• GERMANIC MIGRATIONS AND
  • FRANKISH KINGDOM
  • JOHANNES REUCHLIN
  • THE WEIMAR CONSTITUTION
  • W
  • INFLATION, REPARATIONS, AND
  • THE STRESEMANN ERA, 19231929
  • STABILIZATION AND LOCARNO,
  • CULTURE AND SOCIETY
  • ROAD TO DICTATORSHIP,
  • T
  • CONSOLIDATION OF POWER
  • THE NAZI TOTAL STATE
  • ULRICH VON HUTTEN
  • PERSECUTION OF THE JEWS
  • RELIGION AND THE CHURCHES
  • FOREIGN POLICY
  • W
  • THE BATTLE OF BRITAIN
  • INVASION OF RUSSIA
  • HITLERS PLANS FOR EUROPE
  • TURNING OF THE TIDE,
  • THE HOME FRONT
  • THE RESISTANCE
  • PHILIP MELANCHTHON
  • D-DAY TO DEFEAT NAZI GERMANY
  • THE HOLOCAUST
  • A
  • ALLIED PLANS AND CONFERENCES
  • DENAZIFICATION
  • POLITICAL PARTIES AND TRADE
  • LOCAL STATE FORMATION
  • PARLIAMENTARY COUNCIL AND THE
  • ECONOMIC RECONSTRUCTION
  • T
  • ERASMUS OF ROTTERDAM
  • BUNDESTAG ELECTION AND
  • REGAINING SOVEREIGNTY AND INTEGRATION
  • RECONSTRUCTION AND THE ECONOMIC
  • TRANSITIONAL YEARS AND
  • THE GRAND COALITION AND YOUTH
  • THE SOCIAL-LIBERAL COALITION
  • OSTPOLITIK (FOREIGN POLICY
  • CULTURE AND SOCIETY
  • SOCIAL STRUCTURE
  • SCHMIDT ERA: SOCIAL UNREST,
  • PRINTING AND MEDICINE
  • THE KOHL ERA, 19821998
  • T
  • UPRISING OF JUNE 17, 1953
  • ECONOMIC SYSTEM
  • SOCIETY, EDUCATION, AND
  • RELATIONS WITH THE FEDERAL
  • R
  • CONSEQUENCES AND PROBLEMS OF
  • ECONOMIC UNIFICATION,
  • P
  • RENAISSANCE ART
  • UNIFICATION POLITICS AND ITS
  • FOREIGN POLICY
  • GOVERNMENT AND ELECTIONS,
  • HISTORICAL DICTIONARY A
  • A
  • Abwehr
  • Adenauer, Konrad
  • Afrika Korps
  • Agadir Incident
  • Agrarian League
  • NEED FOR CHURCH REFORM
  • Agricola, Rudolf
  • Air Force
  • Albert (Albrecht) of
  • Albert V
  • Algeciras, Conference of
  • Allied Control Council
  • Alsace-Lorraine
  • Altdorfer, Albrecht
  • Amiens, Battle of
  • Anabaptists
  • P
  • Anglo-German Naval Treaty
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  • Anti-Comintern Pact
  • anti-Semitism/Jew hatred
  • anti-Semitism
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  • Ardennes, Battle of the
  • Arendt, Hannah
  • Armed Forces (Wehrmacht)
  • Armed Forces (Bundeswehr):
  • LUTHER AND MELANCHTHON
  • Army (Prussian to 1860)
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  • Augsburg, Diet of
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  • LUTHER AND ZWINGLI
  • Auschwitz-Birkenau
  • Austerlitz, Battle of
  • Austria
  • Austrian Succession, War of
  • autarchy
  • autobahns
  • Axis, The
  • B
  • Baden-Württemberg
  • Ballin, Albert
  • CAROLINGIAN EMPIRE
  • KNIGHTS REVOLT AND GREAT
  • Barbie, Klaus
  • Barmen Declaration
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  • Basic Treaty
  • Bauernschutz
  • Bauhaus
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  • Bavaria
  • Bavarian Peoples Party (BVP)
  • Bavarian Succession, War of
  • REFORMATION AND THE TOWNS
  • Bayer AG
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  • Bebel, August
  • Beck, Ludwig August Theodor
  • Beckmann, Max
  • Beer-Hall Putsch of 1923
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  • Benjamin, Walter
  • Benn, Gottfried
  • Bennigsen, Rudolf von
  • ANABAPTISM AND MÜNTZER
  • Benz, Carl Friedrich
  • Bergen-Belsen
  • Berghof
  • Berlin
  • Berlin, Battle for (Fall of)
  • Berlin, Congress of
  • Berlin-Baghdad Railway
  • Berlin Blockade
  • Berlin Conference
  • Berlin Wall
  • CALVINISM IN GERMANY
  • Bernstein, Eduard
  • Bethmann Hollweg, Theobald
  • Biedermeier
  • Biermann, Wolf
  • Bismarck, Otto Eduard Leopold
  • blank check
  • Bleichröder, Gerson von
  • Blenheim, Battle of
  • Blomberg, Werner von
  • Blücher, Gebhard
  • CHARLES V AND THE REFORMATION
  • Böll, Heinrich
  • Bonhoeffer, Dietrich
  • Bonn
  • Bormann, Martin
  • Born, Max
  • Borsig, August
  • Bosch, Robert
  • Bosnia-Herzegovina
  • Brahms, Johannes
  • Brandenburg
  • C
  • Brauchitsch, Walther von
  • Braun, Eva
  • Braun, Karl Ferdinand
  • Braun, Otto
  • Braun, Wernher von
  • Brecht, Bertolt
  • Bremen/Bremerhaven
  • Brentano, Elizabeth Bettina
  • Breslau
  • The Bridge
  • THE THIRTY YEARS WAR
  • Britain, Battle of
  • Brüning, Heinrich
  • Buchenwald
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  • Bundesrat
  • Bundestag
  • Burschenschaft
  • C
  • Canisius, Peter
  • canton system
  • A
  • Carlsbad Decrees
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  • Center Party
  • Chamberlain, Houston Stewart
  • Charles V
  • Charles VI
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  • Charlottenburg, Palace of
  • Christian Democratic Union
  • Christian Social Union
  • LITERATURE
  • Civil Code, German (Revised
  • Clausewitz, Carl von
  • Concordat of 1933
  • Condor Legion
  • The Confederation of the Rhine was a
  • Confessing Church
  • Congress of Vienna
  • conservatism
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  • MUSIC
  • Cranach, Lucas, the Elder
  • cultured elites
  • D
  • Daimler, Gottlieb
  • Danish War
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  • Degenerate Art
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  • SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION
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  • Depression, The Great
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  • détente
  • Diesel, Rudolf
  • Dietrich, Josef Sepp
  • Diplomatic Revolution of 1756
  • Dix, Otto
  • Döblin, Alfred
  • GOTTFRIED WILHELM VON LEIBNIZ
  • Dönitz, Karl
  • Dresden
  • Droste-Hülshoff, Annette
  • Dual Alliance
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  • Düsseldorf
  • E
  • Edict of Toleration
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  • Eichendorff, Joseph von
  • PIETISM
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  • Elbe River
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  • Eugene, prince of Savoy
  • European Coal and Steel
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  • A
  • European Economic Community
  • European Union
  • euthanasia
  • expressionism
  • Falkenhayn, Erich von
  • F
  • Fatherland Party
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  • feminism, 18151945
  • feminism, 19452005
  • Ferdinand II
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  • Final Solution
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  • G
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  • Gentz, Friedrich
  • JOSEPH II AND REFORM
  • German Christians
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  • German Reich (Imperial) Party
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  • R
  • FREDERICK III
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  • FREDERICK THE GREAT
  • SEVEN YEARS WAR
  • S
  • ECONOMY
  • POLITICAL DECENTRALIZATION
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  • O
  • THE DANISH WAR, 1864
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  • I
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  • ART AND ARCHITECTURE
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  • T
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  • FOREIGN POLICY AND ALLIANCE
  • BISMARCKS DISMISSAL
  • WILHELMINE GERMANY
  • T
  • THE QUESTION OF
  • LATE MEDIEVAL CULTURE
  • CONDUCT OF THE WAR
  • PEACE RESOLUTION, REFORM, AND
  • AN UNPLANNED REVOLUTION
  • N
  • POLITICAL PARTIES UNPREPARED
  • A REVOLUTIONARY PATTERN
  • WORKERS AND SOLDIERS
  • KURT EISNER AND REVOLUTION IN
  • A REPUBLIC PROCLAIMED
  • A SEVERE ARMISTICE
  • T
  • ESTABLISHMENT OF A REVOLUTIONARY
  • EBERT MAKES A DEAL WITH THE
  • THE SPARTACISTS
  • INTERPRETATION OF THE
  • A VENGEFUL PEACE
  • V
  • THE GOALS OF THE PEACEMAKERS
  • TERMS OF THE TREATY
  • WAR GUILT AND REPARATIONS
  • DENUNCIATION AND RELUCTANT
  • GERMANIC MIGRATIONS AND
  • expressionism

    Expressionism was a militant and aggressive

    artistic movement in art, literature, drama, and

    music. As a movement it had its beginning after

    the turn of the 20th century, rose to maturity

    during WORLD WAR I and declined in the 1920s.

    In literature the origins of expressionism go back

    to the Swedish novelist and dramatist August

    Strindberg, in whose works men are driven by

    an omnipotent force that dominates them to perform

    good or evil. A new generation of writers

    rebelled against the values of the Empire and the

    depersonalization of modern industrial society.

    Expressionist writers and artists also reacted

    against NATURALISM and neoromanticism. They

    attempted to show the truth by proclaiming

    mans mental phenomena, his aspirations,

    hopes, and fears. Expressionism was unique

    among the literary schools because its representatives

    did not try to imitate nature. They

    wanted to express their subjective, emotionally

    charged view of reality while it was fresh.

    In the expressionist drama there also was a

    great deal of emotionalism. Drama was a more

    appropriate vehicle for their form of expression

    than was the novel, although some of Alfred

    DÖBLINs novels were expressionist. In some

    respects expressionism was a type of social and

    political protest that was earlier seen in the

    storm and stress movement, of YOUNG GERMANY,

    and in naturalism. The tragedies of World War I

    and the Russian Revolution of 1917 gave a

    tremendous stimulus to the expressionist movement.

    Frank Wedekind (18641918) already in

    1910 was an early representative of expressionism,

    manifested in his bizarre dramas grotesque

    thoughts, tempestuous messages, and a mania

    for sex. The principal dramatists were antagonistic

    to material progress and the rise of an

    industrial and technological society. The expressionists

    were radicals whose interest was in a

    fundamental change in society and the regeneration

    of humankind. Other themes involved the

    conflict of generations and the battle of the

    sexes. The first play to be regarded as expressionist

    was Mörder, Hoffnung der Frauen (1910).

    Some of the principal expressionist dramatists

    were Ernst Barlach, Bertolt BRECHT in his earlier

    works, R. Goering, W. Hasenclever, H. Johst, and

    Georg KAISER (18781945). Kaiser was the

    leader in the field of abstract expressionism; he

    peopled his stage not with individual characters

    but general types of personsthe Mother, the

    364 euthanasia

    Engineer, the Millionaire, the Father. This form

    of drama was called Stationendrama. Among

    the great theater directors whose genius contributed

    to their development was Max Reinhardt

    (18731944).

    Some of the greatest poets of the 20th century

    were expressionists, notably Rainer Maria

    RILKE (18751926), a poet who was a prophet,

    philosopher, and seer. He was unorthodox and

    mystical, trying to express the inexpressible. His

    visionary hymns of the Duineser Elegien can be

    counted among the works of the expressionists.

    Others are August Stramm, whose rhythmic

    poetry drives language to the extreme. Other

    important poets were Georg Heym (18871912),

    Johannes Becker (18911958), Gottfried BENN

    (18861956), Georg Trakl (18871914), and

    Franz Werfel (18901945). In their abandonment

    of poetic conventions their work reflected

    the distorted shapes and striking colors of

    expressionist painting.

    Expressionism first became prominent in

    painting in the Blue Rider Group (Der blaue

    Reiter) and THE BRIDGE (Die Brücke). German

    expressionist artists included Ernst Ludwig

    KIRCHNER (18801938), Paula Modersohn Becker

    (18761907), Emil NOLDE (18671956), Max

    PECHSTEIN (18811955), K. Schmidt-Rottluff

    (18841976), and the most famous artist of The

    Bridge, Wassily Kandinsky (18661944). The

    movement lasted roughly from 1909 to 1921. The

    artists used abstraction and distorted images and

    bright colors to attack the conventions of art and

    society that the artists found to be dehumanizing

    and corrupting. After the war and the battles that

    were fought during the early republic, many of

    the artists became disillusioned and turned away

    from expressionism.

    expressionism 365

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