• GERMANIC MIGRATIONS AND
  • FRANKISH KINGDOM
  • JOHANNES REUCHLIN
  • THE WEIMAR CONSTITUTION
  • W
  • INFLATION, REPARATIONS, AND
  • THE STRESEMANN ERA, 19231929
  • STABILIZATION AND LOCARNO,
  • CULTURE AND SOCIETY
  • ROAD TO DICTATORSHIP,
  • T
  • CONSOLIDATION OF POWER
  • THE NAZI TOTAL STATE
  • ULRICH VON HUTTEN
  • PERSECUTION OF THE JEWS
  • RELIGION AND THE CHURCHES
  • FOREIGN POLICY
  • W
  • THE BATTLE OF BRITAIN
  • INVASION OF RUSSIA
  • HITLERS PLANS FOR EUROPE
  • TURNING OF THE TIDE,
  • THE HOME FRONT
  • THE RESISTANCE
  • PHILIP MELANCHTHON
  • D-DAY TO DEFEAT NAZI GERMANY
  • THE HOLOCAUST
  • A
  • ALLIED PLANS AND CONFERENCES
  • DENAZIFICATION
  • POLITICAL PARTIES AND TRADE
  • LOCAL STATE FORMATION
  • PARLIAMENTARY COUNCIL AND THE
  • ECONOMIC RECONSTRUCTION
  • T
  • ERASMUS OF ROTTERDAM
  • BUNDESTAG ELECTION AND
  • REGAINING SOVEREIGNTY AND INTEGRATION
  • RECONSTRUCTION AND THE ECONOMIC
  • TRANSITIONAL YEARS AND
  • THE GRAND COALITION AND YOUTH
  • THE SOCIAL-LIBERAL COALITION
  • OSTPOLITIK (FOREIGN POLICY
  • CULTURE AND SOCIETY
  • SOCIAL STRUCTURE
  • SCHMIDT ERA: SOCIAL UNREST,
  • PRINTING AND MEDICINE
  • THE KOHL ERA, 19821998
  • T
  • UPRISING OF JUNE 17, 1953
  • ECONOMIC SYSTEM
  • SOCIETY, EDUCATION, AND
  • RELATIONS WITH THE FEDERAL
  • R
  • CONSEQUENCES AND PROBLEMS OF
  • ECONOMIC UNIFICATION,
  • P
  • RENAISSANCE ART
  • UNIFICATION POLITICS AND ITS
  • FOREIGN POLICY
  • GOVERNMENT AND ELECTIONS,
  • HISTORICAL DICTIONARY A
  • A
  • Abwehr
  • Adenauer, Konrad
  • Afrika Korps
  • Agadir Incident
  • Agrarian League
  • NEED FOR CHURCH REFORM
  • Agricola, Rudolf
  • Air Force
  • Albert (Albrecht) of
  • Albert V
  • Algeciras, Conference of
  • Allied Control Council
  • Alsace-Lorraine
  • Altdorfer, Albrecht
  • Amiens, Battle of
  • Anabaptists
  • P
  • Anglo-German Naval Treaty
  • Anschluss
  • Anti-Comintern Pact
  • anti-Semitism/Jew hatred
  • anti-Semitism
  • Anti-Socialist Law
  • Ardennes, Battle of the
  • Arendt, Hannah
  • Armed Forces (Wehrmacht)
  • Armed Forces (Bundeswehr):
  • LUTHER AND MELANCHTHON
  • Army (Prussian to 1860)
  • Army (Second Empire,
  • Asylum Law
  • Atlantic, Battle of the
  • Auerstadt, Battle of
  • Augsburg, Diet of
  • Augsburg, Religious Peace of
  • Augsburg, War of the League
  • Augsburg Confession
  • Augspurg, Anita
  • LUTHER AND ZWINGLI
  • Auschwitz-Birkenau
  • Austerlitz, Battle of
  • Austria
  • Austrian Succession, War of
  • autarchy
  • autobahns
  • Axis, The
  • B
  • Baden-Württemberg
  • Ballin, Albert
  • CAROLINGIAN EMPIRE
  • KNIGHTS REVOLT AND GREAT
  • Barbie, Klaus
  • Barmen Declaration
  • Barth, Karl
  • Basic Treaty
  • Bauernschutz
  • Bauhaus
  • Baumer, Gertrud
  • Bavaria
  • Bavarian Peoples Party (BVP)
  • Bavarian Succession, War of
  • REFORMATION AND THE TOWNS
  • Bayer AG
  • Bayreuth
  • Bebel, August
  • Beck, Ludwig August Theodor
  • Beckmann, Max
  • Beer-Hall Putsch of 1923
  • Beethoven, Ludwig van
  • Benjamin, Walter
  • Benn, Gottfried
  • Bennigsen, Rudolf von
  • ANABAPTISM AND MÜNTZER
  • Benz, Carl Friedrich
  • Bergen-Belsen
  • Berghof
  • Berlin
  • Berlin, Battle for (Fall of)
  • Berlin, Congress of
  • Berlin-Baghdad Railway
  • Berlin Blockade
  • Berlin Conference
  • Berlin Wall
  • CALVINISM IN GERMANY
  • Bernstein, Eduard
  • Bethmann Hollweg, Theobald
  • Biedermeier
  • Biermann, Wolf
  • Bismarck, Otto Eduard Leopold
  • blank check
  • Bleichröder, Gerson von
  • Blenheim, Battle of
  • Blomberg, Werner von
  • Blücher, Gebhard
  • CHARLES V AND THE REFORMATION
  • Böll, Heinrich
  • Bonhoeffer, Dietrich
  • Bonn
  • Bormann, Martin
  • Born, Max
  • Borsig, August
  • Bosch, Robert
  • Bosnia-Herzegovina
  • Brahms, Johannes
  • Brandenburg
  • C
  • Brauchitsch, Walther von
  • Braun, Eva
  • Braun, Karl Ferdinand
  • Braun, Otto
  • Braun, Wernher von
  • Brecht, Bertolt
  • Bremen/Bremerhaven
  • Brentano, Elizabeth Bettina
  • Breslau
  • The Bridge
  • THE THIRTY YEARS WAR
  • Britain, Battle of
  • Brüning, Heinrich
  • Buchenwald
  • Bülow, Bernhard von
  • Bundesrat
  • Bundestag
  • Burschenschaft
  • C
  • Canisius, Peter
  • canton system
  • A
  • Carlsbad Decrees
  • Celtis, Conrad
  • Center Party
  • Chamberlain, Houston Stewart
  • Charles V
  • Charles VI
  • Charles VII
  • Charlottenburg, Palace of
  • Christian Democratic Union
  • Christian Social Union
  • LITERATURE
  • Civil Code, German (Revised
  • Clausewitz, Carl von
  • Concordat of 1933
  • Condor Legion
  • The Confederation of the Rhine was a
  • Confessing Church
  • Congress of Vienna
  • conservatism
  • constitutional traditions
  • Counter-Reformation
  • MUSIC
  • Cranach, Lucas, the Elder
  • cultured elites
  • D
  • Daimler, Gottlieb
  • Danish War
  • Danzig
  • Dawes Plan
  • D-Banks
  • D-Day
  • Degenerate Art
  • SAXON AND SALIAN DYNASTIES,
  • SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION
  • denazification
  • Denck, Hans
  • Depression, The Great
  • Depressions
  • détente
  • Diesel, Rudolf
  • Dietrich, Josef Sepp
  • Diplomatic Revolution of 1756
  • Dix, Otto
  • Döblin, Alfred
  • GOTTFRIED WILHELM VON LEIBNIZ
  • Dönitz, Karl
  • Dresden
  • Droste-Hülshoff, Annette
  • Dual Alliance
  • Dürer, Albrecht
  • Düsseldorf
  • E
  • Edict of Toleration
  • Ehrlich, Paul
  • Eichendorff, Joseph von
  • PIETISM
  • Eichmann, Adolf
  • Eicke, Theodor
  • Einsatzgruppen
  • Einstein, Albert
  • Eisner, Kurt
  • El Alamein, Battles of
  • Elbe River
  • Ems Telegram
  • Enabling Act
  • Engels, Friedrich
  • ROCOCO
  • ENIGMA/ULTRA
  • Enlightenment
  • Erasmus, Desiderius
  • Erfurt Program
  • Erhard, Ludwig
  • Ernst, Max
  • Erzberger, Matthias
  • Eugene, prince of Savoy
  • European Coal and Steel
  • European Defense Community
  • A
  • European Economic Community
  • European Union
  • euthanasia
  • expressionism
  • Falkenhayn, Erich von
  • F
  • Fatherland Party
  • Federal Constitutional Court
  • Federal Republic of Germany
  • Federation of German Industry
  • TURKISH WARS
  • Federation of German Womens
  • feminism, 18151945
  • feminism, 19452005
  • Ferdinand II
  • Feuerbach, Ludwig Andreas
  • Fichte, Johann Gottlieb
  • Final Solution
  • Fischer, Josef Joschka
  • Fischer von Erlach, John
  • Fontane, Theodor
  • WARS OF AUSTRIAN SUCCESSION
  • Four Year Plan
  • Francis II
  • Frank, Anne
  • Frank, Hans
  • Frankfurt am Main
  • Frankfurt Parliament
  • Frederick I
  • Frederick II, The Great
  • Frederick III
  • Frederick III, The Wise
  • STATE REFORMS
  • Frederick William
  • Frederick William I
  • Frederick William II
  • Frederick William III
  • Frederick William IV
  • Free Corps
  • Free Democratic Party
  • Freemasonry/Illuminati
  • French Revolutionary Wars
  • Freytag, Gustav
  • FOREIGN POLICY AND KAUNITZ
  • Friedrich, Caspar David
  • Fritsch, Werner von
  • Fugger, Jacob the Rich
  • Führerprinzip
  • G
  • Galen, Clemens August von
  • Gellert, Christian
  • General Directory
  • Genscher, Hans-Dietrich
  • Gentz, Friedrich
  • JOSEPH II AND REFORM
  • German Christians
  • German Communist Party
  • German Confederation
  • German Conservative Party
  • German Democratic Party
  • German Democratic Republic
  • German Labor Front
  • German National Peoples
  • German Peoples Party
  • German Progressive Party
  • HOHENSTAUFEN DYNASTY,
  • VIENNA AND ARCHITECTURE
  • German Reich (Imperial) Party
  • German Womens Bureau
  • German Workers Party
  • Germany Treaty
  • R
  • FREDERICK III
  • FREDERICK WILLIAM I, THE
  • FREDERICK THE GREAT
  • SEVEN YEARS WAR
  • S
  • ECONOMY
  • POLITICAL DECENTRALIZATION
  • SOCIAL STRUCTURE
  • HABSBURG DYNASTY
  • CULTURE
  • THE ENLIGHTENMENT
  • LITERATURE AND DRAMA
  • PHILOSOPHY
  • SECRET SOCIETIES
  • T
  • R
  • THE ROMANTIC MOVEMENT
  • NATIONALISM AND LIBERALISM
  • EARLY INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
  • CITIES AND CRAFT GUILDS
  • REVOLUTIONS OF 1848
  • ARMY REFORM AND PARLIAMENTARY
  • O
  • THE DANISH WAR, 1864
  • AUSTRO-PRUSSIAN WAR, 1866
  • THE FRANCO-PRUSSIAN WAR,
  • COLLAPSE OF THE SECOND FRENCH
  • I
  • N
  • ART AND ARCHITECTURE
  • ORIGINS OF CAPITALISM
  • SOCIAL STRUCTURE AND WOMEN
  • EDUCATION
  • T
  • POLITICAL PARTIES
  • THE KULTURKAMPF, SOCIALISM,
  • FOREIGN POLICY AND ALLIANCE
  • BISMARCKS DISMISSAL
  • WILHELMINE GERMANY
  • T
  • THE QUESTION OF
  • LATE MEDIEVAL CULTURE
  • CONDUCT OF THE WAR
  • PEACE RESOLUTION, REFORM, AND
  • AN UNPLANNED REVOLUTION
  • N
  • POLITICAL PARTIES UNPREPARED
  • A REVOLUTIONARY PATTERN
  • WORKERS AND SOLDIERS
  • KURT EISNER AND REVOLUTION IN
  • A REPUBLIC PROCLAIMED
  • A SEVERE ARMISTICE
  • T
  • ESTABLISHMENT OF A REVOLUTIONARY
  • EBERT MAKES A DEAL WITH THE
  • THE SPARTACISTS
  • INTERPRETATION OF THE
  • A VENGEFUL PEACE
  • V
  • THE GOALS OF THE PEACEMAKERS
  • TERMS OF THE TREATY
  • WAR GUILT AND REPARATIONS
  • DENUNCIATION AND RELUCTANT
  • GERMANIC MIGRATIONS AND
  • Clausewitz, Carl von

    lang=EN-US style='font-size:10.5pt;font-family:"Meridien-Medium","serif"; color:black'>(17801831)

    Prussian general and theorist

    The standard work on the theory and conduct of

    war, Carl von Clausewitzs On War, has become

    a classic and can be found in the library of every

    military academy. It is a work that defines war in

    political terms, that it is simply a continuation

    of politics by other means. Clausewitz was one

    of a group of Prussian reformers that included

    Baron Karl vom und zum STEIN, Gerhard von

    Scharnhorst, and Neithardt von GNEISENAU. The

    phrases most often used to describe Clausewitz

    are the philosopher of war, a capable Prussian

    general, and soldier and thinker.

    Clausewitz was born in Burg near Magdeburg

    (the capital of the state of Saxony-Anhalt) on

    June 1, 1780, the son of a retired Prussian officer.

    He joined the army at the age of 12, experienced

    active service in the French campaigns of

    179293, and was commissioned at 15. He was

    captured at JENA. He entered the War Academy

    in BERLIN at age 21 and had the good fortune to

    be influenced by the great military reformer

    Scharnhorst. In despair over the Prussian kings

    policies toward France, he immigrated to Russia

    Clausewitz, Carl von 311

    and served in the War of 1812 and the WARS OF

    LIBERATION. After 1815 he held various appointments.

    In retirement he wrote extensively, especially

    On War, and died of cholera at BRESLAU in

    1831.

    Besides On War, Clausewitz wrote other

    works on military history. In 1807, for instance,

    he wrote three articles on the French victories at

    Jena and AUERSTADT, and on the subsequent collapse

    of the Prussian armies. During the Wars of

    Liberation he wrote an account of the spring

    campaign of 1813. From then on until his death

    he wrote voluminously but did not publish. In

    1832 the publication of his collected military

    works began. Out of a total of 10 volumes (Hinterlassene

    Werke), the first three contain his unfinished

    manuscript On War. In the remaining

    volumes he wrote seven campaign histories

    from the 16th century to the BATTLE OF WATERLOO.

    Besides studies on political and cultural

    subjects there is a biographical essay on Scharnhorst,

    the leader of the Prussian reform movement.

    Through philosophical reasoning and

    astute judgment of human nature, Clausewitz

    probed deeply into the essence of war. He saw

    war as a continuation of politics. He advocated

    the idea of national war that should be ruthlessly

    and swiftly conducted so as to achieve

    decisive results in a minimum of time.

    concentration camps

    Concentration camps were enclosures for political

    dissidents and racially persecuted peoples of

    the Nazi state, intended for their correction,

    punishment, and eventually execution. The

    camps were officially known as State Camps for

    Rehabilitation and Labor. As the Prussian minister

    of the interior, Hermann GÖRING, in charge

    of the police and the GESTAPO as well as the

    secret security police, quickly placed Nazi enemies

    in protective custody in camps hastily

    established by the SA and SS in the state of

    PRUSSIA. On February 28, 1933, Chancellor

    Adolf HITLER obtained from President Paul von

    HINDENBURG an emergency decree that abrogated

    the constitutional rights of German citizens,

    and after Hitler was given dictatorial power,

    political opponents were incarcerated. In

    BAVARIA, where Heinrich HIMMLER was police

    president, he directed on March 21, 1933, the

    construction of the model concentration camp

    (Konzentrationslager, or KL) in DACHAU, which

    was placed under the command of Theodor

    Eicke. Dachau became infamous as the training

    center for SS guards and administrators for other

    camps. Rudolf HÖSS, who later became commandant

    at AUSCHWITZ, and Adolf EICHMANN, a

    chief administrator of the FINAL SOLUTION, were

    trained there. Other camps that followed were

    Ravensbrück (est. 1934) in Mecklenburg;

    Sachensenhausen (est. September 1936) near

    Berlin-Oranienburg; BUCHENWALD (est. July

    1937) near WEIMAR; Flossenburg (est. May

    1938) in the Upper Palatinate; and Mauthausen

    (est. 1938) near Linz in AUSTRIA. In 1934 Himmler

    and the SS took over the operation of the

    camps and established procedures for admission

    and supervision. Along with political reeducation

    for dissidents, flogging and torture also were

    used as means of coercion.

    The number of camps increased from more

    than 30 principal camps to a total of 1,000 lesser

    camps supplying labor for war industries. Their

    purposes changed as new economic objectives

    were established. Between 1936 and 1941 up to

    75,000 prisoners worked in quarries and the

    building of camps. Beginning around November

    1938, with Kristallnacht (see NIGHT OF BROKEN

    GLASS) and the invasion of Poland, Jews and

    Poles were increasingly brought into the camps

    and used as forced labor. Industries even built factories

    near some camps to avail themselves of the

    labor. New camps opened up as the war progressed.

    Some of the prominent ones were Theresienstadt

    in Bohemia; Auschwitz, Maidanek, and

    Stutthof in Poland; Natzweiler-Struthof in Alsace;

    Kaunas and Riga in the Baltic states; and BERGENBELSEN

    and others in Germany.

    In summer 1941 Hitler decided to initiate the

    Final Solution under cover of a war in which he

    assumed Nazi Germany would be victorious.

    The principal purpose of the Final Solution was

    the annihilation of the remaining Jewish popu-

    312 concentration camps

    lation of Nazi-occupied Europe. The technical

    challenges in achieving this goal were enormous.

    Rudolf Höss was directed to enlarge Auschwitz

    because of its ready railroad connections and isolation

    from populated areas. Four million Jews

    and others were killed at Auschwitz and another

    million at Maidanek. Other major annihilation

    camps were built in the so-called General Government

    area of Poland; intended principally

    for the annihilation of Jews were Chelmno

    (340,000), Belzec, Sobibor, and Treblinka each

    with a daily killing capacity of 15,00025,000.

    There were many other camps at which both

    Jews and non-Jews were forced to labor and

    were tortured, starved, and murdered.

    It is complex to explain exactly why the camps

    operated as they did. Beginning in 1936 the SS

    camp guards were called the Deaths Heads Corps

    (Totenkopfverbande). Internal discipline was the

    responsibility of camp commandants, block

    chiefs, and Kapos. Some of the officers were German

    criminals, while other prisoners in the

    camps were inmates who had decided to collaborate

    to avoid death and were rewarded with

    privileges for good service, which rewarded

    unnecessary brutality. Divide and conquer was

    the method that contributed to efficient rule.

    Inmates were color-coded with symbols on the

    bodies. Starvation, torture, beatings, and medical

    experiments were part of the camp life. The camp

    doctor at Auschwitz, Josef MENGELE, became

    notorious for his extreme experimental surgery.

    The social interactions in the camps have been

    studied elaborately. While some of the operational

    characteristics of the camps were derived

    from Nazi culture and the regimes goals, other

    aspects of the terror of camp life resulted from the

    specific training of the guards and the antagonisms

    and dependencies in the camps. When

    prisoners were gassed their goods and their bodies

    were used for economic purposes: clothes,

    money, valuables, gold fillings, female hair. Even

    body ashes were used for fertilizer. Out of the 6

    million Jews who were killed by the Nazi regime,

    about 3 million died in the death camps.

    The camp system disintegrated with the

    advance of Russian and Allied forces. Auschwitz

    was closed down in January 1945. As the camps

    were closed, those who could move were forced

    on death marches to camps within Germany,

    where some 100 camps housed nearly 500,000

    Aryans and 200,000 Jews. In the West when

    the British liberated Bergen-Belsen on April 13,

    1945, they found some 10,000 corpses, and only

    about one-third of the remaining 38,500 still living

    survived. Although exact figures are difficult,

    it is estimated that between 7 million and 11

    million individuals perished in the camps.

    were   GERMANC   Germany   Party   their   Prussians   army   state   government   became   they   during   Austrian   CHURCHES   French   political   Frederick   Nazis   Social   Hitler   after   against   economic   some   republican