depressions
  • détente
  • Diesel, Rudolf
  • Dietrich, Josef Sepp
  • Diplomatic Revolution of 1756
  • Dix, Otto
  • Döblin, Alfred
  • GOTTFRIED WILHELM VON LEIBNIZ
  • Dönitz, Karl
  • Dresden
  • Droste-Hülshoff, Annette
  • Dual Alliance
  • Dürer, Albrecht
  • Düsseldorf
  • E
  • Edict of Toleration
  • Ehrlich, Paul
  • Eichendorff, Joseph von
  • PIETISM
  • Eichmann, Adolf
  • Eicke, Theodor
  • Einsatzgruppen
  • Einstein, Albert
  • Eisner, Kurt
  • El Alamein, Battles of
  • Elbe River
  • Ems Telegram
  • Enabling Act
  • Engels, Friedrich
  • ROCOCO
  • ENIGMA/ULTRA
  • Enlightenment
  • Erasmus, Desiderius
  • Erfurt Program
  • Erhard, Ludwig
  • Ernst, Max
  • Erzberger, Matthias
  • Eugene, prince of Savoy
  • European Coal and Steel
  • European Defense Community
  • A
  • European Economic Community
  • European Union
  • euthanasia
  • expressionism
  • Falkenhayn, Erich von
  • F
  • Fatherland Party
  • Federal Constitutional Court
  • Federal Republic of Germany
  • Federation of German Industry
  • TURKISH WARS
  • Federation of German Womens
  • feminism, 18151945
  • feminism, 19452005
  • Ferdinand II
  • Feuerbach, Ludwig Andreas
  • Fichte, Johann Gottlieb
  • Final Solution
  • Fischer, Josef Joschka
  • Fischer von Erlach, John
  • Fontane, Theodor
  • WARS OF AUSTRIAN SUCCESSION
  • Four Year Plan
  • Francis II
  • Frank, Anne
  • Frank, Hans
  • Frankfurt am Main
  • Frankfurt Parliament
  • Frederick I
  • Frederick II, The Great
  • Frederick III
  • Frederick III, The Wise
  • STATE REFORMS
  • Frederick William
  • Frederick William I
  • Frederick William II
  • Frederick William III
  • Frederick William IV
  • Free Corps
  • Free Democratic Party
  • Freemasonry/Illuminati
  • French Revolutionary Wars
  • Freytag, Gustav
  • FOREIGN POLICY AND KAUNITZ
  • Friedrich, Caspar David
  • Fritsch, Werner von
  • Fugger, Jacob the Rich
  • Führerprinzip
  • G
  • Galen, Clemens August von
  • Gellert, Christian
  • General Directory
  • Genscher, Hans-Dietrich
  • Gentz, Friedrich
  • JOSEPH II AND REFORM
  • German Christians
  • German Communist Party
  • German Confederation
  • German Conservative Party
  • German Democratic Party
  • German Democratic Republic
  • German Labor Front
  • German National Peoples
  • German Peoples Party
  • German Progressive Party
  • HOHENSTAUFEN DYNASTY,
  • VIENNA AND ARCHITECTURE
  • German Reich (Imperial) Party
  • German Womens Bureau
  • German Workers Party
  • Germany Treaty
  • R
  • FREDERICK III
  • FREDERICK WILLIAM I, THE
  • FREDERICK THE GREAT
  • SEVEN YEARS WAR
  • S
  • ECONOMY
  • POLITICAL DECENTRALIZATION
  • SOCIAL STRUCTURE
  • HABSBURG DYNASTY
  • CULTURE
  • THE ENLIGHTENMENT
  • LITERATURE AND DRAMA
  • PHILOSOPHY
  • SECRET SOCIETIES
  • T
  • R
  • THE ROMANTIC MOVEMENT
  • NATIONALISM AND LIBERALISM
  • EARLY INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
  • CITIES AND CRAFT GUILDS
  • REVOLUTIONS OF 1848
  • ARMY REFORM AND PARLIAMENTARY
  • O
  • THE DANISH WAR, 1864
  • AUSTRO-PRUSSIAN WAR, 1866
  • THE FRANCO-PRUSSIAN WAR,
  • COLLAPSE OF THE SECOND FRENCH
  • I
  • N
  • ART AND ARCHITECTURE
  • ORIGINS OF CAPITALISM
  • SOCIAL STRUCTURE AND WOMEN
  • EDUCATION
  • T
  • POLITICAL PARTIES
  • THE KULTURKAMPF, SOCIALISM,
  • FOREIGN POLICY AND ALLIANCE
  • BISMARCKS DISMISSAL
  • WILHELMINE GERMANY
  • T
  • THE QUESTION OF
  • LATE MEDIEVAL CULTURE
  • CONDUCT OF THE WAR
  • PEACE RESOLUTION, REFORM, AND
  • AN UNPLANNED REVOLUTION
  • N
  • POLITICAL PARTIES UNPREPARED
  • A REVOLUTIONARY PATTERN
  • WORKERS AND SOLDIERS
  • KURT EISNER AND REVOLUTION IN
  • A REPUBLIC PROCLAIMED
  • A SEVERE ARMISTICE
  • T
  • ESTABLISHMENT OF A REVOLUTIONARY
  • EBERT MAKES A DEAL WITH THE
  • THE SPARTACISTS
  • INTERPRETATION OF THE
  • A VENGEFUL PEACE
  • V
  • THE GOALS OF THE PEACEMAKERS
  • TERMS OF THE TREATY
  • WAR GUILT AND REPARATIONS
  • DENUNCIATION AND RELUCTANT
  • GERMANIC MIGRATIONS AND
  • Final Solution

    (Endlösung)

    The term Final Solution was applied to the Nazi

    plan to annihilate the Jews. It first appeared in

    the spring of 1940 in the context of a massive

    territorial resettlement program and apparently

    was not always a goal of Hitler and the NAZI

    PARTY. The year 1941 was a turning point in

    Jewish policy, which changed from forced emigration

    to genocide. The policy was to be carried

    out by systematic killing through the use of gas

    vans and the efficient use of gas chambers.

    It is improbable that HITLER made the decision

    to annihilate the Jews as an inevitable result of

    his fervently held ANTI-SEMITISM. Persecution

    and forced emigration appear to have been the

    methods to cleanse Germany of the Jews. But

    military conquests had brought 3.5 million new

    Jews under direct German control, and the Russian

    war of destruction (Vernichtungskrieg) with

    its killing of Russian Jews broke the cycle of

    adding more Jews under German control. The

    term Final Solution appeared in dispatches in the

    middle of 1941 as emigration of such a large

    Jewish population was impossible. On July 31,

    1941, six weeks after the invasion of the Soviet

    Union, Hermann GÖRING authorized Lieutenant

    General Reinhard HEYDRICH, chief of the Security

    Police and Security Service, to undertake

    all necessary preparations with regard to organizational

    and financial matters for bringing

    about a total solution of the Jewish question in

    the German sphere of influence in Europe. It is

    clear that when the WANNSEE CONFERENCE

    occurred on January 20, 1942, the term Final

    Solution meant the genocide of the Jews. In the

    final analysis, this Final Solution or HOLOCAUST

    from the Jewish perspective, resulted from

    Hitlers fanatic hatred of the Jews, the competitiveness

    of the Nazi leaders who vied for Hitlers

    favor, the vulnerability of the European Jews,

    and opportunities of the war. Since no written

    document with Hitlers signature has been discovered,

    Hitlers exact role in the decision is the

    subject of historical controversy. Nevertheless,

    his oral authorization for the Final Solution was

    indicated by Heinrich HIMMLER.

    Adolf Hitler had always associated Soviet

    communism with the Jews, so his war against

    the Soviet Union was a war against the Jews.

    Heinrich Himmler had shared Hitlers racial ideology

    of developing a pure Aryan race, so he and

    the SS were given responsibility for the execution

    of the Final Solution. The department

    placed in control was the Reich Security Main

    Office (RSHA) comprising the SD and the Security

    Police (SIPO), which consisted of the

    GESTAPO and the Kripo (criminal police) under

    the command of Heydrich. It was in Section B4

    of the Gestapo that Adolf EICHMANN as an expert

    on the Jews came to control the Nazi machinery

    for the deportation of Jews from all over Europe

    to the death camps. Most of the annihilation

    took place in Poland. Jews had already been

    concentrated in a small number of ghettos in

    which many died and the remaining were later

    sent to the death camps. With the invasion of

    the Soviet Union four mobile killing units of up

    to 900 men (EINSATZGRUPPEN) were used as

    strike forces to search for and kill as many Jews

    as they could. A second sweep took place in

    1942 and together some 1 million Jews were

    killed. The violent shooting methods of the Einsatzgruppen

    were horrifying and considered

    inadequate for other parts of Europe. Consequently,

    the death camps and their gas chambers

    Final Solution 377

    were constructed as a more efficient method for

    the annihilation of the remaining millions of

    Jews.

    The technical problems in the creation of

    physical facilities to kill so many people were

    almost overwhelming. SS officers experimented

    with gas vans and also with the improvement of

    gas chambers and ovens for cremation. In summer

    1941 orders were given to Rudolf HÖSS to

    enlarge AUSCHWITZ because of its railway access,

    and five other death camps became operative by

    1942 at Chelmno, Belzec, Sobibor, Majdanek,

    and Treblinka. At Auschwitz up to 10,000 prisoners

    were sent to the gas chambers every day.

    Many other concentration camps existed in Germany

    such as BERGEN-BELSEN and BUCHENWALD,

    and in AUSTRIA, France, and Yugoslavia, where

    both Jews and non-Jews perished through

    forced labor, starvation, and murder. The campaign

    spread throughout Nazi-occupied Europe

    and continued even though resources were

    taken away from the war effort. During 1942

    Jews were shipped from France, Belgium, Holland,

    and Norway. In 1943 Jews were deported

    from the cities of BERLIN, Vienna, and Prague

    and the countries of Greece, Luxembourg,

    southern France, Italy, and Denmark. The survivors

    of the Jewish revolt in the Warsaw ghetto

    were sent to their deaths at Treblinka. Almost a

    half million Hungarian Jews were among the

    very last to be sent to Auschwitz after the Germans

    occupied Hungary in 1944. Most of the

    Jewish citizens of Poland, Greece, Czechoslovakia,

    and the Netherlands died in the gas chambers,

    while half the Jews of Romania and Hungary

    survived. After the fall of Mussolini, trains from

    Italy, Croatia, and Greece arrived at Auschwitz

    and Mauthausen. Most of the Jews of Denmark

    and Bulgaria survived, where the local populations

    actively aided them. Out of the 5 to 6 million

    Jews who were killed, about 3 million died

    in the death camps.

    Although the Final Solution (the Holocaust)

    was one of the worst cases of genocide in modern

    history, it arose out of the prejudices and

    hatred that inspired a terribly misguided fanatical

    ideology aimed at one group of human

    beings. Although there had been pogroms and

    violence against Jews throughout their history,

    the enormity of the Holocaust and its stain on

    German culture have been unforgettable. Nevertheless,

    in his final testament dictated in his

    bunker beneath Berlin, Hitler repeated his anti-

    Semitic misconceptions and exhorted Germans

    to continue to follow his racial laws.

    were   GERMANC   Germany   Party   their   Prussians   army   state   government   became   they   during   Austrian   CHURCHES   French   political   Frederick   Nazis   Social   Hitler   after   against   economic   some   republican