• GERMANIC MIGRATIONS AND
  • FRANKISH KINGDOM
  • JOHANNES REUCHLIN
  • THE WEIMAR CONSTITUTION
  • W
  • INFLATION, REPARATIONS, AND
  • THE STRESEMANN ERA, 19231929
  • STABILIZATION AND LOCARNO,
  • CULTURE AND SOCIETY
  • ROAD TO DICTATORSHIP,
  • T
  • CONSOLIDATION OF POWER
  • THE NAZI TOTAL STATE
  • ULRICH VON HUTTEN
  • PERSECUTION OF THE JEWS
  • RELIGION AND THE CHURCHES
  • FOREIGN POLICY
  • W
  • THE BATTLE OF BRITAIN
  • INVASION OF RUSSIA
  • HITLERS PLANS FOR EUROPE
  • TURNING OF THE TIDE,
  • THE HOME FRONT
  • THE RESISTANCE
  • PHILIP MELANCHTHON
  • D-DAY TO DEFEAT NAZI GERMANY
  • THE HOLOCAUST
  • A
  • ALLIED PLANS AND CONFERENCES
  • DENAZIFICATION
  • POLITICAL PARTIES AND TRADE
  • LOCAL STATE FORMATION
  • PARLIAMENTARY COUNCIL AND THE
  • ECONOMIC RECONSTRUCTION
  • T
  • ERASMUS OF ROTTERDAM
  • BUNDESTAG ELECTION AND
  • REGAINING SOVEREIGNTY AND INTEGRATION
  • RECONSTRUCTION AND THE ECONOMIC
  • TRANSITIONAL YEARS AND
  • THE GRAND COALITION AND YOUTH
  • THE SOCIAL-LIBERAL COALITION
  • OSTPOLITIK (FOREIGN POLICY
  • CULTURE AND SOCIETY
  • SOCIAL STRUCTURE
  • SCHMIDT ERA: SOCIAL UNREST,
  • PRINTING AND MEDICINE
  • THE KOHL ERA, 19821998
  • T
  • UPRISING OF JUNE 17, 1953
  • ECONOMIC SYSTEM
  • SOCIETY, EDUCATION, AND
  • RELATIONS WITH THE FEDERAL
  • R
  • CONSEQUENCES AND PROBLEMS OF
  • ECONOMIC UNIFICATION,
  • P
  • RENAISSANCE ART
  • UNIFICATION POLITICS AND ITS
  • FOREIGN POLICY
  • GOVERNMENT AND ELECTIONS,
  • HISTORICAL DICTIONARY A
  • A
  • Abwehr
  • Adenauer, Konrad
  • Afrika Korps
  • Agadir Incident
  • Agrarian League
  • NEED FOR CHURCH REFORM
  • Agricola, Rudolf
  • Air Force
  • Albert (Albrecht) of
  • Albert V
  • Algeciras, Conference of
  • Allied Control Council
  • Alsace-Lorraine
  • Altdorfer, Albrecht
  • Amiens, Battle of
  • Anabaptists
  • P
  • Anglo-German Naval Treaty
  • Anschluss
  • Anti-Comintern Pact
  • anti-Semitism/Jew hatred
  • anti-Semitism
  • Anti-Socialist Law
  • Ardennes, Battle of the
  • Arendt, Hannah
  • Armed Forces (Wehrmacht)
  • Armed Forces (Bundeswehr):
  • LUTHER AND MELANCHTHON
  • Army (Prussian to 1860)
  • Army (Second Empire,
  • Asylum Law
  • Atlantic, Battle of the
  • Auerstadt, Battle of
  • Augsburg, Diet of
  • Augsburg, Religious Peace of
  • Augsburg, War of the League
  • Augsburg Confession
  • Augspurg, Anita
  • LUTHER AND ZWINGLI
  • Auschwitz-Birkenau
  • Austerlitz, Battle of
  • Austria
  • Austrian Succession, War of
  • autarchy
  • autobahns
  • Axis, The
  • B
  • Baden-Württemberg
  • Ballin, Albert
  • CAROLINGIAN EMPIRE
  • KNIGHTS REVOLT AND GREAT
  • Barbie, Klaus
  • Barmen Declaration
  • Barth, Karl
  • Basic Treaty
  • Bauernschutz
  • Bauhaus
  • Baumer, Gertrud
  • Bavaria
  • Bavarian Peoples Party (BVP)
  • Bavarian Succession, War of
  • REFORMATION AND THE TOWNS
  • Bayer AG
  • Bayreuth
  • Bebel, August
  • Beck, Ludwig August Theodor
  • Beckmann, Max
  • Beer-Hall Putsch of 1923
  • Beethoven, Ludwig van
  • Benjamin, Walter
  • Benn, Gottfried
  • Bennigsen, Rudolf von
  • ANABAPTISM AND MÜNTZER
  • Benz, Carl Friedrich
  • Bergen-Belsen
  • Berghof
  • Berlin
  • Berlin, Battle for (Fall of)
  • Berlin, Congress of
  • Berlin-Baghdad Railway
  • Berlin Blockade
  • Berlin Conference
  • Berlin Wall
  • CALVINISM IN GERMANY
  • Bernstein, Eduard
  • Bethmann Hollweg, Theobald
  • Biedermeier
  • Biermann, Wolf
  • Bismarck, Otto Eduard Leopold
  • blank check
  • Bleichröder, Gerson von
  • Blenheim, Battle of
  • Blomberg, Werner von
  • Blücher, Gebhard
  • CHARLES V AND THE REFORMATION
  • Böll, Heinrich
  • Bonhoeffer, Dietrich
  • Bonn
  • Bormann, Martin
  • Born, Max
  • Borsig, August
  • Bosch, Robert
  • Bosnia-Herzegovina
  • Brahms, Johannes
  • Brandenburg
  • C
  • Brauchitsch, Walther von
  • Braun, Eva
  • Braun, Karl Ferdinand
  • Braun, Otto
  • Braun, Wernher von
  • Brecht, Bertolt
  • Bremen/Bremerhaven
  • Brentano, Elizabeth Bettina
  • Breslau
  • The Bridge
  • THE THIRTY YEARS WAR
  • Britain, Battle of
  • Brüning, Heinrich
  • Buchenwald
  • Bülow, Bernhard von
  • Bundesrat
  • Bundestag
  • Burschenschaft
  • C
  • Canisius, Peter
  • canton system
  • A
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  • Center Party
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  • Charles V
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  • Charlottenburg, Palace of
  • Christian Democratic Union
  • Christian Social Union
  • LITERATURE
  • Civil Code, German (Revised
  • Clausewitz, Carl von
  • Concordat of 1933
  • Condor Legion
  • The Confederation of the Rhine was a
  • Confessing Church
  • Congress of Vienna
  • conservatism
  • constitutional traditions
  • Counter-Reformation
  • MUSIC
  • Cranach, Lucas, the Elder
  • cultured elites
  • D
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  • Danish War
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  • Degenerate Art
  • SAXON AND SALIAN DYNASTIES,
  • SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION
  • denazification
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  • Depression, The Great
  • Depressions
  • détente
  • Diesel, Rudolf
  • Dietrich, Josef Sepp
  • Diplomatic Revolution of 1756
  • Dix, Otto
  • Döblin, Alfred
  • GOTTFRIED WILHELM VON LEIBNIZ
  • Dönitz, Karl
  • Dresden
  • Droste-Hülshoff, Annette
  • Dual Alliance
  • Dürer, Albrecht
  • Düsseldorf
  • E
  • Edict of Toleration
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  • Eichendorff, Joseph von
  • PIETISM
  • Eichmann, Adolf
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  • El Alamein, Battles of
  • Elbe River
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  • ROCOCO
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  • Eugene, prince of Savoy
  • European Coal and Steel
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  • A
  • European Economic Community
  • European Union
  • euthanasia
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  • Falkenhayn, Erich von
  • F
  • Fatherland Party
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  • TURKISH WARS
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  • feminism, 18151945
  • feminism, 19452005
  • Ferdinand II
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  • Fichte, Johann Gottlieb
  • Final Solution
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  • Fischer von Erlach, John
  • Fontane, Theodor
  • WARS OF AUSTRIAN SUCCESSION
  • Four Year Plan
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  • Frank, Hans
  • Frankfurt am Main
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  • Frederick I
  • Frederick II, The Great
  • Frederick III
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  • STATE REFORMS
  • Frederick William
  • Frederick William I
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  • Free Corps
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  • FOREIGN POLICY AND KAUNITZ
  • Friedrich, Caspar David
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  • Führerprinzip
  • G
  • Galen, Clemens August von
  • Gellert, Christian
  • General Directory
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  • Gentz, Friedrich
  • JOSEPH II AND REFORM
  • German Christians
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  • German Labor Front
  • German National Peoples
  • German Peoples Party
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  • HOHENSTAUFEN DYNASTY,
  • VIENNA AND ARCHITECTURE
  • German Reich (Imperial) Party
  • German Womens Bureau
  • German Workers Party
  • Germany Treaty
  • R
  • FREDERICK III
  • FREDERICK WILLIAM I, THE
  • FREDERICK THE GREAT
  • SEVEN YEARS WAR
  • S
  • ECONOMY
  • POLITICAL DECENTRALIZATION
  • SOCIAL STRUCTURE
  • HABSBURG DYNASTY
  • CULTURE
  • THE ENLIGHTENMENT
  • LITERATURE AND DRAMA
  • PHILOSOPHY
  • SECRET SOCIETIES
  • T
  • R
  • THE ROMANTIC MOVEMENT
  • NATIONALISM AND LIBERALISM
  • EARLY INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
  • CITIES AND CRAFT GUILDS
  • REVOLUTIONS OF 1848
  • ARMY REFORM AND PARLIAMENTARY
  • O
  • THE DANISH WAR, 1864
  • AUSTRO-PRUSSIAN WAR, 1866
  • THE FRANCO-PRUSSIAN WAR,
  • COLLAPSE OF THE SECOND FRENCH
  • I
  • N
  • ART AND ARCHITECTURE
  • ORIGINS OF CAPITALISM
  • SOCIAL STRUCTURE AND WOMEN
  • EDUCATION
  • T
  • POLITICAL PARTIES
  • THE KULTURKAMPF, SOCIALISM,
  • FOREIGN POLICY AND ALLIANCE
  • BISMARCKS DISMISSAL
  • WILHELMINE GERMANY
  • T
  • THE QUESTION OF
  • LATE MEDIEVAL CULTURE
  • CONDUCT OF THE WAR
  • PEACE RESOLUTION, REFORM, AND
  • AN UNPLANNED REVOLUTION
  • N
  • POLITICAL PARTIES UNPREPARED
  • A REVOLUTIONARY PATTERN
  • WORKERS AND SOLDIERS
  • KURT EISNER AND REVOLUTION IN
  • A REPUBLIC PROCLAIMED
  • A SEVERE ARMISTICE
  • T
  • ESTABLISHMENT OF A REVOLUTIONARY
  • EBERT MAKES A DEAL WITH THE
  • THE SPARTACISTS
  • INTERPRETATION OF THE
  • A VENGEFUL PEACE
  • V
  • THE GOALS OF THE PEACEMAKERS
  • TERMS OF THE TREATY
  • WAR GUILT AND REPARATIONS
  • DENUNCIATION AND RELUCTANT
  • GERMANIC MIGRATIONS AND
  • THE THIRTY YEARS WAR

    What occasioned the outbreak of the Thirty Years War, the Bohemian succession,

    was certainly not the wars main cause. Often called the last of the religious

    wars, the sources were certainly religious, between a militant

    Catholicism and a militant Calvinism. On the other hand, secular dynastic interests

    were also at work: the interests of the German princes to resist the power

    of the emperor and the expansionist dynastic interests of other European

    monarchs. Since these were so powerful, involving the states of Denmark,

    Sweden, France, and Spain, perhaps the Thirty Years War might be considered

    the first European civil war fought principally on German territory.

    The Peace of Augsburg had been a compromise on the religious issue but did

    not satisfy the participants and broke down. Under the weak emperor Rudolf II

    (15761612), who had been brought up under Spanish and Jesuit influences,

    the Counter-Reformation began, which incited the renewed struggle between

    the confessions and the rulers who supported them. In 1608 the Protestant

    princes, under the leadership of the young Calvinist prince-elector of the Palatinate,

    Frederick IV, concluded an alliance known as the Union, while the Catholic

    princes promptly responded with the League, at the head of which was Duke

    Maximilian of Bavaria. While the main strength of Protestantism lay in the north

    and center of Germany, Bavaria became the center of the Counter-Reformation.

    Indicative of the temper of the leaders of the Counter-Reformation was one of

    the bitterest enemies of the Protestants, Archduke Ferdinand of Styria, who later

    became Emperor Ferdinand II (161937). He reportedly stated that he would

    rather rule over a land that was a desert than over one populated by heretics.

    No sooner did this prince come to the ducal throne than he annulled the religious

    liberty of his Protestant subjects, expelled their clergy and teachers, and

    forced both the nobles and the people to return to Catholicism.

    A decade of tensions and crises preceded the immediate cause of the Thirty

    Years War, just as later happened before World War I. When Ferdinand became

    king of Bohemia in 1617, the event mainly furnished the cause of the Thirty

    Years War. As the result of a collision between the two confessions in Prague,

    28 Germany

    the Protestants, who formed the majority of the population both there and in

    the rural districts, set up a government of their own. When Ferdinand II

    (161937) succeeded the emperor Matthias, the Czechs rebelled. Protestant

    princes met in a diet in the spring of 1618 and threw two of the Habsburg governors

    out the window of Hradcin Castle, which has been memorialized as the

    defenestration of Prague. Then the Protestants chose the young elector of the

    Palatinate, Frederick V, the son-in-law of James I of England, as a rival king.

    Ferdinand responded to the challenge by sending a strong imperial army into

    Bohemia and crushed the rebellion at the Battle of White Mountain that

    November. With a fierce vengeance the insurgents were punished. Twentyseven

    prominent leaders were beheaded in the marketplace of Prague; thousands

    of families were exiled and dispossessed of their houses and chattels; and

    Protestant churches and schools were appropriated by Catholic priests and

    Jesuit teachers. In the end Frederick, known as the Winter King, lost both the

    Palatinate and the Bohemian throne.

    The Protestant princes of Germany did not appear to be overly concerned

    for their coreligionists and stood by at the defeat and massacre of the Bohemians.

    Then Spanish troops under General Johann Tserklaes, count of Tilly, commander

    of the armies, ravaged the Palatinate. Not until the emperor outlawed

    the ruler of that territory and proposed to install the Catholic Bavarian duke

    Maximilian in his place, did the Protestant princes become alarmed. That would

    have increased the number of the Catholic electors of the emperor at the

    expense of the Protestant. Of the two German princes who should have taken

    the lead in resisting the challenge to their faith and their independence, John

    George of electoral Saxony became an ally of the emperor, while George

    William, elector of Brandenburg, did not get involved. In the end the emperor

    made Maximilian an elector by presenting him with the Upper Palatinate.

    While Catholics were determined to eliminate heresy, Protestants wanted to

    expand their influence throughout Germany. Many princes also had material

    gain at heart, attempting to expand their power and territories. One example

    was Maximilian of Bavaria of the Wittelsbach family, who even desired to rival

    the power of the Habsburgs. Other princes had designs on their neighbors. The

    margrave of Baden desired Württemberg, while the city of Würzburg was

    desired by the landgrave of Hesse. Above all the emperor wanted to consolidate

    Habsburg territories and extend his rule over Germany. Foreign rulers

    were no less altruistic, whether they were Gustavus Adolphus, Christian of

    Denmark, Maurice of Nassau, or Cardinal Richelieu, who ruled in France during

    the infancy of King Louis XIII. For instance, Richelieu financially supported

    the invasion of Germany by Denmark, and after 1631 French money was the

    principal financier of the Swedish forces. What further complicated the dynamics

    of the war was that soldiers of fortune were selling their services to the highest

    bidders and contributed to the brutality of the campaigns through wanton

    destruction and unnecessary killing.

    In the long struggle that began in this fashion, Austria and Spain, with

    Bavaria, supported the emperor and Catholicism, while Denmark, Sweden, Holland,

    France, and England supported the Protestant cause. The confessional

    questions over which contention first raged were soon overshadowed by those

    Counter-Reformation and Thirty Years War 29

    of purely political goals. There were actually four wars, fought for the most part

    in different fields: the Bohemian phase and Palatinate war (161823); the Lower

    Saxon and Danish war (162429); the Swedish war (163035); and the Franco-

    Swedish war (163548). King Christian of Denmark, duke of Holstein, entered

    the struggle at an early stage, bent on acquiring Bremen and other North German

    districts. France, which subsidized all the emperors enemies in turn and

    attacked his armies in Spain, was primarily interested in weakening its southern

    neighbor. In 1630 Gustavus Adolphus, the warrior king of Sweden, invaded

    Pomerania with a well-equipped army of 15,000, said to be the only national

    army in the war. Over a year later at the battle of Breitenfeld north of Leipzig

    Gustavus brilliantly defeated the imperial army. This Swedish army moved westward

    toward the Rhine, then marched against the city of Nuremberg and then

    south into Bavaria. Although Gustavus was killed at the Battle of Lützen two

    years later, Sweden continued to fight throughout the phases. The involvement

    of England was mainly with money and naval assistance.

    The war lasted until 1648, then was concluded by a series of agreements collectively

    known as the Peace of Westphalia (October 27), which partitioned a

    large part of Germany. Other agreements among the major European powers

    during the next two decades, as for instance between Russia and Poland in

    1667, marked a major turning point in European history. The states that benefited

    the most from this 17th-century world war were France, Sweden, and

    the Netherlands, which won what Austria lost. While France emerged as the

    dominant power in Europe, Sweden gained supremacy in the Baltic. France

    obtained Metz, Toul, and Verdun, reaching the Upper Rhine, which had been

    her ambition for a century. Spain, Denmark, and Poland were also on the losing

    side. Bavaria lost the Rhenish and kept the Upper Palatinate. The Holy

    Roman Empire was irreparably weakened through the recognition of the independence

    and the sovereignty of the states. Both the United Netherlands and

    Switzerland became independent states. The religious provisions of the Peace

    of Augsburg were reaffirmed, and all religious groups, rulers, and subjects,

    including Calvinists, were given an equal status. Neither the Catholic nor the

    Protestant side achieved their goals, and Germany was still very much divided

    as before. The ruinous economic and social impact of the war has often been

    exaggerated, especially by German historians. The areas most affected by the

    destructiveness of the war were the militarily strategic ones along the Rhine,

    the Black Forest, the Leipzig plain, and the roads to the city of Regensburg and

    the Danube valley. Agriculture was hurt the most by the ravaging armies, but

    the disappearance of villages had begun already in the previous century due

    to the development of large estates. Economic breakdown in the commercial

    cities had already begun due to imperial bankruptcies, the inflation of the

    1620s, and the changes in trade routes due to the Atlantic trade. It has traditionally

    been thought that there was a disastrous population decline of from 5

    million to 8 million people. Undoubtedly, the movements of often undisciplined

    armies and population migration contributed to the spread of typhus, one of

    the greatest killers of the 17th century, plague, and even syphilis. Scientific

    demography was unknown by earlier historians, and it is now known that

    urban mortality in Germany was probably no greater than elsewhere. The

    30 Germany

    apparent catastrophic decline in population was probably due to disease and

    migration and perhaps there even was a modest increase. The economic consequences

    of the war that had supposedly turned back German development

    for 100 years has now been reinterpreted as a period in German history in

    which income, productivity, and standards of living actually improved.

    Counter-Reformation and Thirty Years War 31

    Originally a word of Portuguese origin indicating irregularly shaped pearls, the

    term baroque came to identify the international architectural and artistic style

    that dominated principally Catholic Europe from the end of the 16th century

    until the middle of the 18th. Baroque artists tried to harmonize the classical

    styles of Renaissance art with the intense spirituality manifested during the

    Reformation. Not only was the architecture, sculpture, and painting of this

    period dramatically realistic, but it served as a stage setting for religious, political,

    and social ceremonials. It also was intended to represent the order of society

    and the universe, reflecting the new view of the universe emerging from

    the Scientific Revolution.

    The baroque style was enthusiastically embraced by the Catholic Counter-

    Reformation. It was especially popular in the Habsburg courts of Vienna, Prague,

    Madrid, and Brussels, and eventually spread to Latin America. The Catholic

    Church commissioned many new monumental churches, providing for the

    faithful an earthly demonstration of the truth and power of the Catholic faith.

    It had its origin in Italy during the 16th century in Il Gesu (156884), the mother

    church of the Jesuits in Rome, which became the model for later baroque

    churches and palaces. The baroque spread to France in the second half of the

    17th century, but its final and distinctive phase occurred in Germany. A great

    building era began in the 1680s and reached its peak in the first half of the 18th

    century. This building boom reflected the dynamism that spread from Vienna,

    which was flush from the victory over the Turks and the French, giving rise to

    a new consciousness of greatness, of imperial destiny, and a sense of unity

    involving the Habsburg dynasty, the Catholic Church, and the aristocracy.

    were   GERMANC   Germany   Party   their   Prussians   army   state   government   became   they   during   Austrian   CHURCHES   French   political   Frederick   Nazis   Social   Hitler   after   against   economic   some   republican