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  • JOHANNES REUCHLIN
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  • W
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  • T
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  • CONSEQUENCES AND PROBLEMS OF
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  • FOREIGN POLICY
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  • POLITICAL PARTIES UNPREPARED
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  • THE GOALS OF THE PEACEMAKERS
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  • DENUNCIATION AND RELUCTANT
  • GERMANIC MIGRATIONS AND
  • Engels, Friedrich

    lang=EN-US style='font-size:10.5pt;font-family:"Meridien-Medium","serif"; color:black'>(18201895)

    social theorist of Marxism

    Friedrich Engels cooperated with Karl MARX in

    the development of the theories of communism.

    They based their socialism and communism

    upon a materialist interpretation of the German

    philosopher Friedrich Wilhelm HEGEL.

    Engels, Friedrich 353

    Friedrich Engels was born on November 28,

    1820, in Barmen, PRUSSIA, in the Wupper valley

    of the Rhineland, a son of a wealthy textile manufacturer.

    His father was an authoritarian religious

    fanatic who believed in PIETISM. From

    elementary school he went to one of the best

    Gymnasiums in Prussia. It was traditional in the

    Engels family that sons should study law and

    enter the Prussian civil service. So he studied

    law for a while, but in 1837 he left to follow his

    fathers wishes to enter business. At the age of

    20 he left the business world for a while and performed

    his compulsory military service. Opposed

    to organized religion, he embraced the radical

    ideas of the young Hegelians, particularly the

    materialist philosophy of Ludwig FEUERBACH.

    Engelss mind was brilliant and incisive and possessed

    of a great facility in learning many languages.

    Throughout his life he developed an

    understanding of the natural sciences and was

    a specialist on military affairs.

    Working-class misery was one of the social

    forces that greatly concerned him. As a young

    boy he had witnessed the victims of capitalism

    being overworked in unhealthy and terrible

    working conditions. He again had the opportunity

    to view working conditions in England,

    which perhaps were worse than in Germany. In

    Manchester he went to work in a spinning factory

    in which his father was part owner. While

    there he studied classical economic writers such

    as Adam Smith and David Ricardo, and by the

    time he left Manchester in 1844 he had written

    his first important book, The Condition of the

    Working Class in England in 1844, published in

    German in 1845. It was a very accurate study for

    its time. Then in Paris he met Karl Marx for the

    second time, and because of their common

    beliefs they began a lifelong collaboration.

    Between 1845 and 1850 Engels lived in Germany,

    Belgium, and France, participating in revolutionary

    activities. In 184748 he and Marx

    collaborated in the publication of the Manifesto of

    the Communist Party. At the end of the REVOLUTION

    OF 1848 an uprising occurred in BADEN and

    the Palatinate, in which Engels participated.

    That failing, he escaped to England, where he

    returned to his fathers business in Manchester.

    In the ensuing years of his friendship with Marx,

    Engels provided him with money to continue his

    research. Until 1863 his first Irish mistress was

    Mary Burns, and thereafter until 1878 he lived

    with her sister, Lizzy, as his common-law wife.

    In 1864 his father died, leaving him a partner in

    the firm, from which he retired in 1869. He

    finally was able to support himself as a middleclass

    gentleman and provide Marx with a yearly

    sum of £350. In 1870 he moved to London,

    where he closely collaborated with Marx.

    In the 1870s he published a study of Germanys

    first revolution, The Peasant War in Germany

    (1870), and then his most important

    contribution to the study of socialist theory, Herr

    Eugen Dührings Revolution in Science (1878), ranking

    equally with Marxs Das Kapital. Engels was a

    materialist who believed that all political and

    social institutions are conditioned by economic

    facts, and that ways of life change with changing

    methods of production and distribution.

    Engels and Marx predicted that this dialectical

    process would end up in the overthrow of capitalism

    and the establishment of a communist

    society. Perhaps the most important thing he did

    after Marx died in 1883 was to publish volumes

    2 and 3 of Das Kapital from Marxs notes and

    manuscripts. Engels also clarified the concept of

    dialectical materialism, which had not been

    worked out by Marx. Other writings by Marxs

    lieutenant included The Development of Socialism

    from Utopia to Science (1882) and The Origins of the

    Family, Private Property and the State (1884), which

    provides a guide to the understanding of Marxist

    political theory. Finally, Engels interpreted the

    philosophy of Ludwig Feuerbach in Ludwig Feuerbach

    and the End of Classical German Philosophy,

    published in 1888. Afflicted by cancer, Engels

    died on August 5, 1895.

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