• GERMANIC MIGRATIONS AND
  • FRANKISH KINGDOM
  • JOHANNES REUCHLIN
  • THE WEIMAR CONSTITUTION
  • W
  • INFLATION, REPARATIONS, AND
  • THE STRESEMANN ERA, 19231929
  • STABILIZATION AND LOCARNO,
  • CULTURE AND SOCIETY
  • ROAD TO DICTATORSHIP,
  • T
  • CONSOLIDATION OF POWER
  • THE NAZI TOTAL STATE
  • ULRICH VON HUTTEN
  • PERSECUTION OF THE JEWS
  • RELIGION AND THE CHURCHES
  • FOREIGN POLICY
  • W
  • THE BATTLE OF BRITAIN
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  • PHILIP MELANCHTHON
  • D-DAY TO DEFEAT NAZI GERMANY
  • THE HOLOCAUST
  • A
  • ALLIED PLANS AND CONFERENCES
  • DENAZIFICATION
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  • T
  • ERASMUS OF ROTTERDAM
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  • PRINTING AND MEDICINE
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  • T
  • UPRISING OF JUNE 17, 1953
  • ECONOMIC SYSTEM
  • SOCIETY, EDUCATION, AND
  • RELATIONS WITH THE FEDERAL
  • R
  • CONSEQUENCES AND PROBLEMS OF
  • ECONOMIC UNIFICATION,
  • P
  • RENAISSANCE ART
  • UNIFICATION POLITICS AND ITS
  • FOREIGN POLICY
  • GOVERNMENT AND ELECTIONS,
  • HISTORICAL DICTIONARY A
  • A
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  • P
  • Anglo-German Naval Treaty
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  • B
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  • ANABAPTISM AND MÜNTZER
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  • Bismarck, Otto Eduard Leopold
  • blank check
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  • C
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  • LITERATURE
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  • E
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  • F
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  • FREDERICK THE GREAT
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  • ECONOMY
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  • O
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  • BISMARCKS DISMISSAL
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  • T
  • THE QUESTION OF
  • LATE MEDIEVAL CULTURE
  • CONDUCT OF THE WAR
  • PEACE RESOLUTION, REFORM, AND
  • AN UNPLANNED REVOLUTION
  • N
  • POLITICAL PARTIES UNPREPARED
  • A REVOLUTIONARY PATTERN
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  • A REPUBLIC PROCLAIMED
  • A SEVERE ARMISTICE
  • T
  • ESTABLISHMENT OF A REVOLUTIONARY
  • EBERT MAKES A DEAL WITH THE
  • THE SPARTACISTS
  • INTERPRETATION OF THE
  • A VENGEFUL PEACE
  • V
  • THE GOALS OF THE PEACEMAKERS
  • TERMS OF THE TREATY
  • WAR GUILT AND REPARATIONS
  • DENUNCIATION AND RELUCTANT
  • GERMANIC MIGRATIONS AND
  • Berlin Conference

    lang=EN-US style='font-size:10.5pt;font-family:"Meridien-Medium","serif"; color:black'>(18841885)

    In winter 188485, 15 nations, including the

    Great Powers, met in Berlin at the invitation of

    Otto von BISMARCK to ease tensions among the

    European powers over the partition of Central

    Africa and to reach agreements over trade, navigation,

    and boundaries. The immediate cause of

    tension was British and Portuguese distrust of

    Belgian and French ambitions in the Congo and

    of German expansion in East Africa and the

    Cameroons. Even though Otto von Bismarck

    had no great personal interest in Africa, Germany

    had entered the colonial race exclusively

    for domestic reasons in order to support mercantile

    interests. Only as recently as 1884 had

    Germany entered the race for colonies, and in a

    short 12 months had proclaimed protectorates

    over Southwest Africa, Togoland, and the

    Cameroons, and the territories in East Africa.

    Germans like the Bremen merchant Adolf

    Lüderwitz, the Hamburg merchant Adolf Woermann,

    and Carl Peters, who organized the society

    for German colonization, pressed for

    government involvement.

    Bismarcks continental diplomacy enabled

    him to win colonies overseas. The state of foreign

    affairs between 1883 and 1885 made it possible

    for Bismarck to ignore Englands opposition to

    German colonial expansion. Tensions between

    England and France in Egypt and revolts in the

    Sudan neutralized England. France, on the other

    hand, was involved in Tunisia and Indochina and

    had decided to cooperate with Germany in the

    colonial field. The noteworthy cooperation with

    France climaxed in the Berlin Conference of

    188485 over the Congo, where France and Germany

    placed limits on Englands colonial predominance.

    The first thing the conference needed to

    judge was the conflicting claims in the Congo

    Basin, where the explorer Stanley had made

    claims that conflicted with the Portuguese and

    the British. The conference concluded by recognizing

    the Congo State and gave it access to the

    sea. Even though the title to the Congo Basin

    was given to the International Association,

    Leopold II of Belgium still controlled it and

    regarded it as his personal possession. Methods

    to suppress slavery and the slave trade were

    decided. Freedom of navigation on the Congo

    and Niger Rivers was also guaranteed. The conference

    made decisions concerning spheres of

    influence for the European powers so as to prevent

    a scramble for colonies that would lead to

    a major war.

    The Berlin Conference stirred European activity

    in Africa by facilitating trade on the Congo

    Berlin Conference 269

    and Niger Rivers. The way international law was

    conveniently applied to Africa was that any state

    could acquire territory by occupying it and notifying

    the other powers. As a result of the publicity

    the conference gave to Africa, the

    European powers completed the division of the

    continent during the next 10 years.

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