• GERMANIC MIGRATIONS AND
  • FRANKISH KINGDOM
  • JOHANNES REUCHLIN
  • THE WEIMAR CONSTITUTION
  • W
  • INFLATION, REPARATIONS, AND
  • THE STRESEMANN ERA, 19231929
  • STABILIZATION AND LOCARNO,
  • CULTURE AND SOCIETY
  • ROAD TO DICTATORSHIP,
  • T
  • CONSOLIDATION OF POWER
  • THE NAZI TOTAL STATE
  • ULRICH VON HUTTEN
  • PERSECUTION OF THE JEWS
  • RELIGION AND THE CHURCHES
  • FOREIGN POLICY
  • W
  • THE BATTLE OF BRITAIN
  • INVASION OF RUSSIA
  • HITLERS PLANS FOR EUROPE
  • TURNING OF THE TIDE,
  • THE HOME FRONT
  • THE RESISTANCE
  • PHILIP MELANCHTHON
  • D-DAY TO DEFEAT NAZI GERMANY
  • THE HOLOCAUST
  • A
  • ALLIED PLANS AND CONFERENCES
  • DENAZIFICATION
  • POLITICAL PARTIES AND TRADE
  • LOCAL STATE FORMATION
  • PARLIAMENTARY COUNCIL AND THE
  • ECONOMIC RECONSTRUCTION
  • T
  • ERASMUS OF ROTTERDAM
  • BUNDESTAG ELECTION AND
  • REGAINING SOVEREIGNTY AND INTEGRATION
  • RECONSTRUCTION AND THE ECONOMIC
  • TRANSITIONAL YEARS AND
  • THE GRAND COALITION AND YOUTH
  • THE SOCIAL-LIBERAL COALITION
  • OSTPOLITIK (FOREIGN POLICY
  • CULTURE AND SOCIETY
  • SOCIAL STRUCTURE
  • SCHMIDT ERA: SOCIAL UNREST,
  • PRINTING AND MEDICINE
  • THE KOHL ERA, 19821998
  • T
  • UPRISING OF JUNE 17, 1953
  • ECONOMIC SYSTEM
  • SOCIETY, EDUCATION, AND
  • RELATIONS WITH THE FEDERAL
  • R
  • CONSEQUENCES AND PROBLEMS OF
  • ECONOMIC UNIFICATION,
  • P
  • RENAISSANCE ART
  • UNIFICATION POLITICS AND ITS
  • FOREIGN POLICY
  • GOVERNMENT AND ELECTIONS,
  • HISTORICAL DICTIONARY A
  • A
  • Abwehr
  • Adenauer, Konrad
  • Afrika Korps
  • Agadir Incident
  • Agrarian League
  • NEED FOR CHURCH REFORM
  • Agricola, Rudolf
  • Air Force
  • Albert (Albrecht) of
  • Albert V
  • Algeciras, Conference of
  • Allied Control Council
  • Alsace-Lorraine
  • Altdorfer, Albrecht
  • Amiens, Battle of
  • Anabaptists
  • P
  • Anglo-German Naval Treaty
  • Anschluss
  • Anti-Comintern Pact
  • anti-Semitism/Jew hatred
  • anti-Semitism
  • Anti-Socialist Law
  • Ardennes, Battle of the
  • Arendt, Hannah
  • Armed Forces (Wehrmacht)
  • Armed Forces (Bundeswehr):
  • LUTHER AND MELANCHTHON
  • Army (Prussian to 1860)
  • Army (Second Empire,
  • Asylum Law
  • Atlantic, Battle of the
  • Auerstadt, Battle of
  • Augsburg, Diet of
  • Augsburg, Religious Peace of
  • Augsburg, War of the League
  • Augsburg Confession
  • Augspurg, Anita
  • LUTHER AND ZWINGLI
  • Auschwitz-Birkenau
  • Austerlitz, Battle of
  • Austria
  • Austrian Succession, War of
  • autarchy
  • autobahns
  • Axis, The
  • B
  • Baden-Württemberg
  • Ballin, Albert
  • CAROLINGIAN EMPIRE
  • KNIGHTS REVOLT AND GREAT
  • Barbie, Klaus
  • Barmen Declaration
  • Barth, Karl
  • Basic Treaty
  • Bauernschutz
  • Bauhaus
  • Baumer, Gertrud
  • Bavaria
  • Bavarian Peoples Party (BVP)
  • Bavarian Succession, War of
  • REFORMATION AND THE TOWNS
  • Bayer AG
  • Bayreuth
  • Bebel, August
  • Beck, Ludwig August Theodor
  • Beckmann, Max
  • Beer-Hall Putsch of 1923
  • Beethoven, Ludwig van
  • Benjamin, Walter
  • Benn, Gottfried
  • Bennigsen, Rudolf von
  • ANABAPTISM AND MÜNTZER
  • Benz, Carl Friedrich
  • Bergen-Belsen
  • Berghof
  • Berlin
  • Berlin, Battle for (Fall of)
  • Berlin, Congress of
  • Berlin-Baghdad Railway
  • Berlin Blockade
  • Berlin Conference
  • Berlin Wall
  • CALVINISM IN GERMANY
  • Bernstein, Eduard
  • Bethmann Hollweg, Theobald
  • Biedermeier
  • Biermann, Wolf
  • Bismarck, Otto Eduard Leopold
  • blank check
  • Bleichröder, Gerson von
  • Blenheim, Battle of
  • Blomberg, Werner von
  • Blücher, Gebhard
  • CHARLES V AND THE REFORMATION
  • Böll, Heinrich
  • Bonhoeffer, Dietrich
  • Bonn
  • Bormann, Martin
  • Born, Max
  • Borsig, August
  • Bosch, Robert
  • Bosnia-Herzegovina
  • Brahms, Johannes
  • Brandenburg
  • C
  • Brauchitsch, Walther von
  • Braun, Eva
  • Braun, Karl Ferdinand
  • Braun, Otto
  • Braun, Wernher von
  • Brecht, Bertolt
  • Bremen/Bremerhaven
  • Brentano, Elizabeth Bettina
  • Breslau
  • The Bridge
  • THE THIRTY YEARS WAR
  • Britain, Battle of
  • Brüning, Heinrich
  • Buchenwald
  • Bülow, Bernhard von
  • Bundesrat
  • Bundestag
  • Burschenschaft
  • C
  • Canisius, Peter
  • canton system
  • A
  • Carlsbad Decrees
  • Celtis, Conrad
  • Center Party
  • Chamberlain, Houston Stewart
  • Charles V
  • Charles VI
  • Charles VII
  • Charlottenburg, Palace of
  • Christian Democratic Union
  • Christian Social Union
  • LITERATURE
  • Civil Code, German (Revised
  • Clausewitz, Carl von
  • Concordat of 1933
  • Condor Legion
  • The Confederation of the Rhine was a
  • Confessing Church
  • Congress of Vienna
  • conservatism
  • constitutional traditions
  • Counter-Reformation
  • MUSIC
  • Cranach, Lucas, the Elder
  • cultured elites
  • D
  • Daimler, Gottlieb
  • Danish War
  • Danzig
  • Dawes Plan
  • D-Banks
  • D-Day
  • Degenerate Art
  • SAXON AND SALIAN DYNASTIES,
  • SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION
  • denazification
  • Denck, Hans
  • Depression, The Great
  • Depressions
  • détente
  • Diesel, Rudolf
  • Dietrich, Josef Sepp
  • Diplomatic Revolution of 1756
  • Dix, Otto
  • Döblin, Alfred
  • GOTTFRIED WILHELM VON LEIBNIZ
  • Dönitz, Karl
  • Dresden
  • Droste-Hülshoff, Annette
  • Dual Alliance
  • Dürer, Albrecht
  • Düsseldorf
  • E
  • Edict of Toleration
  • Ehrlich, Paul
  • Eichendorff, Joseph von
  • PIETISM
  • Eichmann, Adolf
  • Eicke, Theodor
  • Einsatzgruppen
  • Einstein, Albert
  • Eisner, Kurt
  • El Alamein, Battles of
  • Elbe River
  • Ems Telegram
  • Enabling Act
  • Engels, Friedrich
  • ROCOCO
  • ENIGMA/ULTRA
  • Enlightenment
  • Erasmus, Desiderius
  • Erfurt Program
  • Erhard, Ludwig
  • Ernst, Max
  • Erzberger, Matthias
  • Eugene, prince of Savoy
  • European Coal and Steel
  • European Defense Community
  • A
  • European Economic Community
  • European Union
  • euthanasia
  • expressionism
  • Falkenhayn, Erich von
  • F
  • Fatherland Party
  • Federal Constitutional Court
  • Federal Republic of Germany
  • Federation of German Industry
  • TURKISH WARS
  • Federation of German Womens
  • feminism, 18151945
  • feminism, 19452005
  • Ferdinand II
  • Feuerbach, Ludwig Andreas
  • Fichte, Johann Gottlieb
  • Final Solution
  • Fischer, Josef Joschka
  • Fischer von Erlach, John
  • Fontane, Theodor
  • WARS OF AUSTRIAN SUCCESSION
  • Four Year Plan
  • Francis II
  • Frank, Anne
  • Frank, Hans
  • Frankfurt am Main
  • Frankfurt Parliament
  • Frederick I
  • Frederick II, The Great
  • Frederick III
  • Frederick III, The Wise
  • STATE REFORMS
  • Frederick William
  • Frederick William I
  • Frederick William II
  • Frederick William III
  • Frederick William IV
  • Free Corps
  • Free Democratic Party
  • Freemasonry/Illuminati
  • French Revolutionary Wars
  • Freytag, Gustav
  • FOREIGN POLICY AND KAUNITZ
  • Friedrich, Caspar David
  • Fritsch, Werner von
  • Fugger, Jacob the Rich
  • Führerprinzip
  • G
  • Galen, Clemens August von
  • Gellert, Christian
  • General Directory
  • Genscher, Hans-Dietrich
  • Gentz, Friedrich
  • JOSEPH II AND REFORM
  • German Christians
  • German Communist Party
  • German Confederation
  • German Conservative Party
  • German Democratic Party
  • German Democratic Republic
  • German Labor Front
  • German National Peoples
  • German Peoples Party
  • German Progressive Party
  • HOHENSTAUFEN DYNASTY,
  • VIENNA AND ARCHITECTURE
  • German Reich (Imperial) Party
  • German Womens Bureau
  • German Workers Party
  • Germany Treaty
  • R
  • FREDERICK III
  • FREDERICK WILLIAM I, THE
  • FREDERICK THE GREAT
  • SEVEN YEARS WAR
  • S
  • ECONOMY
  • POLITICAL DECENTRALIZATION
  • SOCIAL STRUCTURE
  • HABSBURG DYNASTY
  • CULTURE
  • THE ENLIGHTENMENT
  • LITERATURE AND DRAMA
  • PHILOSOPHY
  • SECRET SOCIETIES
  • T
  • R
  • THE ROMANTIC MOVEMENT
  • NATIONALISM AND LIBERALISM
  • EARLY INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
  • CITIES AND CRAFT GUILDS
  • REVOLUTIONS OF 1848
  • ARMY REFORM AND PARLIAMENTARY
  • O
  • THE DANISH WAR, 1864
  • AUSTRO-PRUSSIAN WAR, 1866
  • THE FRANCO-PRUSSIAN WAR,
  • COLLAPSE OF THE SECOND FRENCH
  • I
  • N
  • ART AND ARCHITECTURE
  • ORIGINS OF CAPITALISM
  • SOCIAL STRUCTURE AND WOMEN
  • EDUCATION
  • T
  • POLITICAL PARTIES
  • THE KULTURKAMPF, SOCIALISM,
  • FOREIGN POLICY AND ALLIANCE
  • BISMARCKS DISMISSAL
  • WILHELMINE GERMANY
  • T
  • THE QUESTION OF
  • LATE MEDIEVAL CULTURE
  • CONDUCT OF THE WAR
  • PEACE RESOLUTION, REFORM, AND
  • AN UNPLANNED REVOLUTION
  • N
  • POLITICAL PARTIES UNPREPARED
  • A REVOLUTIONARY PATTERN
  • WORKERS AND SOLDIERS
  • KURT EISNER AND REVOLUTION IN
  • A REPUBLIC PROCLAIMED
  • A SEVERE ARMISTICE
  • T
  • ESTABLISHMENT OF A REVOLUTIONARY
  • EBERT MAKES A DEAL WITH THE
  • THE SPARTACISTS
  • INTERPRETATION OF THE
  • A VENGEFUL PEACE
  • V
  • THE GOALS OF THE PEACEMAKERS
  • TERMS OF THE TREATY
  • WAR GUILT AND REPARATIONS
  • DENUNCIATION AND RELUCTANT
  • GERMANIC MIGRATIONS AND
  • Counter-Reformation

    (Catholic Reform)

    The Catholic Counter-Reformation was the

    response of the Catholic Church to the Protestant

    REFORMATION. Although it had roots in a

    renewed Catholic faith and piety, especially in

    Spain, it was mainly accomplished through the

    establishment of new religious orders such as

    the JESUITS and the meetings and reforms of the

    COUNCIL OF TRENT.

    The need for church reform was evident to

    many Catholics during the century prior to the

    320 Counter-Reformation

    protests of Martin LUTHER. Above all, in the countries

    that were untouched by the waves of Protestant

    reform (Italy, Portugal, Spain, Poland,

    Ireland, and especially in Spain), ecclesiastical

    reform had first been initiated. The leader of the

    Spanish reform movement was Ximenes de Cisneros

    (14361517), the archbishop of Toledo

    (14951517), who became a cardinal in 1507.

    Through his connections with Ferdinand and

    Isabella he was able to reform the Catholic Church

    in Spain. Like many humanists he believed that

    the reform should be accomplished through the

    established church, which inspired the Catholic

    reform movements in other countries.

    Especially important in the process of reform

    was the creation of new religious orders. Devout

    individuals desired to create brotherhoods and

    sisterhoods to revive Christian piety among the

    masses. The first was the Theatines founded in

    1524, which aimed at influencing those in the

    church hierarchy. One of its founders was

    Bishop Carafa, the future Pope Paul IV. Another

    new religious order was the Capuchins, which

    sought to carry out the ascetic and charitable

    ideals of St. Francis. Another order, the Barnabites,

    was intended to help people in the wartorn

    areas of Italy. For women there was the

    new order of the Ursulines founded in 1535,

    whose purpose it was to educate girls from all

    social classes. The Oratorians were founded as

    an elite order of clergy to promote church music

    and religious literature. Mystics such as Saint

    Theresa of Avila and Saint John of the Cross also

    appeared and inspired the revival of mystical

    piety. Most of all, there were the Jesuits, a religious

    order that next to the Council of Trent was

    the most instrumental in the success of the

    Counter-Reformation. It was founded by Ignatius

    of Loyola (14911556), who had undergone a

    profound religious conversion. He and his companions

    offered their services to the pope and

    promised their obedience as soldiers of Christ.

    In June 1539 the Society of Jesus was formally

    instituted. By the time Ignatius died, his foundation

    comprised 58 colleges and numerous

    seminaries. The first companions of Ignatius had

    received a humanistic education during their

    years of study in Paris, and they retained their

    high respect for the principles of liberal education,

    which was handed down to their successors.

    During the lifetime of Ignatius houses of

    study were established in most of the larger

    cities of Europe and in all the centers of academic

    learning.

    coup of July 20, 1944

    After repeated assassination attempts, Colonel

    Claus von STAUFFENBERG in what was named

    Operation Valkyrie, succeeded in smuggling a

    bomb into Adolf HITLERs East Prussian headquarters,

    the Wolfs Lair. The bomb exploded but

    failed to kill Hitler, and the conspiracy collapsed.

    After 1941 the military opposition to Hitler

    was joined by younger officers, including

    Colonel Stauffenberg, a relative of Count Peter

    Yorck von Wartenburg of the resistance group

    known as the KREISAU CIRCLE. Stauffenberg

    had been slower than others to liberate himself

    from his fascination for National Socialism but

    finally opposed Hitler and his policies; he

    believed that the primary goal of the resistance

    should be the assassination of Hitler and the

    overthrow of the Nazi regime. Stauffenberg

    created an extensive circle of younger officers

    who supported him, and some generals such as

    Friedrich Olbricht, chief of the Army Office in

    BERLIN, and General Henning von Tresckow.

    Since 1938 Olbricht had been a leader in the

    military opposition to Hitler. The conspirators

    planned to place pro-coup officers in army

    commands in Germany so that leaders of the

    NAZI PARTY and the SS in the major German

    cities could be seized the day Hitler was assassinated.

    Since no frontline commanders supported

    the coup, the main support had to be

    the conspirators in Berlin. Even before the BATTLE

    OF STALINGRAD Stauffenberg obtained the

    cooperation of Field Marshal Witzleben to head

    the military operation after the assassination.

    But by the beginning of 1944 the plotters grew

    anxious because the GESTAPO was breaking up

    the opposition, especially the Kreisau Circle led

    by Count Moltke. In addition, the important

    coup of July 20, 1944 321

    intelligence division, the ABWEHR, was discounted

    as Admiral Canaris was dismissed in

    February 1944.

    With the invasion of Normandy in June

    1944, the conspirators realized they had to act.

    Field Marshal ROMMEL and General von Stülpnagel,

    the army commander in France, were

    added to the conspiracy. It was lucky that Stauffenberg

    had been promoted, which gave him

    access to Hitlers military conferences. On July

    11 and 15 Stauffenberg had failed in two

    attempts to kill Hitler. On July 20 Stauffenberg

    finally was successful in smuggling a bomb into

    Hitlers headquarters in Rastenburg. Stauffenberg

    had only part of one hand to arm the

    bombs; the other he had lost plus an eye when

    an allied plane had wounded him in April 1943.

    Stauffenberg was interrupted in the arming process,

    so only one bomb was ready. Nonetheless,

    he proceeded to the meeting and placed the

    bomb close to Hitler. Stauffenberg excused himself

    to make a telephone call. While four others

    died, Hitler, although injured, escaped because

    the force of the bomb was deflected by a large

    oak table, and the wooden walls of the building

    weakened the effects of the blast. If the meeting

    had been held in Hitlers bunker, the blast surely

    would have killed him. Stauffenberg flew off to

    Berlin to carry out the coup, not knowing that

    Hitler had not been killed. At the War Ministry

    in Berlin General Witzleben, the new supreme

    commander of the army, ordered that Nazi officials

    were to be arrested and SS offices seized.

    Conspirators in Paris, Vienna, and Prague started

    their coup plans. Even after hearing that Hitler

    had survived, Stauffenberg desperately tried to

    bring higher-ranking officers over to the side of

    the coup. Only when Hitlers voice was heard on

    the radio did Operation Valkyrie collapse. That

    very night Colonel Stauffenberg, Albrecht Mertz

    von Quirnheim, and Werner von Haeften were

    shot. General Ludwig BECK was forced to commit

    suicide, and Field Marshal Rommel, because

    of his popularity, was allowed to commit suicide

    and given an official funeral. In the following

    hours and days the Gestapo made some 7,000

    arrests and tortured prisoners to gain information.

    The Peoples Court under Roland Freisler

    conducted mock trials. About 5,000 were executed,

    and overall some 10,000 members of the

    resistance became martyrs to the Nazi regime.

    were   GERMANC   Germany   Party   their   Prussians   army   state   government   became   they   during   Austrian   CHURCHES   French   political   Frederick   Nazis   Social   Hitler   after   against   economic   some   republican