• GERMANIC MIGRATIONS AND
  • FRANKISH KINGDOM
  • JOHANNES REUCHLIN
  • THE WEIMAR CONSTITUTION
  • W
  • INFLATION, REPARATIONS, AND
  • THE STRESEMANN ERA, 19231929
  • STABILIZATION AND LOCARNO,
  • CULTURE AND SOCIETY
  • ROAD TO DICTATORSHIP,
  • T
  • CONSOLIDATION OF POWER
  • THE NAZI TOTAL STATE
  • ULRICH VON HUTTEN
  • PERSECUTION OF THE JEWS
  • RELIGION AND THE CHURCHES
  • FOREIGN POLICY
  • W
  • THE BATTLE OF BRITAIN
  • INVASION OF RUSSIA
  • HITLERS PLANS FOR EUROPE
  • TURNING OF THE TIDE,
  • THE HOME FRONT
  • THE RESISTANCE
  • PHILIP MELANCHTHON
  • D-DAY TO DEFEAT NAZI GERMANY
  • THE HOLOCAUST
  • A
  • ALLIED PLANS AND CONFERENCES
  • DENAZIFICATION
  • POLITICAL PARTIES AND TRADE
  • LOCAL STATE FORMATION
  • PARLIAMENTARY COUNCIL AND THE
  • ECONOMIC RECONSTRUCTION
  • T
  • ERASMUS OF ROTTERDAM
  • BUNDESTAG ELECTION AND
  • REGAINING SOVEREIGNTY AND INTEGRATION
  • RECONSTRUCTION AND THE ECONOMIC
  • TRANSITIONAL YEARS AND
  • THE GRAND COALITION AND YOUTH
  • THE SOCIAL-LIBERAL COALITION
  • OSTPOLITIK (FOREIGN POLICY
  • CULTURE AND SOCIETY
  • SOCIAL STRUCTURE
  • SCHMIDT ERA: SOCIAL UNREST,
  • PRINTING AND MEDICINE
  • THE KOHL ERA, 19821998
  • T
  • UPRISING OF JUNE 17, 1953
  • ECONOMIC SYSTEM
  • SOCIETY, EDUCATION, AND
  • RELATIONS WITH THE FEDERAL
  • R
  • CONSEQUENCES AND PROBLEMS OF
  • ECONOMIC UNIFICATION,
  • P
  • RENAISSANCE ART
  • UNIFICATION POLITICS AND ITS
  • FOREIGN POLICY
  • GOVERNMENT AND ELECTIONS,
  • HISTORICAL DICTIONARY A
  • A
  • Abwehr
  • Adenauer, Konrad
  • Afrika Korps
  • Agadir Incident
  • Agrarian League
  • NEED FOR CHURCH REFORM
  • Agricola, Rudolf
  • Air Force
  • Albert (Albrecht) of
  • Albert V
  • Algeciras, Conference of
  • Allied Control Council
  • Alsace-Lorraine
  • Altdorfer, Albrecht
  • Amiens, Battle of
  • Anabaptists
  • P
  • Anglo-German Naval Treaty
  • Anschluss
  • Anti-Comintern Pact
  • anti-Semitism/Jew hatred
  • anti-Semitism
  • Anti-Socialist Law
  • Ardennes, Battle of the
  • Arendt, Hannah
  • Armed Forces (Wehrmacht)
  • Armed Forces (Bundeswehr):
  • LUTHER AND MELANCHTHON
  • Army (Prussian to 1860)
  • Army (Second Empire,
  • Asylum Law
  • Atlantic, Battle of the
  • Auerstadt, Battle of
  • Augsburg, Diet of
  • Augsburg, Religious Peace of
  • Augsburg, War of the League
  • Augsburg Confession
  • Augspurg, Anita
  • LUTHER AND ZWINGLI
  • Auschwitz-Birkenau
  • Austerlitz, Battle of
  • Austria
  • Austrian Succession, War of
  • autarchy
  • autobahns
  • Axis, The
  • B
  • Baden-Württemberg
  • Ballin, Albert
  • CAROLINGIAN EMPIRE
  • KNIGHTS REVOLT AND GREAT
  • Barbie, Klaus
  • Barmen Declaration
  • Barth, Karl
  • Basic Treaty
  • Bauernschutz
  • Bauhaus
  • Baumer, Gertrud
  • Bavaria
  • Bavarian Peoples Party (BVP)
  • Bavarian Succession, War of
  • REFORMATION AND THE TOWNS
  • Bayer AG
  • Bayreuth
  • Bebel, August
  • Beck, Ludwig August Theodor
  • Beckmann, Max
  • Beer-Hall Putsch of 1923
  • Beethoven, Ludwig van
  • Benjamin, Walter
  • Benn, Gottfried
  • Bennigsen, Rudolf von
  • ANABAPTISM AND MÜNTZER
  • Benz, Carl Friedrich
  • Bergen-Belsen
  • Berghof
  • Berlin
  • Berlin, Battle for (Fall of)
  • Berlin, Congress of
  • Berlin-Baghdad Railway
  • Berlin Blockade
  • Berlin Conference
  • Berlin Wall
  • CALVINISM IN GERMANY
  • Bernstein, Eduard
  • Bethmann Hollweg, Theobald
  • Biedermeier
  • Biermann, Wolf
  • Bismarck, Otto Eduard Leopold
  • blank check
  • Bleichröder, Gerson von
  • Blenheim, Battle of
  • Blomberg, Werner von
  • Blücher, Gebhard
  • CHARLES V AND THE REFORMATION
  • Böll, Heinrich
  • Bonhoeffer, Dietrich
  • Bonn
  • Bormann, Martin
  • Born, Max
  • Borsig, August
  • Bosch, Robert
  • Bosnia-Herzegovina
  • Brahms, Johannes
  • Brandenburg
  • C
  • Brauchitsch, Walther von
  • Braun, Eva
  • Braun, Karl Ferdinand
  • Braun, Otto
  • Braun, Wernher von
  • Brecht, Bertolt
  • Bremen/Bremerhaven
  • Brentano, Elizabeth Bettina
  • Breslau
  • The Bridge
  • THE THIRTY YEARS WAR
  • Britain, Battle of
  • Brüning, Heinrich
  • Buchenwald
  • Bülow, Bernhard von
  • Bundesrat
  • Bundestag
  • Burschenschaft
  • C
  • Canisius, Peter
  • canton system
  • A
  • Carlsbad Decrees
  • Celtis, Conrad
  • Center Party
  • Chamberlain, Houston Stewart
  • Charles V
  • Charles VI
  • Charles VII
  • Charlottenburg, Palace of
  • Christian Democratic Union
  • Christian Social Union
  • LITERATURE
  • Civil Code, German (Revised
  • Clausewitz, Carl von
  • Concordat of 1933
  • Condor Legion
  • The Confederation of the Rhine was a
  • Confessing Church
  • Congress of Vienna
  • conservatism
  • constitutional traditions
  • Counter-Reformation
  • MUSIC
  • Cranach, Lucas, the Elder
  • cultured elites
  • D
  • Daimler, Gottlieb
  • Danish War
  • Danzig
  • Dawes Plan
  • D-Banks
  • D-Day
  • Degenerate Art
  • SAXON AND SALIAN DYNASTIES,
  • SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION
  • denazification
  • Denck, Hans
  • Depression, The Great
  • Depressions
  • détente
  • Diesel, Rudolf
  • Dietrich, Josef Sepp
  • Diplomatic Revolution of 1756
  • Dix, Otto
  • Döblin, Alfred
  • GOTTFRIED WILHELM VON LEIBNIZ
  • Dönitz, Karl
  • Dresden
  • Droste-Hülshoff, Annette
  • Dual Alliance
  • Dürer, Albrecht
  • Düsseldorf
  • E
  • Edict of Toleration
  • Ehrlich, Paul
  • Eichendorff, Joseph von
  • PIETISM
  • Eichmann, Adolf
  • Eicke, Theodor
  • Einsatzgruppen
  • Einstein, Albert
  • Eisner, Kurt
  • El Alamein, Battles of
  • Elbe River
  • Ems Telegram
  • Enabling Act
  • Engels, Friedrich
  • ROCOCO
  • ENIGMA/ULTRA
  • Enlightenment
  • Erasmus, Desiderius
  • Erfurt Program
  • Erhard, Ludwig
  • Ernst, Max
  • Erzberger, Matthias
  • Eugene, prince of Savoy
  • European Coal and Steel
  • European Defense Community
  • A
  • European Economic Community
  • European Union
  • euthanasia
  • expressionism
  • Falkenhayn, Erich von
  • F
  • Fatherland Party
  • Federal Constitutional Court
  • Federal Republic of Germany
  • Federation of German Industry
  • TURKISH WARS
  • Federation of German Womens
  • feminism, 18151945
  • feminism, 19452005
  • Ferdinand II
  • Feuerbach, Ludwig Andreas
  • Fichte, Johann Gottlieb
  • Final Solution
  • Fischer, Josef Joschka
  • Fischer von Erlach, John
  • Fontane, Theodor
  • WARS OF AUSTRIAN SUCCESSION
  • Four Year Plan
  • Francis II
  • Frank, Anne
  • Frank, Hans
  • Frankfurt am Main
  • Frankfurt Parliament
  • Frederick I
  • Frederick II, The Great
  • Frederick III
  • Frederick III, The Wise
  • STATE REFORMS
  • Frederick William
  • Frederick William I
  • Frederick William II
  • Frederick William III
  • Frederick William IV
  • Free Corps
  • Free Democratic Party
  • Freemasonry/Illuminati
  • French Revolutionary Wars
  • Freytag, Gustav
  • FOREIGN POLICY AND KAUNITZ
  • Friedrich, Caspar David
  • Fritsch, Werner von
  • Fugger, Jacob the Rich
  • Führerprinzip
  • G
  • Galen, Clemens August von
  • Gellert, Christian
  • General Directory
  • Genscher, Hans-Dietrich
  • Gentz, Friedrich
  • JOSEPH II AND REFORM
  • German Christians
  • German Communist Party
  • German Confederation
  • German Conservative Party
  • German Democratic Party
  • German Democratic Republic
  • German Labor Front
  • German National Peoples
  • German Peoples Party
  • German Progressive Party
  • HOHENSTAUFEN DYNASTY,
  • VIENNA AND ARCHITECTURE
  • German Reich (Imperial) Party
  • German Womens Bureau
  • German Workers Party
  • Germany Treaty
  • R
  • FREDERICK III
  • FREDERICK WILLIAM I, THE
  • FREDERICK THE GREAT
  • SEVEN YEARS WAR
  • S
  • ECONOMY
  • POLITICAL DECENTRALIZATION
  • SOCIAL STRUCTURE
  • HABSBURG DYNASTY
  • CULTURE
  • THE ENLIGHTENMENT
  • LITERATURE AND DRAMA
  • PHILOSOPHY
  • SECRET SOCIETIES
  • T
  • R
  • THE ROMANTIC MOVEMENT
  • NATIONALISM AND LIBERALISM
  • EARLY INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
  • CITIES AND CRAFT GUILDS
  • REVOLUTIONS OF 1848
  • ARMY REFORM AND PARLIAMENTARY
  • O
  • THE DANISH WAR, 1864
  • AUSTRO-PRUSSIAN WAR, 1866
  • THE FRANCO-PRUSSIAN WAR,
  • COLLAPSE OF THE SECOND FRENCH
  • I
  • N
  • ART AND ARCHITECTURE
  • ORIGINS OF CAPITALISM
  • SOCIAL STRUCTURE AND WOMEN
  • EDUCATION
  • T
  • POLITICAL PARTIES
  • THE KULTURKAMPF, SOCIALISM,
  • FOREIGN POLICY AND ALLIANCE
  • BISMARCKS DISMISSAL
  • WILHELMINE GERMANY
  • T
  • THE QUESTION OF
  • LATE MEDIEVAL CULTURE
  • CONDUCT OF THE WAR
  • PEACE RESOLUTION, REFORM, AND
  • AN UNPLANNED REVOLUTION
  • N
  • POLITICAL PARTIES UNPREPARED
  • A REVOLUTIONARY PATTERN
  • WORKERS AND SOLDIERS
  • KURT EISNER AND REVOLUTION IN
  • A REPUBLIC PROCLAIMED
  • A SEVERE ARMISTICE
  • T
  • ESTABLISHMENT OF A REVOLUTIONARY
  • EBERT MAKES A DEAL WITH THE
  • THE SPARTACISTS
  • INTERPRETATION OF THE
  • A VENGEFUL PEACE
  • V
  • THE GOALS OF THE PEACEMAKERS
  • TERMS OF THE TREATY
  • WAR GUILT AND REPARATIONS
  • DENUNCIATION AND RELUCTANT
  • GERMANIC MIGRATIONS AND
  • feminism, 18151945

    Those who labored for the emancipation of

    women had a number of characteristics in common.

    First, they believed in the validity of the

    female experience. Second, they considered the

    subordination of women not as a personal problem

    but an institutional one. Third, they sought

    to eliminate injustices by enhancing the power

    of women or limiting the coercive power of men

    feminism, 18151945 371

    and the state. The historical development of

    feminism accompanied the growth of democratization

    of nation-states, the spread of literacy,

    and the expansive growth of an urban and ultimately

    industrial capitalist market economy. The

    roots of the feminist movement were interrelated

    with the history of the ENLIGHTENMENT and

    the French Revolution, from which are derived

    some of its goals, such as liberty, equality, emancipation,

    liberation, justice, and sisterhood. The

    growth of feminism has to be understood in reference

    to the French Revolution, Napoleons

    conquests, and the counterrevolutionary governments

    of the Restoration. After 1815 Prince

    METTERNICH and other German government figures

    sought to suppress the revolutionary influences

    from France and attempted to control

    public speech, associations, and debates over

    political liberties. Even in political theory relative

    to womens rights, Johann-Gottlieb FICHTE

    and Georg-Wilhelm Friedrich HEGEL stressed the

    importance for the state to have women and

    children subordinated to men in the family.

    In the revolutionary climate of mid-19th-century

    Germany, the doors were opening to the

    critique of society by feminist activists. The central

    theme was womanliness and the contributions

    that women could make to the building

    of a new nation. This theme of relational feminism

    was espoused by Louise Otto, a well-educated

    woman of upper middle-class background.

    Otto also edited a revolutionary womens publication,

    the Womens Newspaper. Already in the

    mid-1840s she had campaigned for reforms in

    the education of women and improvements in

    working conditions in the new industrial cities.

    But Otto also thought that marriage was a

    degrading institution and that German women

    were lacking in character. German feminists at

    mid-century were also defensive against criticism

    of the way George Sand (a French woman

    writer) aped men by wearing mens clothing.

    The true German woman was idealized in Ottos

    eyes as one who was virtuous, courageous,

    moralistic, patriotic and peaceable.

    The early feminist associations generally

    worked for educational and professional advancement

    rather than for political rights. Their activities

    were hampered, however, by the Prussian

    Law of Association of 1850, which continued

    the reactionary policies of the post-Napoleonic

    period, prohibiting women from participation in

    political activities. Louise Otto was instrumental

    in the establishment of the first national feminist

    organization, the General Association of German

    Women (ADF), founded in 1865 and dedicated

    to the emancipation of women. Another association

    was the Lette Association, founded by Wilhelm

    Adolf Lette.

    What was expected of women in Imperial

    Germany was, as Kaiser William II expressed it,

    that a womans role ought to be confined to raising

    her children, cooking in the kitchen, and

    attending church. Among the feminist activists

    who thought otherwise were those who founded

    the Association for Womens Welfare in 1888,

    which advocated the right to vote. These were

    labeled radicals, while the more traditional feminists

    were called moderates. An umbrella organization,

    the FEDERATION OF GERMAN WOMENS

    ASSOCIATIONS (BDF), was established in 1893. In

    1894 Auguste Schmidt became its president, and

    it lobbied for equal secondary education, access

    to universities, legal and economic protection in

    marriage, equal pay for equal work, equal property

    rights, and the right to vote. It was the more

    radical leaders who challenged the family law

    provisions of the new civil code of 1896 and the

    practice of state-regulated prostitution. The

    revised CIVIL CODE OF 1900 recognized women

    as legal persons for the first time. As a result,

    husbands no longer were considered legal

    guardians of their wives. On the other hand,

    more conservative groups formed, such as the

    German Protestant Womens League, which

    joined the BDF, adding to the strength of the

    moderates. In the 1890s a socialist womens

    organization also was formed under the leadership

    of Clara ZETKIN, but most of its efforts were

    directed toward achieving equality for women

    within the SOCIAL DEMOCRATIC PARTY. It was

    unfortunate that the middle class and the socialist

    feminists simply could not cooperate for the

    greater good of women.

    372 feminism, 18151945

    Advances in the feminist agenda were

    increasingly apparent. In 1901 the gates to a university

    education were opened for the first time

    at HEIDELBERG and Freiburg, followed by the universities

    in PRUSSIA. On the eve of WORLD WAR I

    as many as 4,126 female students were enrolled.

    The Civil Code of 1900 also reversed the prohibition

    against divorce, allowing divorce by consent

    for childless couples. In 1902 the German

    Society for Womens Suffrage was founded by

    such radicals as Anita AUGSPURG and Lida Gustava

    Heymann. In 1908 restrictions against the

    participation of women in political activities were

    ended by the Reich Law of Association (1908).

    Women were now allowed to the join the SPD

    with equal rights. The Reich Law also helped

    women in their campaign for suffrage. Nevertheless,

    during the last decades of peace the

    womens movement like society in general

    became more conservative. One example of this

    was found in the leadership of Gertrud BÄUMER,

    who became the leader of the BDF in 1910. As a

    disciple of Adolf STÖCKER and Friedrich NAUMANN,

    she wanted to lead the organization in a

    more nationalist and traditionally conservative

    family direction. Women were told that marriage

    and motherhood were more important than

    careers, and she opposed abortion on demand.

    Women did not get the right to vote, however,

    until after World War I in the WEIMAR CONSTITUTION.

    With the enfranchisement of women and

    the acceptance of legal equality in the Weimar

    Republic, the old goals had been achieved, which

    left the new female politicians promoting education,

    health care, and maternal and child welfare.

    Most observers were surprised to find that when

    women now voted they preferred candidates and

    parties with moderate to conservative views or in

    special cases the religious parties, the CENTER and

    BAVARIAN PEOPLES PARTY. The womans movement

    became more conservative. Even the SPD

    took a more conservative position, which inspired

    socialist feminist leaders such as Louise Zietz and

    Clara Zetkin to switch to the INDEPENDENT SOCIAL

    DEMOCRATS (USPD). Middle-class feminists came

    to resemble their opponents, the anti-feminists

    directing women away from careers and back to

    housework. The main organization of middleclass

    feminists was the BDF, led by Baumer,

    which tripled in membership because other

    womens organizations joined, reflecting rightwing

    politics and even racism. The old-line feminists

    like Anita Augspurg and Lida Heymann

    decided to orient their interests internationally

    by playing leading roles in the International

    Womens League for Peace and Freedom. More

    left-wing reformers pushed for changes in the

    abortion law and making knowledge available

    about contraception.

    The position of women in the workforce and

    the image of the New Woman were a subject of

    continuous debate during Weimar. The proportion

    of women in the workforce had not

    increased greatly from the Empire (1907) at 31.5

    percent to 35.6 percent in 1925. It was in the

    internal makeup of the female workforce that the

    most changes took place and were so passionately

    debated. It was in the shift of gender-based

    employment that the greatest changes took place.

    New categories of womens jobs were created,

    such as shorthand typist, assembly worker, primary

    school teacher, and social worker. Female

    employment in these sectors became quite

    acceptable for single women, but a debate arose

    about when married women might be depriving

    a man of a job.

    The Nazi male chauvinists never hid their

    hostility to the womens movement, stressing

    womens motherhood role, their subordinate

    position to men, and their responsibility for a

    separate sphere. Associated with the Nazi movement

    was the Nazi organization run by Gertrud

    SCHOLTZ-KLINK. All other feminist organizations

    were crushed, as were those dedicated to sex

    reform. Women were told they had separate

    spheres, and an unintended result was that

    many learned a variety of skills in the many

    leadership positions held open to them in Nazi

    womens associations.

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