• GERMANIC MIGRATIONS AND
  • FRANKISH KINGDOM
  • JOHANNES REUCHLIN
  • THE WEIMAR CONSTITUTION
  • W
  • INFLATION, REPARATIONS, AND
  • THE STRESEMANN ERA, 19231929
  • STABILIZATION AND LOCARNO,
  • CULTURE AND SOCIETY
  • ROAD TO DICTATORSHIP,
  • T
  • CONSOLIDATION OF POWER
  • THE NAZI TOTAL STATE
  • ULRICH VON HUTTEN
  • PERSECUTION OF THE JEWS
  • RELIGION AND THE CHURCHES
  • FOREIGN POLICY
  • W
  • THE BATTLE OF BRITAIN
  • INVASION OF RUSSIA
  • HITLERS PLANS FOR EUROPE
  • TURNING OF THE TIDE,
  • THE HOME FRONT
  • THE RESISTANCE
  • PHILIP MELANCHTHON
  • D-DAY TO DEFEAT NAZI GERMANY
  • THE HOLOCAUST
  • A
  • ALLIED PLANS AND CONFERENCES
  • DENAZIFICATION
  • POLITICAL PARTIES AND TRADE
  • LOCAL STATE FORMATION
  • PARLIAMENTARY COUNCIL AND THE
  • ECONOMIC RECONSTRUCTION
  • T
  • ERASMUS OF ROTTERDAM
  • BUNDESTAG ELECTION AND
  • REGAINING SOVEREIGNTY AND INTEGRATION
  • RECONSTRUCTION AND THE ECONOMIC
  • TRANSITIONAL YEARS AND
  • THE GRAND COALITION AND YOUTH
  • THE SOCIAL-LIBERAL COALITION
  • OSTPOLITIK (FOREIGN POLICY
  • CULTURE AND SOCIETY
  • SOCIAL STRUCTURE
  • SCHMIDT ERA: SOCIAL UNREST,
  • PRINTING AND MEDICINE
  • THE KOHL ERA, 19821998
  • T
  • UPRISING OF JUNE 17, 1953
  • ECONOMIC SYSTEM
  • SOCIETY, EDUCATION, AND
  • RELATIONS WITH THE FEDERAL
  • R
  • CONSEQUENCES AND PROBLEMS OF
  • ECONOMIC UNIFICATION,
  • P
  • RENAISSANCE ART
  • UNIFICATION POLITICS AND ITS
  • FOREIGN POLICY
  • GOVERNMENT AND ELECTIONS,
  • HISTORICAL DICTIONARY A
  • A
  • Abwehr
  • Adenauer, Konrad
  • Afrika Korps
  • Agadir Incident
  • Agrarian League
  • NEED FOR CHURCH REFORM
  • Agricola, Rudolf
  • Air Force
  • Albert (Albrecht) of
  • Albert V
  • Algeciras, Conference of
  • Allied Control Council
  • Alsace-Lorraine
  • Altdorfer, Albrecht
  • Amiens, Battle of
  • Anabaptists
  • P
  • Anglo-German Naval Treaty
  • Anschluss
  • Anti-Comintern Pact
  • anti-Semitism/Jew hatred
  • anti-Semitism
  • Anti-Socialist Law
  • Ardennes, Battle of the
  • Arendt, Hannah
  • Armed Forces (Wehrmacht)
  • Armed Forces (Bundeswehr):
  • LUTHER AND MELANCHTHON
  • Army (Prussian to 1860)
  • Army (Second Empire,
  • Asylum Law
  • Atlantic, Battle of the
  • Auerstadt, Battle of
  • Augsburg, Diet of
  • Augsburg, Religious Peace of
  • Augsburg, War of the League
  • Augsburg Confession
  • Augspurg, Anita
  • LUTHER AND ZWINGLI
  • Auschwitz-Birkenau
  • Austerlitz, Battle of
  • Austria
  • Austrian Succession, War of
  • autarchy
  • autobahns
  • Axis, The
  • B
  • Baden-Württemberg
  • Ballin, Albert
  • CAROLINGIAN EMPIRE
  • KNIGHTS REVOLT AND GREAT
  • Barbie, Klaus
  • Barmen Declaration
  • Barth, Karl
  • Basic Treaty
  • Bauernschutz
  • Bauhaus
  • Baumer, Gertrud
  • Bavaria
  • Bavarian Peoples Party (BVP)
  • Bavarian Succession, War of
  • REFORMATION AND THE TOWNS
  • Bayer AG
  • Bayreuth
  • Bebel, August
  • Beck, Ludwig August Theodor
  • Beckmann, Max
  • Beer-Hall Putsch of 1923
  • Beethoven, Ludwig van
  • Benjamin, Walter
  • Benn, Gottfried
  • Bennigsen, Rudolf von
  • ANABAPTISM AND MÜNTZER
  • Benz, Carl Friedrich
  • Bergen-Belsen
  • Berghof
  • Berlin
  • Berlin, Battle for (Fall of)
  • Berlin, Congress of
  • Berlin-Baghdad Railway
  • Berlin Blockade
  • Berlin Conference
  • Berlin Wall
  • CALVINISM IN GERMANY
  • Bernstein, Eduard
  • Bethmann Hollweg, Theobald
  • Biedermeier
  • Biermann, Wolf
  • Bismarck, Otto Eduard Leopold
  • blank check
  • Bleichröder, Gerson von
  • Blenheim, Battle of
  • Blomberg, Werner von
  • Blücher, Gebhard
  • CHARLES V AND THE REFORMATION
  • Böll, Heinrich
  • Bonhoeffer, Dietrich
  • Bonn
  • Bormann, Martin
  • Born, Max
  • Borsig, August
  • Bosch, Robert
  • Bosnia-Herzegovina
  • Brahms, Johannes
  • Brandenburg
  • C
  • Brauchitsch, Walther von
  • Braun, Eva
  • Braun, Karl Ferdinand
  • Braun, Otto
  • Braun, Wernher von
  • Brecht, Bertolt
  • Bremen/Bremerhaven
  • Brentano, Elizabeth Bettina
  • Breslau
  • The Bridge
  • THE THIRTY YEARS WAR
  • Britain, Battle of
  • Brüning, Heinrich
  • Buchenwald
  • Bülow, Bernhard von
  • Bundesrat
  • Bundestag
  • Burschenschaft
  • C
  • Canisius, Peter
  • canton system
  • A
  • Carlsbad Decrees
  • Celtis, Conrad
  • Center Party
  • Chamberlain, Houston Stewart
  • Charles V
  • Charles VI
  • Charles VII
  • Charlottenburg, Palace of
  • Christian Democratic Union
  • Christian Social Union
  • LITERATURE
  • Civil Code, German (Revised
  • Clausewitz, Carl von
  • Concordat of 1933
  • Condor Legion
  • The Confederation of the Rhine was a
  • Confessing Church
  • Congress of Vienna
  • conservatism
  • constitutional traditions
  • Counter-Reformation
  • MUSIC
  • Cranach, Lucas, the Elder
  • cultured elites
  • D
  • Daimler, Gottlieb
  • Danish War
  • Danzig
  • Dawes Plan
  • D-Banks
  • D-Day
  • Degenerate Art
  • SAXON AND SALIAN DYNASTIES,
  • SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION
  • denazification
  • Denck, Hans
  • Depression, The Great
  • Depressions
  • détente
  • Diesel, Rudolf
  • Dietrich, Josef Sepp
  • Diplomatic Revolution of 1756
  • Dix, Otto
  • Döblin, Alfred
  • GOTTFRIED WILHELM VON LEIBNIZ
  • Dönitz, Karl
  • Dresden
  • Droste-Hülshoff, Annette
  • Dual Alliance
  • Dürer, Albrecht
  • Düsseldorf
  • E
  • Edict of Toleration
  • Ehrlich, Paul
  • Eichendorff, Joseph von
  • PIETISM
  • Eichmann, Adolf
  • Eicke, Theodor
  • Einsatzgruppen
  • Einstein, Albert
  • Eisner, Kurt
  • El Alamein, Battles of
  • Elbe River
  • Ems Telegram
  • Enabling Act
  • Engels, Friedrich
  • ROCOCO
  • ENIGMA/ULTRA
  • Enlightenment
  • Erasmus, Desiderius
  • Erfurt Program
  • Erhard, Ludwig
  • Ernst, Max
  • Erzberger, Matthias
  • Eugene, prince of Savoy
  • European Coal and Steel
  • European Defense Community
  • A
  • European Economic Community
  • European Union
  • euthanasia
  • expressionism
  • Falkenhayn, Erich von
  • F
  • Fatherland Party
  • Federal Constitutional Court
  • Federal Republic of Germany
  • Federation of German Industry
  • TURKISH WARS
  • Federation of German Womens
  • feminism, 18151945
  • feminism, 19452005
  • Ferdinand II
  • Feuerbach, Ludwig Andreas
  • Fichte, Johann Gottlieb
  • Final Solution
  • Fischer, Josef Joschka
  • Fischer von Erlach, John
  • Fontane, Theodor
  • WARS OF AUSTRIAN SUCCESSION
  • Four Year Plan
  • Francis II
  • Frank, Anne
  • Frank, Hans
  • Frankfurt am Main
  • Frankfurt Parliament
  • Frederick I
  • Frederick II, The Great
  • Frederick III
  • Frederick III, The Wise
  • STATE REFORMS
  • Frederick William
  • Frederick William I
  • Frederick William II
  • Frederick William III
  • Frederick William IV
  • Free Corps
  • Free Democratic Party
  • Freemasonry/Illuminati
  • French Revolutionary Wars
  • Freytag, Gustav
  • FOREIGN POLICY AND KAUNITZ
  • Friedrich, Caspar David
  • Fritsch, Werner von
  • Fugger, Jacob the Rich
  • Führerprinzip
  • G
  • Galen, Clemens August von
  • Gellert, Christian
  • General Directory
  • Genscher, Hans-Dietrich
  • Gentz, Friedrich
  • JOSEPH II AND REFORM
  • German Christians
  • German Communist Party
  • German Confederation
  • German Conservative Party
  • German Democratic Party
  • German Democratic Republic
  • German Labor Front
  • German National Peoples
  • German Peoples Party
  • German Progressive Party
  • HOHENSTAUFEN DYNASTY,
  • VIENNA AND ARCHITECTURE
  • German Reich (Imperial) Party
  • German Womens Bureau
  • German Workers Party
  • Germany Treaty
  • R
  • FREDERICK III
  • FREDERICK WILLIAM I, THE
  • FREDERICK THE GREAT
  • SEVEN YEARS WAR
  • S
  • ECONOMY
  • POLITICAL DECENTRALIZATION
  • SOCIAL STRUCTURE
  • HABSBURG DYNASTY
  • CULTURE
  • THE ENLIGHTENMENT
  • LITERATURE AND DRAMA
  • PHILOSOPHY
  • SECRET SOCIETIES
  • T
  • R
  • THE ROMANTIC MOVEMENT
  • NATIONALISM AND LIBERALISM
  • EARLY INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
  • CITIES AND CRAFT GUILDS
  • REVOLUTIONS OF 1848
  • ARMY REFORM AND PARLIAMENTARY
  • O
  • THE DANISH WAR, 1864
  • AUSTRO-PRUSSIAN WAR, 1866
  • THE FRANCO-PRUSSIAN WAR,
  • COLLAPSE OF THE SECOND FRENCH
  • I
  • N
  • ART AND ARCHITECTURE
  • ORIGINS OF CAPITALISM
  • SOCIAL STRUCTURE AND WOMEN
  • EDUCATION
  • T
  • POLITICAL PARTIES
  • THE KULTURKAMPF, SOCIALISM,
  • FOREIGN POLICY AND ALLIANCE
  • BISMARCKS DISMISSAL
  • WILHELMINE GERMANY
  • T
  • THE QUESTION OF
  • LATE MEDIEVAL CULTURE
  • CONDUCT OF THE WAR
  • PEACE RESOLUTION, REFORM, AND
  • AN UNPLANNED REVOLUTION
  • N
  • POLITICAL PARTIES UNPREPARED
  • A REVOLUTIONARY PATTERN
  • WORKERS AND SOLDIERS
  • KURT EISNER AND REVOLUTION IN
  • A REPUBLIC PROCLAIMED
  • A SEVERE ARMISTICE
  • T
  • ESTABLISHMENT OF A REVOLUTIONARY
  • EBERT MAKES A DEAL WITH THE
  • THE SPARTACISTS
  • INTERPRETATION OF THE
  • A VENGEFUL PEACE
  • V
  • THE GOALS OF THE PEACEMAKERS
  • TERMS OF THE TREATY
  • WAR GUILT AND REPARATIONS
  • DENUNCIATION AND RELUCTANT
  • GERMANIC MIGRATIONS AND
  • Federal Republic of Germany

    (FRG; Bundesrepublik Deutschland, BRD)

    The Federal Republic was formed in 1949 out of

    the U.S., British, and French occupation zones,

    becoming a parliamentary democracy and prosperous

    capitalistic state. It comprised the western

    part of defeated Nazi Germany. In 1990 the

    Federal Republic absorbed the communist GERMAN

    DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC to form a united German

    Republic.

    The cold war led to the emergence of two separate

    states in Germany, the Federal Republic

    based on the occupation zones of the Western

    Allies, and the German Democratic Republic

    based on the Soviet zone. The process that created

    the Federal Republic was founded on the

    currency reform and the adoption of the deutsche

    mark. The BERLIN BLOCKADE contributed to the

    process, as did the convening of the Parliamentary

    Council on September 1, 1948, which wrote

    the provisional constitution called the BASIC LAW.

    The Basic Law was to be used until a new constitution

    for the whole of Germany could be

    adopted. The Basic Law called for a two-house

    legislature, the BUNDESTAG, which represented

    the population, and the BUNDESRAT, which represented

    the states. It was decided that the capital

    of the republic was to be in BONN.

    The first period of the Federal Republics history

    was presided over by the 73-year-old Konrad

    ADENAUER and the conservative coalition of

    the CDU/CSU from 1949 to 1963. When the

    Federal Republic came into existence, it was no

    sovereign state and was still governed under the

    Occupation Statute. Adenauers most important

    foreign policy achievement was to integrate the

    FRG into a Western alliance by becoming a

    member of the NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION

    (NATO) and reestablishing German

    armed forces (Bundeswehr) by becoming a

    sovereign state in 1955, by joining the EUROPEAN

    COAL AND STEEL COMMUNITY (ECSC) and by signing

    the Treaty of Rome in 1957, creating the

    Federal Republic of Germany 369

    EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY (EEC). The

    economic foundation for the FRGs revival was

    the ECONOMIC MIRACLE. Under the stewardship

    of Ludwig ERHARD and his neo-liberal economic

    policies, which included a social-market system,

    a tremendous economic boom was created.

    Rapidly increasing production, profits, income,

    and the standard of living contributed to the

    legitimization of the West German state system.

    Although Adenauers star already was in decline

    by the end of the 1950s, it took until 1963 for

    him to resign over the SPIEGEL AFFAIR.

    A transition (second period) now followed

    from 1963 to 1969, during which Ludwig Erhard

    became chancellor, followed by the grand coalition

    of the CDU/CSU and the SPD under the

    chancellorship of Kurt Georg KIESINGER. Criticism

    of the governments economic policies was

    followed by a recession. The grand coalition

    overcame the economic problems with selective

    measures that stimulated economic growth. As

    this was happening, an extraparliamentary opposition

    was developing principally representing

    neo-Marxist views, which demanded radical

    change. As was happening in other countries,

    student protests were rampant. Finally, the grand

    coalition was torn apart by the election of the

    SPD candidate, Gustav HEINEMANN, as federal

    president.

    The third period began with the SPD majority

    in the Bundestag elections of 1969. Willy

    BRANDT became chancellor, and Walter Scheel

    (FDP) became foreign minister. The principal

    foreign policy initiative of Brandts administration

    was his OSTPOLITIK, which opened up relations

    with the German Democratic Republic,

    Eastern Europe, and the Soviet Union. It was

    part of DÉTENTE between the superpowers. In

    domestic politics the SPD/FDP coalition extended

    the welfare state and liberalized society. An

    unfortunate spy scandal forced Willy Brandt to

    resign, and he was succeeded by Helmut

    SCHMIDT as chancellor and Hans Dietrich GENSCHER

    (FDP) as foreign minister between 1974

    and 1982. The Social-Liberal coalition won the

    elections of 1976 and 1980. Among the domestic

    problems facing the government was the

    growth of terrorism of the BAADER-MEINHOF

    GANG. What became the main economic concern

    was the worldwide oil price explosion and

    the world economic recession, which hit the

    Federal Republic very hard. Gross national

    product stopped growing, unemployment and

    bankruptcies increased, the social security system

    was difficult to fund, and public debt was

    rising dramatically. It was difficult to find common

    policies to attack these problems, and the

    Social-Liberal coalition broke up and early elections

    were called for 1983.

    The election was won by a center-right coalition

    led by the CDUs Helmut KOHL, initiating

    the fourth period of the republics history. The

    16 years of his administration began with the

    reassertion of national pride, a peace movement,

    protests against nuclear missiles, the rise of the

    pacificist and neutralist GREEN PARTY and its

    opposition to nuclear energy, and the rise of

    neo-nationalist parties and rightist fringe parties

    such as the Republicans. The deployment of

    nuclear missiles by NATO led to the 1987 U.S.-

    Soviet agreement on the elimination of landbased

    intermediate-range nuclear weapons in

    Europe. The growth of government borrowing

    was curbed, and a major tax reform program

    provided tax relief. Economic growth continued,

    and prices remained stable. Although there was

    an improvement in employment and new jobs

    were created, unemployment was still too high

    in 1989.

    The collapse of the Soviet Bloc and the revolutionary

    events in the GDR during 1989 presented

    the opportunity for German reunification. As the

    East Germans reorganized their political parties

    and government, Kohl took the initiative and

    surprisingly won a victory in the all-German elections

    of 1990 by promising prosperity in a quickly

    reunited Germany. The union parties (CDU/CSU)

    won 43.8 percent of the vote against the PARTY OF

    DEMOCRATIC SOCIALISM (the successor to the SED)

    which won only 11.1 percent of the vote. Reunification,

    of course, brought with it many new

    responsibilities and problems. Industries in the

    East collapsed and unemployment soared. There

    was no quick fix to the problems facing reunified

    370 Federal Republic of Germany

    Germany. There was a resurgence of the extreme

    right. A high rate of unemployment continued.

    Kohl and the CDU won the election of 1994.

    Finally, the center-right coalition lost in 1998 to

    an SPD/FDP coalition headed by the new chancellor,

    Gerhard SCHROEDER.

    were   GERMANC   Germany   Party   their   Prussians   army   state   government   became   they   during   Austrian   CHURCHES   French   political   Frederick   Nazis   Social   Hitler   after   against   economic   some   republican