• GERMANIC MIGRATIONS AND
  • FRANKISH KINGDOM
  • JOHANNES REUCHLIN
  • THE WEIMAR CONSTITUTION
  • W
  • INFLATION, REPARATIONS, AND
  • THE STRESEMANN ERA, 19231929
  • STABILIZATION AND LOCARNO,
  • CULTURE AND SOCIETY
  • ROAD TO DICTATORSHIP,
  • T
  • CONSOLIDATION OF POWER
  • THE NAZI TOTAL STATE
  • ULRICH VON HUTTEN
  • PERSECUTION OF THE JEWS
  • RELIGION AND THE CHURCHES
  • FOREIGN POLICY
  • W
  • THE BATTLE OF BRITAIN
  • INVASION OF RUSSIA
  • HITLERS PLANS FOR EUROPE
  • TURNING OF THE TIDE,
  • THE HOME FRONT
  • THE RESISTANCE
  • PHILIP MELANCHTHON
  • D-DAY TO DEFEAT NAZI GERMANY
  • THE HOLOCAUST
  • A
  • ALLIED PLANS AND CONFERENCES
  • DENAZIFICATION
  • POLITICAL PARTIES AND TRADE
  • LOCAL STATE FORMATION
  • PARLIAMENTARY COUNCIL AND THE
  • ECONOMIC RECONSTRUCTION
  • T
  • ERASMUS OF ROTTERDAM
  • BUNDESTAG ELECTION AND
  • REGAINING SOVEREIGNTY AND INTEGRATION
  • RECONSTRUCTION AND THE ECONOMIC
  • TRANSITIONAL YEARS AND
  • THE GRAND COALITION AND YOUTH
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  • OSTPOLITIK (FOREIGN POLICY
  • CULTURE AND SOCIETY
  • SOCIAL STRUCTURE
  • SCHMIDT ERA: SOCIAL UNREST,
  • PRINTING AND MEDICINE
  • THE KOHL ERA, 19821998
  • T
  • UPRISING OF JUNE 17, 1953
  • ECONOMIC SYSTEM
  • SOCIETY, EDUCATION, AND
  • RELATIONS WITH THE FEDERAL
  • R
  • CONSEQUENCES AND PROBLEMS OF
  • ECONOMIC UNIFICATION,
  • P
  • RENAISSANCE ART
  • UNIFICATION POLITICS AND ITS
  • FOREIGN POLICY
  • GOVERNMENT AND ELECTIONS,
  • HISTORICAL DICTIONARY A
  • A
  • Abwehr
  • Adenauer, Konrad
  • Afrika Korps
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  • NEED FOR CHURCH REFORM
  • Agricola, Rudolf
  • Air Force
  • Albert (Albrecht) of
  • Albert V
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  • Allied Control Council
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  • Amiens, Battle of
  • Anabaptists
  • P
  • Anglo-German Naval Treaty
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  • Anti-Comintern Pact
  • anti-Semitism/Jew hatred
  • anti-Semitism
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  • Ardennes, Battle of the
  • Arendt, Hannah
  • Armed Forces (Wehrmacht)
  • Armed Forces (Bundeswehr):
  • LUTHER AND MELANCHTHON
  • Army (Prussian to 1860)
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  • LUTHER AND ZWINGLI
  • Auschwitz-Birkenau
  • Austerlitz, Battle of
  • Austria
  • Austrian Succession, War of
  • autarchy
  • autobahns
  • Axis, The
  • B
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  • Ballin, Albert
  • CAROLINGIAN EMPIRE
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  • Barbie, Klaus
  • Barmen Declaration
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  • Bavaria
  • Bavarian Peoples Party (BVP)
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  • REFORMATION AND THE TOWNS
  • Bayer AG
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  • Bebel, August
  • Beck, Ludwig August Theodor
  • Beckmann, Max
  • Beer-Hall Putsch of 1923
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  • Benjamin, Walter
  • Benn, Gottfried
  • Bennigsen, Rudolf von
  • ANABAPTISM AND MÜNTZER
  • Benz, Carl Friedrich
  • Bergen-Belsen
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  • CALVINISM IN GERMANY
  • Bernstein, Eduard
  • Bethmann Hollweg, Theobald
  • Biedermeier
  • Biermann, Wolf
  • Bismarck, Otto Eduard Leopold
  • blank check
  • Bleichröder, Gerson von
  • Blenheim, Battle of
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  • Blücher, Gebhard
  • CHARLES V AND THE REFORMATION
  • Böll, Heinrich
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  • Bonn
  • Bormann, Martin
  • Born, Max
  • Borsig, August
  • Bosch, Robert
  • Bosnia-Herzegovina
  • Brahms, Johannes
  • Brandenburg
  • C
  • Brauchitsch, Walther von
  • Braun, Eva
  • Braun, Karl Ferdinand
  • Braun, Otto
  • Braun, Wernher von
  • Brecht, Bertolt
  • Bremen/Bremerhaven
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  • Breslau
  • The Bridge
  • THE THIRTY YEARS WAR
  • Britain, Battle of
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  • Buchenwald
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  • Bundesrat
  • Bundestag
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  • C
  • Canisius, Peter
  • canton system
  • A
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  • LITERATURE
  • Civil Code, German (Revised
  • Clausewitz, Carl von
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  • cultured elites
  • D
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  • Diplomatic Revolution of 1756
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  • E
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  • A
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  • F
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  • feminism, 19452005
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  • FREDERICK THE GREAT
  • SEVEN YEARS WAR
  • S
  • ECONOMY
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  • I
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  • T
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  • BISMARCKS DISMISSAL
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  • T
  • THE QUESTION OF
  • LATE MEDIEVAL CULTURE
  • CONDUCT OF THE WAR
  • PEACE RESOLUTION, REFORM, AND
  • AN UNPLANNED REVOLUTION
  • N
  • POLITICAL PARTIES UNPREPARED
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  • A REPUBLIC PROCLAIMED
  • A SEVERE ARMISTICE
  • T
  • ESTABLISHMENT OF A REVOLUTIONARY
  • EBERT MAKES A DEAL WITH THE
  • THE SPARTACISTS
  • INTERPRETATION OF THE
  • A VENGEFUL PEACE
  • V
  • THE GOALS OF THE PEACEMAKERS
  • TERMS OF THE TREATY
  • WAR GUILT AND REPARATIONS
  • DENUNCIATION AND RELUCTANT
  • GERMANIC MIGRATIONS AND
  • Ernst, Max

    lang=EN-US style='font-size:10.5pt;font-family:"Meridien-Medium","serif"; color:black'>(18911976)

    artist in the dada and surrealist movements

    Born on April 2, 1891, in Brühl, Germany, Max

    Ernst had early experiences that provided subjects

    for his later paintings. He studied philosophy

    and abnormal psychology at the University of

    BONN, started painting in 1912, but did not

    develop his own style until after WORLD WAR I.

    Illustrations from various magazines, used as

    bizarre images in his collages, were his main productions

    in the dada group in Cologne from 1919

    to 1922. Dada was very irreverent toward conventional

    art, and the group staged the infamous

    1920 exhibition in which the public had to walk

    through a public urinal. Moving to Paris in 1922,

    he painted in the surrealist dreamlike style irrational

    associations of images, desert landscapes,

    and an erotic atmosphere. One of his most

    famous paintings was Two Children Are Threatened

    358 Ernst, Max

    by a Nightingale. In 1925 a new surrealist technique

    produced strange shapes by rubbing

    graphite on sheets of paper placed on floors, tiles,

    or bricks; called frottage, he later applied it to his

    paintings. He stopped using this style in 1930 and

    again turned to illusion and mythology.

    As was the case with other surrealist painters,

    Max Ernst left Germany for the United States,

    where he lived until 1953. After marrying and

    divorcing Peggy Guggenheim, an art collector and

    dealer, he moved to Arizona, with the American

    painter Dorothea Tanning, his fourth wife, where

    he painted landscapes. He returned to Paris in

    1953, and in 1954, at the Venice Biennale, Ernst

    received one of the greatest honors of the art

    world. After his death in 1976 major retrospectives

    exhibitions celebrated his achievements.

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