• GERMANIC MIGRATIONS AND
  • FRANKISH KINGDOM
  • JOHANNES REUCHLIN
  • THE WEIMAR CONSTITUTION
  • W
  • INFLATION, REPARATIONS, AND
  • THE STRESEMANN ERA, 19231929
  • STABILIZATION AND LOCARNO,
  • CULTURE AND SOCIETY
  • ROAD TO DICTATORSHIP,
  • T
  • CONSOLIDATION OF POWER
  • THE NAZI TOTAL STATE
  • ULRICH VON HUTTEN
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  • FOREIGN POLICY
  • W
  • THE BATTLE OF BRITAIN
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  • PHILIP MELANCHTHON
  • D-DAY TO DEFEAT NAZI GERMANY
  • THE HOLOCAUST
  • A
  • ALLIED PLANS AND CONFERENCES
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  • T
  • ERASMUS OF ROTTERDAM
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  • T
  • UPRISING OF JUNE 17, 1953
  • ECONOMIC SYSTEM
  • SOCIETY, EDUCATION, AND
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  • R
  • CONSEQUENCES AND PROBLEMS OF
  • ECONOMIC UNIFICATION,
  • P
  • RENAISSANCE ART
  • UNIFICATION POLITICS AND ITS
  • FOREIGN POLICY
  • GOVERNMENT AND ELECTIONS,
  • HISTORICAL DICTIONARY A
  • A
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  • P
  • Anglo-German Naval Treaty
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  • Armed Forces (Wehrmacht)
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  • B
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  • ANABAPTISM AND MÜNTZER
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  • Bismarck, Otto Eduard Leopold
  • blank check
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  • CHARLES V AND THE REFORMATION
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  • C
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  • Brecht, Bertolt
  • Bremen/Bremerhaven
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  • The Bridge
  • THE THIRTY YEARS WAR
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  • Bundesrat
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  • LITERATURE
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  • EBERT MAKES A DEAL WITH THE
  • THE SPARTACISTS
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  • A VENGEFUL PEACE
  • V
  • THE GOALS OF THE PEACEMAKERS
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  • DENUNCIATION AND RELUCTANT
  • GERMANIC MIGRATIONS AND
  • Berlin, Congress of

    lang=EN-US style='font-size:10.5pt;font-family:"Meridien-Medium","serif"; color:black'>(1878)

    The congress convened by Otto von BISMARCK

    was intended to revise the Treaty of San Stefano

    of March 1878, which had expanded Russian

    power from the Straits to the Adriatic, more to

    the liking of the Great Powers. The Near Eastern

    Crisis and Russo-Turkish War had led to the utter

    defeat of the Turks by the Russians. The decline

    of the Ottoman Empire had now opened sources

    of conflict between czarist Russia and Austria-

    Hungary, Bismarcks allies in the Three Emperors

    League (1873). Bismarck had refused to give the

    Russians a guarantee of support should a war

    occur with Austria-Hungary over the Balkans. So

    the forced settlement of San Stefano after the

    Turkish defeat had led to the creation of a pro-

    Russian Bulgarian state in the Balkans. As late as

    1877 the Russians and Austrians thought they

    were in agreement about common interests in

    the Balkans and that the Russians had no intentions

    of building up a larger Slavic state, which

    would create unrest among the Slavic peoples in

    the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Consequently, the

    Austrians felt betrayed. The British also objected

    to the expansion of Russian power through San

    Stefano and demanded a review of the peace

    treaty. British imperial interests could not tolerate

    the Russian control of the Balkans, which

    involved control of Turkish affairs. In this tense

    situation, which could have escalated into a war,

    Bismarck stepped in as an honest broker and

    sponsored the 1878 Berlin Congress.

    The congress was the most distinguished

    diplomatic meeting between the CONGRESS OF

    VIENNA and the Paris Peace Conference. Bismarck

    did not have a direct interest, except if

    war broke out between Austria and Russia,

    making Germany choose sides or remain neutral.

    Actually, it was concerning this affair that

    Bismarck made the famous remark that the

    Balkans were not worth the bones of a Pomeranian

    grenadier.

    The settlements confirmed in the Treaty of

    Berlin made few happy, and Russia was especially

    troubled at what she had to give up. Even

    though the British foreign secretary, Lord Salisbury,

    felt that Bismarck had favored the Rus-

    Berlin, Congress of 267

    sians more than the British, the Russians blamed

    their losses on Bismarck, which soured relations

    between St. Petersburg and Berlin. The negotiations

    resulted in the following: Bulgaria was

    made an autonomous principality free from any

    further Turkish interference, which nevertheless

    was galling to the Russians because Bulgaria had

    lost Eastern Rumelia and its access to the Aegean

    Sea; the independence of Serbia and Montenegro

    was confirmed; the independence of Rumania

    was also confirmed, (a process that had

    begun in 1856) and she obtained northern

    Dobruja in return for ceding Bessarabia to Russia;

    Russia was confirmed in its occupation of the

    Caucasus; and without any effort Austria-Hungary

    received the right to occupy Bosnia-Herzegovina

    and Novibazar, while Britain received the

    right to occupy the island of Cyprus. The other

    territories in the Balkans, which were taken

    from the Ottoman Empire, were returned.

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