• GERMANIC MIGRATIONS AND
  • FRANKISH KINGDOM
  • JOHANNES REUCHLIN
  • THE WEIMAR CONSTITUTION
  • W
  • INFLATION, REPARATIONS, AND
  • THE STRESEMANN ERA, 19231929
  • STABILIZATION AND LOCARNO,
  • CULTURE AND SOCIETY
  • ROAD TO DICTATORSHIP,
  • T
  • CONSOLIDATION OF POWER
  • THE NAZI TOTAL STATE
  • ULRICH VON HUTTEN
  • PERSECUTION OF THE JEWS
  • RELIGION AND THE CHURCHES
  • FOREIGN POLICY
  • W
  • THE BATTLE OF BRITAIN
  • INVASION OF RUSSIA
  • HITLERS PLANS FOR EUROPE
  • TURNING OF THE TIDE,
  • THE HOME FRONT
  • THE RESISTANCE
  • PHILIP MELANCHTHON
  • D-DAY TO DEFEAT NAZI GERMANY
  • THE HOLOCAUST
  • A
  • ALLIED PLANS AND CONFERENCES
  • DENAZIFICATION
  • POLITICAL PARTIES AND TRADE
  • LOCAL STATE FORMATION
  • PARLIAMENTARY COUNCIL AND THE
  • ECONOMIC RECONSTRUCTION
  • T
  • ERASMUS OF ROTTERDAM
  • BUNDESTAG ELECTION AND
  • REGAINING SOVEREIGNTY AND INTEGRATION
  • RECONSTRUCTION AND THE ECONOMIC
  • TRANSITIONAL YEARS AND
  • THE GRAND COALITION AND YOUTH
  • THE SOCIAL-LIBERAL COALITION
  • OSTPOLITIK (FOREIGN POLICY
  • CULTURE AND SOCIETY
  • SOCIAL STRUCTURE
  • SCHMIDT ERA: SOCIAL UNREST,
  • PRINTING AND MEDICINE
  • THE KOHL ERA, 19821998
  • T
  • UPRISING OF JUNE 17, 1953
  • ECONOMIC SYSTEM
  • SOCIETY, EDUCATION, AND
  • RELATIONS WITH THE FEDERAL
  • R
  • CONSEQUENCES AND PROBLEMS OF
  • ECONOMIC UNIFICATION,
  • P
  • RENAISSANCE ART
  • UNIFICATION POLITICS AND ITS
  • FOREIGN POLICY
  • GOVERNMENT AND ELECTIONS,
  • HISTORICAL DICTIONARY A
  • A
  • Abwehr
  • Adenauer, Konrad
  • Afrika Korps
  • Agadir Incident
  • Agrarian League
  • NEED FOR CHURCH REFORM
  • Agricola, Rudolf
  • Air Force
  • Albert (Albrecht) of
  • Albert V
  • Algeciras, Conference of
  • Allied Control Council
  • Alsace-Lorraine
  • Altdorfer, Albrecht
  • Amiens, Battle of
  • Anabaptists
  • P
  • Anglo-German Naval Treaty
  • Anschluss
  • Anti-Comintern Pact
  • anti-Semitism/Jew hatred
  • anti-Semitism
  • Anti-Socialist Law
  • Ardennes, Battle of the
  • Arendt, Hannah
  • Armed Forces (Wehrmacht)
  • Armed Forces (Bundeswehr):
  • LUTHER AND MELANCHTHON
  • Army (Prussian to 1860)
  • Army (Second Empire,
  • Asylum Law
  • Atlantic, Battle of the
  • Auerstadt, Battle of
  • Augsburg, Diet of
  • Augsburg, Religious Peace of
  • Augsburg, War of the League
  • Augsburg Confession
  • Augspurg, Anita
  • LUTHER AND ZWINGLI
  • Auschwitz-Birkenau
  • Austerlitz, Battle of
  • Austria
  • Austrian Succession, War of
  • autarchy
  • autobahns
  • Axis, The
  • B
  • Baden-Württemberg
  • Ballin, Albert
  • CAROLINGIAN EMPIRE
  • KNIGHTS REVOLT AND GREAT
  • Barbie, Klaus
  • Barmen Declaration
  • Barth, Karl
  • Basic Treaty
  • Bauernschutz
  • Bauhaus
  • Baumer, Gertrud
  • Bavaria
  • Bavarian Peoples Party (BVP)
  • Bavarian Succession, War of
  • REFORMATION AND THE TOWNS
  • Bayer AG
  • Bayreuth
  • Bebel, August
  • Beck, Ludwig August Theodor
  • Beckmann, Max
  • Beer-Hall Putsch of 1923
  • Beethoven, Ludwig van
  • Benjamin, Walter
  • Benn, Gottfried
  • Bennigsen, Rudolf von
  • ANABAPTISM AND MÜNTZER
  • Benz, Carl Friedrich
  • Bergen-Belsen
  • Berghof
  • Berlin
  • Berlin, Battle for (Fall of)
  • Berlin, Congress of
  • Berlin-Baghdad Railway
  • Berlin Blockade
  • Berlin Conference
  • Berlin Wall
  • CALVINISM IN GERMANY
  • Bernstein, Eduard
  • Bethmann Hollweg, Theobald
  • Biedermeier
  • Biermann, Wolf
  • Bismarck, Otto Eduard Leopold
  • blank check
  • Bleichröder, Gerson von
  • Blenheim, Battle of
  • Blomberg, Werner von
  • Blücher, Gebhard
  • CHARLES V AND THE REFORMATION
  • Böll, Heinrich
  • Bonhoeffer, Dietrich
  • Bonn
  • Bormann, Martin
  • Born, Max
  • Borsig, August
  • Bosch, Robert
  • Bosnia-Herzegovina
  • Brahms, Johannes
  • Brandenburg
  • C
  • Brauchitsch, Walther von
  • Braun, Eva
  • Braun, Karl Ferdinand
  • Braun, Otto
  • Braun, Wernher von
  • Brecht, Bertolt
  • Bremen/Bremerhaven
  • Brentano, Elizabeth Bettina
  • Breslau
  • The Bridge
  • THE THIRTY YEARS WAR
  • Britain, Battle of
  • Brüning, Heinrich
  • Buchenwald
  • Bülow, Bernhard von
  • Bundesrat
  • Bundestag
  • Burschenschaft
  • C
  • Canisius, Peter
  • canton system
  • A
  • Carlsbad Decrees
  • Celtis, Conrad
  • Center Party
  • Chamberlain, Houston Stewart
  • Charles V
  • Charles VI
  • Charles VII
  • Charlottenburg, Palace of
  • Christian Democratic Union
  • Christian Social Union
  • LITERATURE
  • Civil Code, German (Revised
  • Clausewitz, Carl von
  • Concordat of 1933
  • Condor Legion
  • The Confederation of the Rhine was a
  • Confessing Church
  • Congress of Vienna
  • conservatism
  • constitutional traditions
  • Counter-Reformation
  • MUSIC
  • Cranach, Lucas, the Elder
  • cultured elites
  • D
  • Daimler, Gottlieb
  • Danish War
  • Danzig
  • Dawes Plan
  • D-Banks
  • D-Day
  • Degenerate Art
  • SAXON AND SALIAN DYNASTIES,
  • SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION
  • denazification
  • Denck, Hans
  • Depression, The Great
  • Depressions
  • détente
  • Diesel, Rudolf
  • Dietrich, Josef Sepp
  • Diplomatic Revolution of 1756
  • Dix, Otto
  • Döblin, Alfred
  • GOTTFRIED WILHELM VON LEIBNIZ
  • Dönitz, Karl
  • Dresden
  • Droste-Hülshoff, Annette
  • Dual Alliance
  • Dürer, Albrecht
  • Düsseldorf
  • E
  • Edict of Toleration
  • Ehrlich, Paul
  • Eichendorff, Joseph von
  • PIETISM
  • Eichmann, Adolf
  • Eicke, Theodor
  • Einsatzgruppen
  • Einstein, Albert
  • Eisner, Kurt
  • El Alamein, Battles of
  • Elbe River
  • Ems Telegram
  • Enabling Act
  • Engels, Friedrich
  • ROCOCO
  • ENIGMA/ULTRA
  • Enlightenment
  • Erasmus, Desiderius
  • Erfurt Program
  • Erhard, Ludwig
  • Ernst, Max
  • Erzberger, Matthias
  • Eugene, prince of Savoy
  • European Coal and Steel
  • European Defense Community
  • A
  • European Economic Community
  • European Union
  • euthanasia
  • expressionism
  • Falkenhayn, Erich von
  • F
  • Fatherland Party
  • Federal Constitutional Court
  • Federal Republic of Germany
  • Federation of German Industry
  • TURKISH WARS
  • Federation of German Womens
  • feminism, 18151945
  • feminism, 19452005
  • Ferdinand II
  • Feuerbach, Ludwig Andreas
  • Fichte, Johann Gottlieb
  • Final Solution
  • Fischer, Josef Joschka
  • Fischer von Erlach, John
  • Fontane, Theodor
  • WARS OF AUSTRIAN SUCCESSION
  • Four Year Plan
  • Francis II
  • Frank, Anne
  • Frank, Hans
  • Frankfurt am Main
  • Frankfurt Parliament
  • Frederick I
  • Frederick II, The Great
  • Frederick III
  • Frederick III, The Wise
  • STATE REFORMS
  • Frederick William
  • Frederick William I
  • Frederick William II
  • Frederick William III
  • Frederick William IV
  • Free Corps
  • Free Democratic Party
  • Freemasonry/Illuminati
  • French Revolutionary Wars
  • Freytag, Gustav
  • FOREIGN POLICY AND KAUNITZ
  • Friedrich, Caspar David
  • Fritsch, Werner von
  • Fugger, Jacob the Rich
  • Führerprinzip
  • G
  • Galen, Clemens August von
  • Gellert, Christian
  • General Directory
  • Genscher, Hans-Dietrich
  • Gentz, Friedrich
  • JOSEPH II AND REFORM
  • German Christians
  • German Communist Party
  • German Confederation
  • German Conservative Party
  • German Democratic Party
  • German Democratic Republic
  • German Labor Front
  • German National Peoples
  • German Peoples Party
  • German Progressive Party
  • HOHENSTAUFEN DYNASTY,
  • VIENNA AND ARCHITECTURE
  • German Reich (Imperial) Party
  • German Womens Bureau
  • German Workers Party
  • Germany Treaty
  • R
  • FREDERICK III
  • FREDERICK WILLIAM I, THE
  • FREDERICK THE GREAT
  • SEVEN YEARS WAR
  • S
  • ECONOMY
  • POLITICAL DECENTRALIZATION
  • SOCIAL STRUCTURE
  • HABSBURG DYNASTY
  • CULTURE
  • THE ENLIGHTENMENT
  • LITERATURE AND DRAMA
  • PHILOSOPHY
  • SECRET SOCIETIES
  • T
  • R
  • THE ROMANTIC MOVEMENT
  • NATIONALISM AND LIBERALISM
  • EARLY INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
  • CITIES AND CRAFT GUILDS
  • REVOLUTIONS OF 1848
  • ARMY REFORM AND PARLIAMENTARY
  • O
  • THE DANISH WAR, 1864
  • AUSTRO-PRUSSIAN WAR, 1866
  • THE FRANCO-PRUSSIAN WAR,
  • COLLAPSE OF THE SECOND FRENCH
  • I
  • N
  • ART AND ARCHITECTURE
  • ORIGINS OF CAPITALISM
  • SOCIAL STRUCTURE AND WOMEN
  • EDUCATION
  • T
  • POLITICAL PARTIES
  • THE KULTURKAMPF, SOCIALISM,
  • FOREIGN POLICY AND ALLIANCE
  • BISMARCKS DISMISSAL
  • WILHELMINE GERMANY
  • T
  • THE QUESTION OF
  • LATE MEDIEVAL CULTURE
  • CONDUCT OF THE WAR
  • PEACE RESOLUTION, REFORM, AND
  • AN UNPLANNED REVOLUTION
  • N
  • POLITICAL PARTIES UNPREPARED
  • A REVOLUTIONARY PATTERN
  • WORKERS AND SOLDIERS
  • KURT EISNER AND REVOLUTION IN
  • A REPUBLIC PROCLAIMED
  • A SEVERE ARMISTICE
  • T
  • ESTABLISHMENT OF A REVOLUTIONARY
  • EBERT MAKES A DEAL WITH THE
  • THE SPARTACISTS
  • INTERPRETATION OF THE
  • A VENGEFUL PEACE
  • V
  • THE GOALS OF THE PEACEMAKERS
  • TERMS OF THE TREATY
  • WAR GUILT AND REPARATIONS
  • DENUNCIATION AND RELUCTANT
  • GERMANIC MIGRATIONS AND
  • Berlin

    The origins of the city of Berlin are to be found

    in the settlements of Berlin and Cölln, which

    264 Bergen-Belsen

    were settled by itinerant merchants in the valley

    of the Spree River during the 12th century.

    When the HOHENZOLLERNS arrived in BRANDENBURG,

    the city became the urban center and

    fortress of the March Brandenburg. Berlins designation

    as residence of the elector of Brandenburg

    in the mid-15th century enhanced the

    citys political, administrative, economic, and

    cultural importance. Schools were established,

    and culture was stimulated. Printers set up shop,

    and the first plays were performed in the city. In

    1617 Berlins first weekly newspaper began publication.

    Architecturally, the city was being constructed

    in the Renaissance style. Another factor

    that had a strong impact on Berlins overall

    development was the influx of Huguenot

    refugees from France, who were offered refuge

    by FREDERICK WILLIAM (16201688) who was

    the elector of Brandenburg from 16401688.

    The THIRTY YEARS WAR had a disastrous

    impact on the city, with the population dropping

    by half (12,000 to 6,000). The city lost its wealth

    to war, was pillaged, homes were burned, and

    many people committed suicide. After the wars

    were over, the city was reconstructed. The mercantilist

    policies of the 17th century sought to

    develop the citys economic base and supported

    manufacturing industries. A decisive trigger for

    the citys economic development was the construction

    of a canal that linked the Oder and

    Spree Rivers, providing a waterway from BRESLAU

    through Berlin to HAMBURG.

    The Great Elector had a positive effect on economic

    and cultural growth. He allowed the

    French Huguenots (Calvinists) and Jews to take

    refugee in Berlin. About 5,000 French Protestants

    came, creating new businesses such as

    paper, glass, and silk industries. In 1688 Frederick

    III (son of the Great Elector) became the

    elector of Brandenburg. He commissioned

    baroque architects to construct new buildings.

    His wife, Queen Sophie, encouraged art, science,

    and philosophy. In 1696 the Academy of Art was

    founded. Consequently, Berlin came to be

    known as Athens on the Spree. In 1701 Brandenburg

    and the duchy of Prussia were joined to

    form the Kingdom of Prussia, and Frederick was

    crowned King in Prussia in 1701. Then FREDERICK

    WILLIAM I, king of Prussia from 171340,

    known as the soldier king, laid out massive

    parade grounds in Berlin such as the Pariser

    Platz, Mehringplatz, and Tempelhofer Feld (later

    to become Tempelhof Airport, which became

    famous during the Berlin airlift (1948). In 1735

    a wall was built around Berlin for the purpose of

    collecting tolls. When FREDERICK II known as

    the Great ruled from 1740 to 1788, he

    expanded the arts building, the State Opera

    House (Staatsoper). The ENLIGHTENMENT was in

    full swing, and Berlin residents such as Gotthold

    Ephraim LESSING and Moses MENDELSSOHN made

    their contributions.

    During the NAPOLEONIC WARS Prussian

    national pride suffered due to the defeats at the

    BATTLES OF JENA and AUERSTADT in 1806.

    Napoleon even marched his victorious army

    through the Brandenburg Gate. After the WAR

    OF LIBERATION Berlin was at peace again. The

    railroads made their appearance with the first

    line constructed between Berlin and POTSDAM.

    The Berlin Zoo was founded in 1844. The population

    of 400,000 had grown too large, as at

    least half were impoverished and about 40 percent

    of the city budget was earmarked for charity.

    This was one of the reasons why the

    REVOLUTION OF 1848 spread to Berlin. Two hundred

    people were killed as citizens took to the

    streets. The revolution collapsed. In 1862 Otto

    von BISMARCK was appointed minister-president

    of Prussia and in eight years brought about the

    unification of Germany. In 1871 Berlin was designated

    the capital of the German Empire and

    seat of the newly established Reich administration.

    The population expanded to 3.7 million by

    1910. A municipal water system was built as

    well as elevated railways and electric street lighting.

    Berlin also became an industrial city as the

    home of a large working-class population. Class

    struggles developed and there was a huge

    increase in support for the SOCIAL DEMOCRATIC

    PARTY. WORLD WAR I created unrest and eventually

    led to massive strikes against the war.

    During the revolutionary events of November

    1918 Germany was declared a republic.

    Berlin 265

    During the WEIMAR REPUBLIC Berlin continued

    to be the capital but also became an international

    center of intellectual and cultural life. It

    had a vibrant social life as all classes participated

    in Berlins so-called decadent nightlife. Babelsburg

    on the outskirts of the city was the home of

    Europes largest film industry. Movies such as

    Metropolis and The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari were produced

    there, while Greta Garbo and Marlene

    Dietrich went from Berlin to Hollywood. Berlin

    also became an important publishing center,

    printing some 150 daily and weekly newspapers.

    When the DEPRESSION hit, the unemployment of

    some 600,000 people rocked the city while Nazis

    and Communists had open battles in the streets.

    HITLER became chancellor in January 1933,

    imposing a reign of terror that repressed dissent.

    The REICHSTAG BUILDING was burned. The Jewish

    population was persecuted, and most left the

    city for foreign countries or concentration camps.

    Concentration camps were set up in the Columbiahaus

    in Tempelhof and in Oranienburg outside

    of Berlin. The war had a horrific impact on

    Berlin as Allied bombing and the Russian army

    destroyed or damaged 39 percent of its housing

    and 35 percent of its industrial plant.

    At the end of WORLDWAR II the Allies assumed

    supreme power in Berlin. In 1948 the BERLIN

    BLOCKADE by the Russians attempted to starve

    the Western sector, and the BERLIN WALL was

    built in 1961 to keep the East Germans from

    escaping to the West. West Berlin had special

    status in the FEDERAL REPUBLIC. It no longer was

    the German capital, which had been moved to

    BONN, the new capital of the Federal Republic.

    East Berlin, however, remained the capital of the

    GERMAN DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC. On June 17,

    1953, workers in East Berlin and other parts of

    the GDR went on strike and started a near revolution,

    which was crushed with the help of the

    Russian army. In West Berlin many foreign

    workers, especially Turkish guest workers, took

    up residence in Kreuzberg. The reunification of

    Germany in 1990 presented the city with the

    task of harmonizing the different structures and

    social conditions that had developed during the

    40 years of division. The unified German government

    decided to move its capital from Bonn

    back to Berlin, which has been undergoing great

    changes due to the massive construction projects.

    The Kurfurstendamm is no longer separated, and

    one can walk through the Brandenburg Gate

    unhindered.

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