• GERMANIC MIGRATIONS AND
  • FRANKISH KINGDOM
  • JOHANNES REUCHLIN
  • THE WEIMAR CONSTITUTION
  • W
  • INFLATION, REPARATIONS, AND
  • THE STRESEMANN ERA, 19231929
  • STABILIZATION AND LOCARNO,
  • CULTURE AND SOCIETY
  • ROAD TO DICTATORSHIP,
  • T
  • CONSOLIDATION OF POWER
  • THE NAZI TOTAL STATE
  • ULRICH VON HUTTEN
  • PERSECUTION OF THE JEWS
  • RELIGION AND THE CHURCHES
  • FOREIGN POLICY
  • W
  • THE BATTLE OF BRITAIN
  • INVASION OF RUSSIA
  • HITLERS PLANS FOR EUROPE
  • TURNING OF THE TIDE,
  • THE HOME FRONT
  • THE RESISTANCE
  • PHILIP MELANCHTHON
  • D-DAY TO DEFEAT NAZI GERMANY
  • THE HOLOCAUST
  • A
  • ALLIED PLANS AND CONFERENCES
  • DENAZIFICATION
  • POLITICAL PARTIES AND TRADE
  • LOCAL STATE FORMATION
  • PARLIAMENTARY COUNCIL AND THE
  • ECONOMIC RECONSTRUCTION
  • T
  • ERASMUS OF ROTTERDAM
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  • OSTPOLITIK (FOREIGN POLICY
  • CULTURE AND SOCIETY
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  • SCHMIDT ERA: SOCIAL UNREST,
  • PRINTING AND MEDICINE
  • THE KOHL ERA, 19821998
  • T
  • UPRISING OF JUNE 17, 1953
  • ECONOMIC SYSTEM
  • SOCIETY, EDUCATION, AND
  • RELATIONS WITH THE FEDERAL
  • R
  • CONSEQUENCES AND PROBLEMS OF
  • ECONOMIC UNIFICATION,
  • P
  • RENAISSANCE ART
  • UNIFICATION POLITICS AND ITS
  • FOREIGN POLICY
  • GOVERNMENT AND ELECTIONS,
  • HISTORICAL DICTIONARY A
  • A
  • Abwehr
  • Adenauer, Konrad
  • Afrika Korps
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  • Agrarian League
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  • Agricola, Rudolf
  • Air Force
  • Albert (Albrecht) of
  • Albert V
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  • Amiens, Battle of
  • Anabaptists
  • P
  • Anglo-German Naval Treaty
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  • Anti-Comintern Pact
  • anti-Semitism/Jew hatred
  • anti-Semitism
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  • Ardennes, Battle of the
  • Arendt, Hannah
  • Armed Forces (Wehrmacht)
  • Armed Forces (Bundeswehr):
  • LUTHER AND MELANCHTHON
  • Army (Prussian to 1860)
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  • Augsburg, Diet of
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  • LUTHER AND ZWINGLI
  • Auschwitz-Birkenau
  • Austerlitz, Battle of
  • Austria
  • Austrian Succession, War of
  • autarchy
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  • Axis, The
  • B
  • Baden-Württemberg
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  • CAROLINGIAN EMPIRE
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  • Bavaria
  • Bavarian Peoples Party (BVP)
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  • Beckmann, Max
  • Beer-Hall Putsch of 1923
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  • ANABAPTISM AND MÜNTZER
  • Benz, Carl Friedrich
  • Bergen-Belsen
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  • Berlin, Battle for (Fall of)
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  • CALVINISM IN GERMANY
  • Bernstein, Eduard
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  • Biedermeier
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  • Bismarck, Otto Eduard Leopold
  • blank check
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  • CHARLES V AND THE REFORMATION
  • Böll, Heinrich
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  • Bormann, Martin
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  • Borsig, August
  • Bosch, Robert
  • Bosnia-Herzegovina
  • Brahms, Johannes
  • Brandenburg
  • C
  • Brauchitsch, Walther von
  • Braun, Eva
  • Braun, Karl Ferdinand
  • Braun, Otto
  • Braun, Wernher von
  • Brecht, Bertolt
  • Bremen/Bremerhaven
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  • Breslau
  • The Bridge
  • THE THIRTY YEARS WAR
  • Britain, Battle of
  • Brüning, Heinrich
  • Buchenwald
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  • Bundesrat
  • Bundestag
  • Burschenschaft
  • C
  • Canisius, Peter
  • canton system
  • A
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  • LITERATURE
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  • Clausewitz, Carl von
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  • cultured elites
  • D
  • Daimler, Gottlieb
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  • Diplomatic Revolution of 1756
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  • GOTTFRIED WILHELM VON LEIBNIZ
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  • E
  • Edict of Toleration
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  • PIETISM
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  • A
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  • F
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  • German Christians
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  • R
  • FREDERICK III
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  • FREDERICK THE GREAT
  • SEVEN YEARS WAR
  • S
  • ECONOMY
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  • O
  • THE DANISH WAR, 1864
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  • I
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  • BISMARCKS DISMISSAL
  • WILHELMINE GERMANY
  • T
  • THE QUESTION OF
  • LATE MEDIEVAL CULTURE
  • CONDUCT OF THE WAR
  • PEACE RESOLUTION, REFORM, AND
  • AN UNPLANNED REVOLUTION
  • N
  • POLITICAL PARTIES UNPREPARED
  • A REVOLUTIONARY PATTERN
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  • KURT EISNER AND REVOLUTION IN
  • A REPUBLIC PROCLAIMED
  • A SEVERE ARMISTICE
  • T
  • ESTABLISHMENT OF A REVOLUTIONARY
  • EBERT MAKES A DEAL WITH THE
  • THE SPARTACISTS
  • INTERPRETATION OF THE
  • A VENGEFUL PEACE
  • V
  • THE GOALS OF THE PEACEMAKERS
  • TERMS OF THE TREATY
  • WAR GUILT AND REPARATIONS
  • DENUNCIATION AND RELUCTANT
  • GERMANIC MIGRATIONS AND
  • El Alamein, Battles of

    lang=EN-US style='font-size:10.5pt;font-family:"Meridien-Medium","serif"; color:black'>(July 1942,

    October/November 1942)

    A desert railway halt about 60 miles west of

    Alexandria became the location of a major turning

    point in World War II, where the German

    army called the AFRIKA KORPS under the leadership

    of General Erwin ROMMEL (the Desert Fox)

    lost two battles to the British forces. The two battles

    at El Alamein were part of a German effort

    to save the Italian campaign against the British in

    North Africa, which had begun in September

    1940, but by January 1941 the Italians were in

    retreat. Rommel and the Afrika Korps were sent

    by HITLER to Libya to lead the combined Italian-

    German forces. Rommel pushed the British to

    the Egyptian frontier by the end of May, but then

    because of insufficient troops and supplies he

    was stopped in July at El Alamein by British general

    Auchinleck. Stopping the Germans provided

    time for the Allies to reinforce their forces with

    thousands of new tanks, planes, and soldiers.

    Also to the British advantage was the appointment

    of new leadership under Generals Alexander

    and Montgomery. Rommel, on the other

    hand, was not adequately reinforced because of

    Hitlers preparations to invade the Soviet Union.

    Extensively reorganizing and equipping his

    army, General Montgomery waited with his

    counteroffensive until October 23, 1942. Short

    of supplies and men, Rommel planned a defensive

    campaign, laying an extensive minefield.

    Unfortunately for the Germans, he returned to

    Germany for medical treatment. The British had

    overwhelming superiority of men and equipment

    and knowledge of German plans through

    the ULTRA intelligence system, and the second

    battle began with a horrific artillery barrage. The

    British eventually succeeded in penetrating the

    German defenses. Rommel quickly returned to

    Africa by plane and planned a counteroffensive,

    which failed. He began his withdrawal on

    November 23, 1942. Another significance of

    the battle was the beginning of Rommels disillusionment

    with Hitlers refusal of his request to

    retreat in order to save his men. Hitler insisted

    on victory or death. Less than a week after the

    reversal at El Alamein the Allies invaded North

    Africa. The loss of the Battle of El Alamein cost

    the AXIS some 50,000 men, about 30,000 captured,

    while the British lost about 13,500.

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