• GERMANIC MIGRATIONS AND
  • FRANKISH KINGDOM
  • JOHANNES REUCHLIN
  • THE WEIMAR CONSTITUTION
  • W
  • INFLATION, REPARATIONS, AND
  • THE STRESEMANN ERA, 19231929
  • STABILIZATION AND LOCARNO,
  • CULTURE AND SOCIETY
  • ROAD TO DICTATORSHIP,
  • T
  • CONSOLIDATION OF POWER
  • THE NAZI TOTAL STATE
  • ULRICH VON HUTTEN
  • PERSECUTION OF THE JEWS
  • RELIGION AND THE CHURCHES
  • FOREIGN POLICY
  • W
  • THE BATTLE OF BRITAIN
  • INVASION OF RUSSIA
  • HITLERS PLANS FOR EUROPE
  • TURNING OF THE TIDE,
  • THE HOME FRONT
  • THE RESISTANCE
  • PHILIP MELANCHTHON
  • D-DAY TO DEFEAT NAZI GERMANY
  • THE HOLOCAUST
  • A
  • ALLIED PLANS AND CONFERENCES
  • DENAZIFICATION
  • POLITICAL PARTIES AND TRADE
  • LOCAL STATE FORMATION
  • PARLIAMENTARY COUNCIL AND THE
  • ECONOMIC RECONSTRUCTION
  • T
  • ERASMUS OF ROTTERDAM
  • BUNDESTAG ELECTION AND
  • REGAINING SOVEREIGNTY AND INTEGRATION
  • RECONSTRUCTION AND THE ECONOMIC
  • TRANSITIONAL YEARS AND
  • THE GRAND COALITION AND YOUTH
  • THE SOCIAL-LIBERAL COALITION
  • OSTPOLITIK (FOREIGN POLICY
  • CULTURE AND SOCIETY
  • SOCIAL STRUCTURE
  • SCHMIDT ERA: SOCIAL UNREST,
  • PRINTING AND MEDICINE
  • THE KOHL ERA, 19821998
  • T
  • UPRISING OF JUNE 17, 1953
  • ECONOMIC SYSTEM
  • SOCIETY, EDUCATION, AND
  • RELATIONS WITH THE FEDERAL
  • R
  • CONSEQUENCES AND PROBLEMS OF
  • ECONOMIC UNIFICATION,
  • P
  • RENAISSANCE ART
  • UNIFICATION POLITICS AND ITS
  • FOREIGN POLICY
  • GOVERNMENT AND ELECTIONS,
  • HISTORICAL DICTIONARY A
  • A
  • Abwehr
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  • Afrika Korps
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  • Agrarian League
  • NEED FOR CHURCH REFORM
  • Agricola, Rudolf
  • Air Force
  • Albert (Albrecht) of
  • Albert V
  • Algeciras, Conference of
  • Allied Control Council
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  • Amiens, Battle of
  • Anabaptists
  • P
  • Anglo-German Naval Treaty
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  • Anti-Comintern Pact
  • anti-Semitism/Jew hatred
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  • Ardennes, Battle of the
  • Arendt, Hannah
  • Armed Forces (Wehrmacht)
  • Armed Forces (Bundeswehr):
  • LUTHER AND MELANCHTHON
  • Army (Prussian to 1860)
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  • Augsburg, Diet of
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  • LUTHER AND ZWINGLI
  • Auschwitz-Birkenau
  • Austerlitz, Battle of
  • Austria
  • Austrian Succession, War of
  • autarchy
  • autobahns
  • Axis, The
  • B
  • Baden-Württemberg
  • Ballin, Albert
  • CAROLINGIAN EMPIRE
  • KNIGHTS REVOLT AND GREAT
  • Barbie, Klaus
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  • Basic Treaty
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  • Bavaria
  • Bavarian Peoples Party (BVP)
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  • REFORMATION AND THE TOWNS
  • Bayer AG
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  • Bebel, August
  • Beck, Ludwig August Theodor
  • Beckmann, Max
  • Beer-Hall Putsch of 1923
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  • Benjamin, Walter
  • Benn, Gottfried
  • Bennigsen, Rudolf von
  • ANABAPTISM AND MÜNTZER
  • Benz, Carl Friedrich
  • Bergen-Belsen
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  • Berlin
  • Berlin, Battle for (Fall of)
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  • CALVINISM IN GERMANY
  • Bernstein, Eduard
  • Bethmann Hollweg, Theobald
  • Biedermeier
  • Biermann, Wolf
  • Bismarck, Otto Eduard Leopold
  • blank check
  • Bleichröder, Gerson von
  • Blenheim, Battle of
  • Blomberg, Werner von
  • Blücher, Gebhard
  • CHARLES V AND THE REFORMATION
  • Böll, Heinrich
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  • Bonn
  • Bormann, Martin
  • Born, Max
  • Borsig, August
  • Bosch, Robert
  • Bosnia-Herzegovina
  • Brahms, Johannes
  • Brandenburg
  • C
  • Brauchitsch, Walther von
  • Braun, Eva
  • Braun, Karl Ferdinand
  • Braun, Otto
  • Braun, Wernher von
  • Brecht, Bertolt
  • Bremen/Bremerhaven
  • Brentano, Elizabeth Bettina
  • Breslau
  • The Bridge
  • THE THIRTY YEARS WAR
  • Britain, Battle of
  • Brüning, Heinrich
  • Buchenwald
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  • Bundesrat
  • Bundestag
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  • C
  • Canisius, Peter
  • canton system
  • A
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  • Christian Democratic Union
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  • LITERATURE
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  • Clausewitz, Carl von
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  • MUSIC
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  • cultured elites
  • D
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  • Diplomatic Revolution of 1756
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  • GOTTFRIED WILHELM VON LEIBNIZ
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  • Dual Alliance
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  • Düsseldorf
  • E
  • Edict of Toleration
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  • PIETISM
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  • A
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  • euthanasia
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  • F
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  • feminism, 18151945
  • feminism, 19452005
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  • JOSEPH II AND REFORM
  • German Christians
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  • R
  • FREDERICK III
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  • FREDERICK THE GREAT
  • SEVEN YEARS WAR
  • S
  • ECONOMY
  • POLITICAL DECENTRALIZATION
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  • O
  • THE DANISH WAR, 1864
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  • THE FRANCO-PRUSSIAN WAR,
  • COLLAPSE OF THE SECOND FRENCH
  • I
  • N
  • ART AND ARCHITECTURE
  • ORIGINS OF CAPITALISM
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  • EDUCATION
  • T
  • POLITICAL PARTIES
  • THE KULTURKAMPF, SOCIALISM,
  • FOREIGN POLICY AND ALLIANCE
  • BISMARCKS DISMISSAL
  • WILHELMINE GERMANY
  • T
  • THE QUESTION OF
  • LATE MEDIEVAL CULTURE
  • CONDUCT OF THE WAR
  • PEACE RESOLUTION, REFORM, AND
  • AN UNPLANNED REVOLUTION
  • N
  • POLITICAL PARTIES UNPREPARED
  • A REVOLUTIONARY PATTERN
  • WORKERS AND SOLDIERS
  • KURT EISNER AND REVOLUTION IN
  • A REPUBLIC PROCLAIMED
  • A SEVERE ARMISTICE
  • T
  • ESTABLISHMENT OF A REVOLUTIONARY
  • EBERT MAKES A DEAL WITH THE
  • THE SPARTACISTS
  • INTERPRETATION OF THE
  • A VENGEFUL PEACE
  • V
  • THE GOALS OF THE PEACEMAKERS
  • TERMS OF THE TREATY
  • WAR GUILT AND REPARATIONS
  • DENUNCIATION AND RELUCTANT
  • GERMANIC MIGRATIONS AND
  • Erhard, Ludwig

    lang=EN-US style='font-size:10.5pt;font-family:"Meridien-Medium","serif"; color:black'>(18971977)

    economics minister and chancellor

    Ludwig Erhard was the father of the economic

    recovery of West Germany after WORLD WAR II.

    His neo-liberal economic policies combined with

    social-welfare programs, the Social Market

    Economy, led to the German ECONOMIC MIRACLE.

    He served as chancellor from 1963 to 1966.

    Ludwig Erhard was born on April 2, 1897, in

    Fürth, BAVARIA. He served as a sergeant in

    WORLD WAR I and was severely wounded. After

    the war he studied economics and sociology at

    the University of FRANKFURT, receiving his doctorate

    in 1924. After some years in business he

    went to work for the Institute for Economic

    Observation in NUREMBERG, and in 1942 he

    became head of Nurembergs Institute for Industrial

    Research. As a member of the Freiburg

    School under the inspiration of members of the

    Erhard, Ludwig 357

    German RESISTANCE (Martin NIEMOELLER and

    the CONFESSING CHURCH) he had studied how to

    restructure the centralized economic planning of

    the Nazi state. After the war he was placed in

    charge of industrial reconstruction in the

    Nuremberg-Fürth area, appointed economics

    minister in Bavaria later in 1945, and named

    professor of economic policy at the University of

    MUNICH. In 1947 he became chairman of the

    bizonal committee for money and credit in

    Frankfurt. The following year he initiated the

    elimination of price controls, and on June 20,

    1948, currency reform, which ended a controlled

    economy.

    His economic philosophy was neo-liberal,

    and the system he advocated was called a social

    market economy, which Americans can best

    understand as welfare-state capitalism. Erhard

    had to cooperate with the American demand for

    economic decentralization but also resist and

    convince the German political parties not to

    advocate a centrally planned economy. Although

    the SPD could not be convinced to alter its

    demand for state control of the economy, Erhard

    was able to convince Konrad ADENAUER of the

    CDU to create a free market economy with generous

    social programs. Erhard quickly became

    the main economic adviser to U.S. general

    Lucius D. Clay, the military governor of the U.S.

    zone, and advocated currency reform and the

    decontrol of prices. His philosophy of welfare

    state capitalism left capital and production in private

    hands, allowing market mechanisms to set

    price and wage levels. Profits, Erhard believed,

    provided the best incentive for productivity, and

    government intervention was advocated to

    assure an equitable distribution of wealth. In

    order to assure open and fair competition, the

    federal government attempted to combat cartels

    and other devices that restricted prices and production.

    By 1950 tax rates had generally been

    cut from 95 percent to 18 percent, and productivity

    quickly grew to prewar levels.

    Shortly before the first parliamentary election

    in 1949, Erhard joined the CDU and became the

    economics minister in the new Adenauer government.

    He held that post until 1963, when he

    replaced the aged chancellor, der Alte, in

    1963. Unlike the more authoritarian and distant

    Adenauer, Erhard tried to be a peoples chancellor

    with a more popular and direct contact

    with the people, which was not so successful as

    he hoped. His foreign minister, Gerhard

    SCHROEDER, pursued a foreign policy that promoted

    an easing of trade relations with Eastern

    bloc nations (196364). After his success in the

    elections of 1965 he sought to normalize relations

    with the Soviet zone countries of the WARSAW

    PACT. Erhard and Schroeder were termed

    Atlanticists for their support of strong ties with

    the United States and with NATO.

    It is interesting that the German electorate

    could not trust Erhard to lift the country out of

    the recession caused by the German economys

    transition from a production to a service economy.

    Since he could not overcome their fears of

    another depression crisis as in 1929, he had to

    resign his office on December 1, 1966. A year

    afterward he was named honorary chairman of

    the CDU. During his remaining years he enjoyed

    visiting professorships at Munich, BONN, and in

    the United States at Harvard and Columbia. He

    died at age 80 on May 5, 1977.

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