• GERMANIC MIGRATIONS AND
  • FRANKISH KINGDOM
  • JOHANNES REUCHLIN
  • THE WEIMAR CONSTITUTION
  • W
  • INFLATION, REPARATIONS, AND
  • THE STRESEMANN ERA, 19231929
  • STABILIZATION AND LOCARNO,
  • CULTURE AND SOCIETY
  • ROAD TO DICTATORSHIP,
  • T
  • CONSOLIDATION OF POWER
  • THE NAZI TOTAL STATE
  • ULRICH VON HUTTEN
  • PERSECUTION OF THE JEWS
  • RELIGION AND THE CHURCHES
  • FOREIGN POLICY
  • W
  • THE BATTLE OF BRITAIN
  • INVASION OF RUSSIA
  • HITLERS PLANS FOR EUROPE
  • TURNING OF THE TIDE,
  • THE HOME FRONT
  • THE RESISTANCE
  • PHILIP MELANCHTHON
  • D-DAY TO DEFEAT NAZI GERMANY
  • THE HOLOCAUST
  • A
  • ALLIED PLANS AND CONFERENCES
  • DENAZIFICATION
  • POLITICAL PARTIES AND TRADE
  • LOCAL STATE FORMATION
  • PARLIAMENTARY COUNCIL AND THE
  • ECONOMIC RECONSTRUCTION
  • T
  • ERASMUS OF ROTTERDAM
  • BUNDESTAG ELECTION AND
  • REGAINING SOVEREIGNTY AND INTEGRATION
  • RECONSTRUCTION AND THE ECONOMIC
  • TRANSITIONAL YEARS AND
  • THE GRAND COALITION AND YOUTH
  • THE SOCIAL-LIBERAL COALITION
  • OSTPOLITIK (FOREIGN POLICY
  • CULTURE AND SOCIETY
  • SOCIAL STRUCTURE
  • SCHMIDT ERA: SOCIAL UNREST,
  • PRINTING AND MEDICINE
  • THE KOHL ERA, 19821998
  • T
  • UPRISING OF JUNE 17, 1953
  • ECONOMIC SYSTEM
  • SOCIETY, EDUCATION, AND
  • RELATIONS WITH THE FEDERAL
  • R
  • CONSEQUENCES AND PROBLEMS OF
  • ECONOMIC UNIFICATION,
  • P
  • RENAISSANCE ART
  • UNIFICATION POLITICS AND ITS
  • FOREIGN POLICY
  • GOVERNMENT AND ELECTIONS,
  • HISTORICAL DICTIONARY A
  • A
  • Abwehr
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  • Agricola, Rudolf
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  • Anabaptists
  • P
  • Anglo-German Naval Treaty
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  • Armed Forces (Wehrmacht)
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  • LUTHER AND MELANCHTHON
  • Army (Prussian to 1860)
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  • LUTHER AND ZWINGLI
  • Auschwitz-Birkenau
  • Austerlitz, Battle of
  • Austria
  • Austrian Succession, War of
  • autarchy
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  • Axis, The
  • B
  • Baden-Württemberg
  • Ballin, Albert
  • CAROLINGIAN EMPIRE
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  • Barbie, Klaus
  • Barmen Declaration
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  • Bavaria
  • Bavarian Peoples Party (BVP)
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  • REFORMATION AND THE TOWNS
  • Bayer AG
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  • Bebel, August
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  • Beckmann, Max
  • Beer-Hall Putsch of 1923
  • Beethoven, Ludwig van
  • Benjamin, Walter
  • Benn, Gottfried
  • Bennigsen, Rudolf von
  • ANABAPTISM AND MÜNTZER
  • Benz, Carl Friedrich
  • Bergen-Belsen
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  • Berlin, Battle for (Fall of)
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  • CALVINISM IN GERMANY
  • Bernstein, Eduard
  • Bethmann Hollweg, Theobald
  • Biedermeier
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  • Bismarck, Otto Eduard Leopold
  • blank check
  • Bleichröder, Gerson von
  • Blenheim, Battle of
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  • CHARLES V AND THE REFORMATION
  • Böll, Heinrich
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  • Bosnia-Herzegovina
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  • C
  • Brauchitsch, Walther von
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  • Braun, Otto
  • Braun, Wernher von
  • Brecht, Bertolt
  • Bremen/Bremerhaven
  • Brentano, Elizabeth Bettina
  • Breslau
  • The Bridge
  • THE THIRTY YEARS WAR
  • Britain, Battle of
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  • Bundesrat
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  • C
  • Canisius, Peter
  • canton system
  • A
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  • Christian Democratic Union
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  • LITERATURE
  • Civil Code, German (Revised
  • Clausewitz, Carl von
  • Concordat of 1933
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  • conservatism
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  • MUSIC
  • Cranach, Lucas, the Elder
  • cultured elites
  • D
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  • Depression, The Great
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  • Diplomatic Revolution of 1756
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  • GOTTFRIED WILHELM VON LEIBNIZ
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  • Dual Alliance
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  • E
  • Edict of Toleration
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  • PIETISM
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  • A
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  • F
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  • R
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  • FREDERICK THE GREAT
  • SEVEN YEARS WAR
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  • ECONOMY
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  • THE DANISH WAR, 1864
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  • I
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  • T
  • THE QUESTION OF
  • LATE MEDIEVAL CULTURE
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  • AN UNPLANNED REVOLUTION
  • N
  • POLITICAL PARTIES UNPREPARED
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  • A REPUBLIC PROCLAIMED
  • A SEVERE ARMISTICE
  • T
  • ESTABLISHMENT OF A REVOLUTIONARY
  • EBERT MAKES A DEAL WITH THE
  • THE SPARTACISTS
  • INTERPRETATION OF THE
  • A VENGEFUL PEACE
  • V
  • THE GOALS OF THE PEACEMAKERS
  • TERMS OF THE TREATY
  • WAR GUILT AND REPARATIONS
  • DENUNCIATION AND RELUCTANT
  • GERMANIC MIGRATIONS AND
  • Brentano, Elizabeth Bettina

    (17851859)

    author and salon hostess

    Elizabeth Brentano was one of the 20 children

    born to an Italian businessman, Maximiliane

    Brentano, in FRANKFURT AM MAIN. Her brother

    was Clemens Brentano. Her mother died in 1793

    and her father in 1797. From 1793 to 1798 she

    was educated in a convent and then went to live

    with her grandmother. From her childhood she

    lived in the circle of the best-known literary figures,

    which included J. W. GOETHE, who was a

    good friend of her aunt, and Ludwig van

    BEETHOVEN. She met Goethe in 1807, but in 1811

    he severed all contact with her because of the way

    she treated his wife. Bettinas first book was an

    imaginative presentation of her correspondence

    with Goethe, which was followed by other works

    of correspondence rich in charm and feeling.

    Bettina married the poet and novelist Achim

    von Arnim (17811831) in 1811, whom she first

    met in 1808. She conducted a lavish correspondence

    with many writers, musicians, and artists,

    which became the sources for some controversial

    books. Her reputation in German romanticism is

    the greatest as a hostess for all the poets, musicians,

    professors, artists, philosophers, theologians,

    and scientists who visited her salon in

    BERLIN after her husband died in 1831. Among

    those who visited her home were Friedrich Heinrich

    Jacobi (17431819), L. TIECK (17731853),

    Friedrich SCHLEIERMACHER (17531854), Jakob

    (17851863) and Wilhelm (17861859) GRIMM,

    and Alexander (17691859) and Wilhelm

    (17671835) von HUMBOLDT. She was a delightful,

    witty, and knowledgeable conversationalist.

    In her famous correspondence with Goethe,

    Goethes Correspondence with a Child (1835), she

    related her sublime meeting with Beethoven on

    a showery afternoon when he sang and played

    for her. In the true manner of a genius in the

    romantic age Beethoven declared himself to be

    more than a mere technician but an interpreter

    of divine inspiration, a holy vessel whose creations

    attempt to interpret the overwhelming

    forces and revelations that possessed him. To

    Bettina Beethoven manifested himself as a

    romantic giant whom God had called.

    She was more than a delightful conversationalist,

    but once a widow took an active interest in

    politics and social questions. She was active as a

    social reformer of the many ills afflicting Berlin.

    She investigated the causes of poverty, violence,

    and disease in the Berlin slums. She wrote

    polemical treatises for such liberal causes as the

    rights of workers and women. She hoped to

    move the Prussian king and public into action,

    but was unsuccessful in her efforts. Besides taking

    a positive view on socialism, she was also

    progressive in her views on the emancipation of

    women. Her most famous political work was a

    declaration of her principles in This Book Belongs

    to the King. She died on January 20, 1859.

    292 Brentano, Elizabeth Bettina

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