• GERMANIC MIGRATIONS AND
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  • JOHANNES REUCHLIN
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  • W
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  • STABILIZATION AND LOCARNO,
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  • ROAD TO DICTATORSHIP,
  • T
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  • THE HOLOCAUST
  • A
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  • T
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  • P
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  • FOREIGN POLICY
  • GOVERNMENT AND ELECTIONS,
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  • THE SPARTACISTS
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  • A VENGEFUL PEACE
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  • THE GOALS OF THE PEACEMAKERS
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  • WAR GUILT AND REPARATIONS
  • DENUNCIATION AND RELUCTANT
  • GERMANIC MIGRATIONS AND
  • SAXON AND SALIAN DYNASTIES,

    9191125

    The transition from the East Franconian kingdom to the German Empire (Reich)

    occurred when the first German king, the Franconian duke Conrad I, was

    elected in 911. The high nobility (magnates) elected the monarch, but he had

    to be a blood relative of his predecessor. There was no capital city. It was a

    mobile monarchy with the king moving from place to place administering justice

    and making laws. Imperial estates were the source of the royal income.

    Sometimes, powerful tribal dukes challenged his authority. Conrads successor,

    the powerful duke of Saxony, Henry the Fowler (known for his falconry), was

    elected king Henry I (919936), ruler of the kingdom of the Germans (Regnum

    Teutonicorum). This first distinctly German dynasty was called the Saxon or

    Ottonian, so named on account of his successor, Otto I (936973). The Saxon

    dynasty ruled with the support of a powerful military aristocracy and the

    church, over which Henry had asserted his authority. Otto used his power over

    the church as a counterweight against the powerful dukes. While Henry had

    succeeded in defending the kingdom against the invading Magyars, both he and

    Otto were successful in forging alliances and exercising their authority. With

    Ottos coronation in Rome in 962, the German kings could claim the unique

    title of Emperor unifying the German monarchy and the Roman Empire.

    From the coronation of Otto I in 962 to the death of Henry III in 1056 the

    papacy was dominated by the German rulers. Emperors such as Otto III (r.

    9831002) and Henry III (r. 103956) supported reform within the church,

    which helped lay the foundation for the later papal resurgence. The dynamic

    reform pope, Leo IX (r. 104954), became pope with the support of Henry III,

    promoting regional synods opposed to the selling of church offices and clerical

    marriage. The control of the church was, however, lost by his successor Henry

    IV (10561106). The reform pope Nicholas II in the Lateran decree of 1059

    established the College of Cardinals, which henceforth instead of the emperor

    was to select the pope. Henrys conflict with Pope Gregory VII (r. 107385)

    occurred over the popes prohibition of the appointment of bishops and other

    church officials by lay officials. The separation of church and state was opposed

    by the emperor and resulted in his excommunication, penance at Canossa

    (1077), and surrender of his authority over the church. The outcome of the

    Investiture Controversy was the Concordat of Worms (1122), which allowed

    Henry V to influence the selection of only the German but not Italian higher

    clergy. The church was the winner in this struggle, because the German prelates

    were able to exercise their independence.

    Tribal Origins and the Middle Ages 7

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