• GERMANIC MIGRATIONS AND
  • FRANKISH KINGDOM
  • JOHANNES REUCHLIN
  • THE WEIMAR CONSTITUTION
  • W
  • INFLATION, REPARATIONS, AND
  • THE STRESEMANN ERA, 19231929
  • STABILIZATION AND LOCARNO,
  • CULTURE AND SOCIETY
  • ROAD TO DICTATORSHIP,
  • T
  • CONSOLIDATION OF POWER
  • THE NAZI TOTAL STATE
  • ULRICH VON HUTTEN
  • PERSECUTION OF THE JEWS
  • RELIGION AND THE CHURCHES
  • FOREIGN POLICY
  • W
  • THE BATTLE OF BRITAIN
  • INVASION OF RUSSIA
  • HITLERS PLANS FOR EUROPE
  • TURNING OF THE TIDE,
  • THE HOME FRONT
  • THE RESISTANCE
  • PHILIP MELANCHTHON
  • D-DAY TO DEFEAT NAZI GERMANY
  • THE HOLOCAUST
  • A
  • ALLIED PLANS AND CONFERENCES
  • DENAZIFICATION
  • POLITICAL PARTIES AND TRADE
  • LOCAL STATE FORMATION
  • PARLIAMENTARY COUNCIL AND THE
  • ECONOMIC RECONSTRUCTION
  • T
  • ERASMUS OF ROTTERDAM
  • BUNDESTAG ELECTION AND
  • REGAINING SOVEREIGNTY AND INTEGRATION
  • RECONSTRUCTION AND THE ECONOMIC
  • TRANSITIONAL YEARS AND
  • THE GRAND COALITION AND YOUTH
  • THE SOCIAL-LIBERAL COALITION
  • OSTPOLITIK (FOREIGN POLICY
  • CULTURE AND SOCIETY
  • SOCIAL STRUCTURE
  • SCHMIDT ERA: SOCIAL UNREST,
  • PRINTING AND MEDICINE
  • THE KOHL ERA, 19821998
  • T
  • UPRISING OF JUNE 17, 1953
  • ECONOMIC SYSTEM
  • SOCIETY, EDUCATION, AND
  • RELATIONS WITH THE FEDERAL
  • R
  • CONSEQUENCES AND PROBLEMS OF
  • ECONOMIC UNIFICATION,
  • P
  • RENAISSANCE ART
  • UNIFICATION POLITICS AND ITS
  • FOREIGN POLICY
  • GOVERNMENT AND ELECTIONS,
  • HISTORICAL DICTIONARY A
  • A
  • Abwehr
  • Adenauer, Konrad
  • Afrika Korps
  • Agadir Incident
  • Agrarian League
  • NEED FOR CHURCH REFORM
  • Agricola, Rudolf
  • Air Force
  • Albert (Albrecht) of
  • Albert V
  • Algeciras, Conference of
  • Allied Control Council
  • Alsace-Lorraine
  • Altdorfer, Albrecht
  • Amiens, Battle of
  • Anabaptists
  • P
  • Anglo-German Naval Treaty
  • Anschluss
  • Anti-Comintern Pact
  • anti-Semitism/Jew hatred
  • anti-Semitism
  • Anti-Socialist Law
  • Ardennes, Battle of the
  • Arendt, Hannah
  • Armed Forces (Wehrmacht)
  • Armed Forces (Bundeswehr):
  • LUTHER AND MELANCHTHON
  • Army (Prussian to 1860)
  • Army (Second Empire,
  • Asylum Law
  • Atlantic, Battle of the
  • Auerstadt, Battle of
  • Augsburg, Diet of
  • Augsburg, Religious Peace of
  • Augsburg, War of the League
  • Augsburg Confession
  • Augspurg, Anita
  • LUTHER AND ZWINGLI
  • Auschwitz-Birkenau
  • Austerlitz, Battle of
  • Austria
  • Austrian Succession, War of
  • autarchy
  • autobahns
  • Axis, The
  • B
  • Baden-Württemberg
  • Ballin, Albert
  • CAROLINGIAN EMPIRE
  • KNIGHTS REVOLT AND GREAT
  • Barbie, Klaus
  • Barmen Declaration
  • Barth, Karl
  • Basic Treaty
  • Bauernschutz
  • Bauhaus
  • Baumer, Gertrud
  • Bavaria
  • Bavarian Peoples Party (BVP)
  • Bavarian Succession, War of
  • REFORMATION AND THE TOWNS
  • Bayer AG
  • Bayreuth
  • Bebel, August
  • Beck, Ludwig August Theodor
  • Beckmann, Max
  • Beer-Hall Putsch of 1923
  • Beethoven, Ludwig van
  • Benjamin, Walter
  • Benn, Gottfried
  • Bennigsen, Rudolf von
  • ANABAPTISM AND MÜNTZER
  • Benz, Carl Friedrich
  • Bergen-Belsen
  • Berghof
  • Berlin
  • Berlin, Battle for (Fall of)
  • Berlin, Congress of
  • Berlin-Baghdad Railway
  • Berlin Blockade
  • Berlin Conference
  • Berlin Wall
  • CALVINISM IN GERMANY
  • Bernstein, Eduard
  • Bethmann Hollweg, Theobald
  • Biedermeier
  • Biermann, Wolf
  • Bismarck, Otto Eduard Leopold
  • blank check
  • Bleichröder, Gerson von
  • Blenheim, Battle of
  • Blomberg, Werner von
  • Blücher, Gebhard
  • CHARLES V AND THE REFORMATION
  • Böll, Heinrich
  • Bonhoeffer, Dietrich
  • Bonn
  • Bormann, Martin
  • Born, Max
  • Borsig, August
  • Bosch, Robert
  • Bosnia-Herzegovina
  • Brahms, Johannes
  • Brandenburg
  • C
  • Brauchitsch, Walther von
  • Braun, Eva
  • Braun, Karl Ferdinand
  • Braun, Otto
  • Braun, Wernher von
  • Brecht, Bertolt
  • Bremen/Bremerhaven
  • Brentano, Elizabeth Bettina
  • Breslau
  • The Bridge
  • THE THIRTY YEARS WAR
  • Britain, Battle of
  • Brüning, Heinrich
  • Buchenwald
  • Bülow, Bernhard von
  • Bundesrat
  • Bundestag
  • Burschenschaft
  • C
  • Canisius, Peter
  • canton system
  • A
  • Carlsbad Decrees
  • Celtis, Conrad
  • Center Party
  • Chamberlain, Houston Stewart
  • Charles V
  • Charles VI
  • Charles VII
  • Charlottenburg, Palace of
  • Christian Democratic Union
  • Christian Social Union
  • LITERATURE
  • Civil Code, German (Revised
  • Clausewitz, Carl von
  • Concordat of 1933
  • Condor Legion
  • The Confederation of the Rhine was a
  • Confessing Church
  • Congress of Vienna
  • conservatism
  • constitutional traditions
  • Counter-Reformation
  • MUSIC
  • Cranach, Lucas, the Elder
  • cultured elites
  • D
  • Daimler, Gottlieb
  • Danish War
  • Danzig
  • Dawes Plan
  • D-Banks
  • D-Day
  • Degenerate Art
  • SAXON AND SALIAN DYNASTIES,
  • SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION
  • denazification
  • Denck, Hans
  • Depression, The Great
  • Depressions
  • détente
  • Diesel, Rudolf
  • Dietrich, Josef Sepp
  • Diplomatic Revolution of 1756
  • Dix, Otto
  • Döblin, Alfred
  • GOTTFRIED WILHELM VON LEIBNIZ
  • Dönitz, Karl
  • Dresden
  • Droste-Hülshoff, Annette
  • Dual Alliance
  • Dürer, Albrecht
  • Düsseldorf
  • E
  • Edict of Toleration
  • Ehrlich, Paul
  • Eichendorff, Joseph von
  • PIETISM
  • Eichmann, Adolf
  • Eicke, Theodor
  • Einsatzgruppen
  • Einstein, Albert
  • Eisner, Kurt
  • El Alamein, Battles of
  • Elbe River
  • Ems Telegram
  • Enabling Act
  • Engels, Friedrich
  • ROCOCO
  • ENIGMA/ULTRA
  • Enlightenment
  • Erasmus, Desiderius
  • Erfurt Program
  • Erhard, Ludwig
  • Ernst, Max
  • Erzberger, Matthias
  • Eugene, prince of Savoy
  • European Coal and Steel
  • European Defense Community
  • A
  • European Economic Community
  • European Union
  • euthanasia
  • expressionism
  • Falkenhayn, Erich von
  • F
  • Fatherland Party
  • Federal Constitutional Court
  • Federal Republic of Germany
  • Federation of German Industry
  • TURKISH WARS
  • Federation of German Womens
  • feminism, 18151945
  • feminism, 19452005
  • Ferdinand II
  • Feuerbach, Ludwig Andreas
  • Fichte, Johann Gottlieb
  • Final Solution
  • Fischer, Josef Joschka
  • Fischer von Erlach, John
  • Fontane, Theodor
  • WARS OF AUSTRIAN SUCCESSION
  • Four Year Plan
  • Francis II
  • Frank, Anne
  • Frank, Hans
  • Frankfurt am Main
  • Frankfurt Parliament
  • Frederick I
  • Frederick II, The Great
  • Frederick III
  • Frederick III, The Wise
  • STATE REFORMS
  • Frederick William
  • Frederick William I
  • Frederick William II
  • Frederick William III
  • Frederick William IV
  • Free Corps
  • Free Democratic Party
  • Freemasonry/Illuminati
  • French Revolutionary Wars
  • Freytag, Gustav
  • FOREIGN POLICY AND KAUNITZ
  • Friedrich, Caspar David
  • Fritsch, Werner von
  • Fugger, Jacob the Rich
  • Führerprinzip
  • G
  • Galen, Clemens August von
  • Gellert, Christian
  • General Directory
  • Genscher, Hans-Dietrich
  • Gentz, Friedrich
  • JOSEPH II AND REFORM
  • German Christians
  • German Communist Party
  • German Confederation
  • German Conservative Party
  • German Democratic Party
  • German Democratic Republic
  • German Labor Front
  • German National Peoples
  • German Peoples Party
  • German Progressive Party
  • HOHENSTAUFEN DYNASTY,
  • VIENNA AND ARCHITECTURE
  • German Reich (Imperial) Party
  • German Womens Bureau
  • German Workers Party
  • Germany Treaty
  • R
  • FREDERICK III
  • FREDERICK WILLIAM I, THE
  • FREDERICK THE GREAT
  • SEVEN YEARS WAR
  • S
  • ECONOMY
  • POLITICAL DECENTRALIZATION
  • SOCIAL STRUCTURE
  • HABSBURG DYNASTY
  • CULTURE
  • THE ENLIGHTENMENT
  • LITERATURE AND DRAMA
  • PHILOSOPHY
  • SECRET SOCIETIES
  • T
  • R
  • THE ROMANTIC MOVEMENT
  • NATIONALISM AND LIBERALISM
  • EARLY INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
  • CITIES AND CRAFT GUILDS
  • REVOLUTIONS OF 1848
  • ARMY REFORM AND PARLIAMENTARY
  • O
  • THE DANISH WAR, 1864
  • AUSTRO-PRUSSIAN WAR, 1866
  • THE FRANCO-PRUSSIAN WAR,
  • COLLAPSE OF THE SECOND FRENCH
  • I
  • N
  • ART AND ARCHITECTURE
  • ORIGINS OF CAPITALISM
  • SOCIAL STRUCTURE AND WOMEN
  • EDUCATION
  • T
  • POLITICAL PARTIES
  • THE KULTURKAMPF, SOCIALISM,
  • FOREIGN POLICY AND ALLIANCE
  • BISMARCKS DISMISSAL
  • WILHELMINE GERMANY
  • T
  • THE QUESTION OF
  • LATE MEDIEVAL CULTURE
  • CONDUCT OF THE WAR
  • PEACE RESOLUTION, REFORM, AND
  • AN UNPLANNED REVOLUTION
  • N
  • POLITICAL PARTIES UNPREPARED
  • A REVOLUTIONARY PATTERN
  • WORKERS AND SOLDIERS
  • KURT EISNER AND REVOLUTION IN
  • A REPUBLIC PROCLAIMED
  • A SEVERE ARMISTICE
  • T
  • ESTABLISHMENT OF A REVOLUTIONARY
  • EBERT MAKES A DEAL WITH THE
  • THE SPARTACISTS
  • INTERPRETATION OF THE
  • A VENGEFUL PEACE
  • V
  • THE GOALS OF THE PEACEMAKERS
  • TERMS OF THE TREATY
  • WAR GUILT AND REPARATIONS
  • DENUNCIATION AND RELUCTANT
  • GERMANIC MIGRATIONS AND
  • Brandenburg

    Brandenburg was an electorate of the HOLY

    ROMAN EMPIRE and was the territorial base of the

    HOHENZOLLERNS. It was merged with PRUSSIA in

    1701. After WORLD WAR II it was a state of the

    GDR, but was dissolved in 1952, and since

    reunification is one of the new federal states.

    Beginning in 1157 Albert I the Bear called himself

    the margrave of Brandenburg. In 1237 the city

    of BERLIN was founded. In 1415 Frederick VI

    Hohenzollern was given the hereditary possession

    of the Mark Brandenburg. FREDERICK WILLIAM,

    the Great Elector, margrave of Brandenburg, after

    having freed East Prussia from Polish overlordship

    in the course of the THIRTY YEARS WAR acquired

    eastern Pomerania and some other territories in

    the Treaty of Westphalia (1648). By inheritance in

    286 Brandenburg

    The Brandenburg Gate, Berlin, 1946 (Library of Congress)

    1614 the three small duchies of Cleves, Mark, and

    Ravensberg on the lower RHINE had also become

    part of Brandenburg Prussia. In 1688 his son Frederick

    (16571713) succeeded the Great Elector to

    the electorate (1688) as Frederick III. In 1701

    Frederick III was crowned Frederick I, king of

    Prussia, merging Brandenburg with Prussia. It was

    a province of Prussia from 1815 until 1945. After

    World War II Brandenburg lost the region east of

    the Oder.

    During IMPERIAL GERMANY Brandenburg

    industrialized, mainly in the Berlin area. In the

    administrative district of Potsdam the population

    tripled. Politically, the SOCIAL DEMOCRATIC PARTY

    obtained 54 percent of the vote in 1912, and

    during the WEIMAR REPUBLIC the representation

    of workers parties remained above average.

    Under the Nazis Brandenburg became one of the

    centers of arms production. After the war in the

    GDR steel and rolling mills, machine and vehicle

    construction and chemical plants were built.

    With reunification the entire industrial base of

    Brandenburg went into crisis, creating about 15

    percent unemployment.

    With reunification Brandenburg became one of

    the new federal states and possessed a small population

    of 2.65 million. The state surrounds Berlin

    and is subdivided into administrative districts. In

    June 1995 the Berlin House of Representatives

    and Brandenburg State Parliament approved the

    state treaty on the merger of the two states around

    the turn of the millennium. In the referendum

    held on May 5, 1996, however, the voters of

    Brandenburg turned down the merger. With its

    economic difficulties the successor to the SED, the

    PARTY OF DEMOCRATIC SOCIALISM, increased its

    vote from 13.4 percent of the vote to 18.7 percent

    in 1994, when its support equaled that of the

    CHRISTIAN DEMOCRATIC UNION. The elections of

    1999 saw a sharp increase in support for the radical

    right and the election of five members for the

    German Peoples Union (Volksunion).

    Brandt, Willy (19131992)

    first Socialist chancellor of the Federal Republic

    Willy Brandt, a Social Democratic chancellor,

    was one of the eminent statesmen who shaped

    Germanys postwar history. He was born with

    the name Herbert Frahm in the North Sea port

    of Lübeck on December 18, 1913, the illegitimate

    son of working-class parents. Only later

    when the Nazis came to power in 1933 did he

    change his name to Willy Brandt. Early on he

    found fellowship in the youth organizations of

    the SOCIAL DEMOCRATIC PARTY (SPD). He graduated

    from the Lübeck Gymnasium in 1932.

    Fortunately, he escaped capture by the secret

    police and confinement in a concentration

    camp, which happened to so many other

    socialists, by fleeing first to Norway and then in

    1940 to neutral Sweden. Throughout his exile

    he worked as a journalist and finally returned

    to Germany at the end of the war to cover the

    NUREMBERG TRIALS. In 1949 he succeeded in

    being elected SPD representative from Berlin in

    the new West German BUNDESTAG. In 1957 he

    became the mayor of West Berlin. He became

    internationally famous in resisting Soviet and

    East German pressures on the city. During the

    Berlin crisis of 1961 he was forced to witness

    the citys partition when the BERLIN WALL was

    erected in 1961.

    Meanwhile the Social Democratic Party was

    seeking ways it could attract more moderate voters

    and enhance its chances to become the

    majority party. Although the SPD had long

    ceased to favor revolutionary change, it decided

    to change its official Marxist program in 1959 at

    the Bad Godesburg Convention. A new program

    was approved, which abandoned Marxist determinism

    and affirmed the religious and philosophical

    roots of democratic socialism and the

    parliamentary system. The program also supported

    the idea of free competition and modified

    its demand for nationalization of the economy.

    Brandt now became an attractive and youthful

    candidate for the leadership of the party and

    became the partys candidate for chancellor in

    1961, 1965, and 1969. In 1966 the SPD entered

    the grand coalition with the CHRISTIAN DEMOCRATIC

    UNION (CDU), and Brandt became foreign

    minister. In the 1969 elections Brandt won the

    chancellorship. Domestically, he initiated many

    reforms in education and the economy. Not

    Brandt, Willy 287

    abandoning Germanys commitment to Western

    European economic integration that Konrad

    ADENAUER had begun, Brandt initiated a policy of

    improved relations with East Germany, East

    European Communist countries, and the Soviet

    Union, called OSTPOLITIK. Treaties on the renunciation

    of force were concluded with Moscow

    and Warsaw, and the Quadripartite Agreement

    on Berlin was signed. Brandt relaxed tensions

    between the two Germanys, so that both were

    able to enter the United Nations and Germans

    able to cross borders. It also led to his reception

    of the Nobel Peace Prize in 1971 for his efforts to

    promote international understanding. A scandal

    concerning an East German spy, Günter Guillaume,

    led to his resignation.

    Besides chairing the SPD until 1987, Brandt

    also became president of the Socialist International,

    which was a general organization of all

    Social Democratic Parties. He also chaired the

    Brandt Commission, which advocated the more

    equitable distribution of the worlds wealth.

    Brandt prepared the way for the reunification of

    Germany in 1989, an event that occurred much

    sooner than he had anticipated.

    were   GERMANC   Germany   Party   their   Prussians   army   state   government   became   they   during   Austrian   CHURCHES   French   political   Frederick   Nazis   Social   Hitler   after   against   economic   some   republican