• GERMANIC MIGRATIONS AND
  • FRANKISH KINGDOM
  • JOHANNES REUCHLIN
  • THE WEIMAR CONSTITUTION
  • W
  • INFLATION, REPARATIONS, AND
  • THE STRESEMANN ERA, 19231929
  • STABILIZATION AND LOCARNO,
  • CULTURE AND SOCIETY
  • ROAD TO DICTATORSHIP,
  • T
  • CONSOLIDATION OF POWER
  • THE NAZI TOTAL STATE
  • ULRICH VON HUTTEN
  • PERSECUTION OF THE JEWS
  • RELIGION AND THE CHURCHES
  • FOREIGN POLICY
  • W
  • THE BATTLE OF BRITAIN
  • INVASION OF RUSSIA
  • HITLERS PLANS FOR EUROPE
  • TURNING OF THE TIDE,
  • THE HOME FRONT
  • THE RESISTANCE
  • PHILIP MELANCHTHON
  • D-DAY TO DEFEAT NAZI GERMANY
  • THE HOLOCAUST
  • A
  • ALLIED PLANS AND CONFERENCES
  • DENAZIFICATION
  • POLITICAL PARTIES AND TRADE
  • LOCAL STATE FORMATION
  • PARLIAMENTARY COUNCIL AND THE
  • ECONOMIC RECONSTRUCTION
  • T
  • ERASMUS OF ROTTERDAM
  • BUNDESTAG ELECTION AND
  • REGAINING SOVEREIGNTY AND INTEGRATION
  • RECONSTRUCTION AND THE ECONOMIC
  • TRANSITIONAL YEARS AND
  • THE GRAND COALITION AND YOUTH
  • THE SOCIAL-LIBERAL COALITION
  • OSTPOLITIK (FOREIGN POLICY
  • CULTURE AND SOCIETY
  • SOCIAL STRUCTURE
  • SCHMIDT ERA: SOCIAL UNREST,
  • PRINTING AND MEDICINE
  • THE KOHL ERA, 19821998
  • T
  • UPRISING OF JUNE 17, 1953
  • ECONOMIC SYSTEM
  • SOCIETY, EDUCATION, AND
  • RELATIONS WITH THE FEDERAL
  • R
  • CONSEQUENCES AND PROBLEMS OF
  • ECONOMIC UNIFICATION,
  • P
  • RENAISSANCE ART
  • UNIFICATION POLITICS AND ITS
  • FOREIGN POLICY
  • GOVERNMENT AND ELECTIONS,
  • HISTORICAL DICTIONARY A
  • A
  • Abwehr
  • Adenauer, Konrad
  • Afrika Korps
  • Agadir Incident
  • Agrarian League
  • NEED FOR CHURCH REFORM
  • Agricola, Rudolf
  • Air Force
  • Albert (Albrecht) of
  • Albert V
  • Algeciras, Conference of
  • Allied Control Council
  • Alsace-Lorraine
  • Altdorfer, Albrecht
  • Amiens, Battle of
  • Anabaptists
  • P
  • Anglo-German Naval Treaty
  • Anschluss
  • Anti-Comintern Pact
  • anti-Semitism/Jew hatred
  • anti-Semitism
  • Anti-Socialist Law
  • Ardennes, Battle of the
  • Arendt, Hannah
  • Armed Forces (Wehrmacht)
  • Armed Forces (Bundeswehr):
  • LUTHER AND MELANCHTHON
  • Army (Prussian to 1860)
  • Army (Second Empire,
  • Asylum Law
  • Atlantic, Battle of the
  • Auerstadt, Battle of
  • Augsburg, Diet of
  • Augsburg, Religious Peace of
  • Augsburg, War of the League
  • Augsburg Confession
  • Augspurg, Anita
  • LUTHER AND ZWINGLI
  • Auschwitz-Birkenau
  • Austerlitz, Battle of
  • Austria
  • Austrian Succession, War of
  • autarchy
  • autobahns
  • Axis, The
  • B
  • Baden-Württemberg
  • Ballin, Albert
  • CAROLINGIAN EMPIRE
  • KNIGHTS REVOLT AND GREAT
  • Barbie, Klaus
  • Barmen Declaration
  • Barth, Karl
  • Basic Treaty
  • Bauernschutz
  • Bauhaus
  • Baumer, Gertrud
  • Bavaria
  • Bavarian Peoples Party (BVP)
  • Bavarian Succession, War of
  • REFORMATION AND THE TOWNS
  • Bayer AG
  • Bayreuth
  • Bebel, August
  • Beck, Ludwig August Theodor
  • Beckmann, Max
  • Beer-Hall Putsch of 1923
  • Beethoven, Ludwig van
  • Benjamin, Walter
  • Benn, Gottfried
  • Bennigsen, Rudolf von
  • ANABAPTISM AND MÜNTZER
  • Benz, Carl Friedrich
  • Bergen-Belsen
  • Berghof
  • Berlin
  • Berlin, Battle for (Fall of)
  • Berlin, Congress of
  • Berlin-Baghdad Railway
  • Berlin Blockade
  • Berlin Conference
  • Berlin Wall
  • CALVINISM IN GERMANY
  • Bernstein, Eduard
  • Bethmann Hollweg, Theobald
  • Biedermeier
  • Biermann, Wolf
  • Bismarck, Otto Eduard Leopold
  • blank check
  • Bleichröder, Gerson von
  • Blenheim, Battle of
  • Blomberg, Werner von
  • Blücher, Gebhard
  • CHARLES V AND THE REFORMATION
  • Böll, Heinrich
  • Bonhoeffer, Dietrich
  • Bonn
  • Bormann, Martin
  • Born, Max
  • Borsig, August
  • Bosch, Robert
  • Bosnia-Herzegovina
  • Brahms, Johannes
  • Brandenburg
  • C
  • Brauchitsch, Walther von
  • Braun, Eva
  • Braun, Karl Ferdinand
  • Braun, Otto
  • Braun, Wernher von
  • Brecht, Bertolt
  • Bremen/Bremerhaven
  • Brentano, Elizabeth Bettina
  • Breslau
  • The Bridge
  • THE THIRTY YEARS WAR
  • Britain, Battle of
  • Brüning, Heinrich
  • Buchenwald
  • Bülow, Bernhard von
  • Bundesrat
  • Bundestag
  • Burschenschaft
  • C
  • Canisius, Peter
  • canton system
  • A
  • Carlsbad Decrees
  • Celtis, Conrad
  • Center Party
  • Chamberlain, Houston Stewart
  • Charles V
  • Charles VI
  • Charles VII
  • Charlottenburg, Palace of
  • Christian Democratic Union
  • Christian Social Union
  • LITERATURE
  • Civil Code, German (Revised
  • Clausewitz, Carl von
  • Concordat of 1933
  • Condor Legion
  • The Confederation of the Rhine was a
  • Confessing Church
  • Congress of Vienna
  • conservatism
  • constitutional traditions
  • Counter-Reformation
  • MUSIC
  • Cranach, Lucas, the Elder
  • cultured elites
  • D
  • Daimler, Gottlieb
  • Danish War
  • Danzig
  • Dawes Plan
  • D-Banks
  • D-Day
  • Degenerate Art
  • SAXON AND SALIAN DYNASTIES,
  • SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION
  • denazification
  • Denck, Hans
  • Depression, The Great
  • Depressions
  • détente
  • Diesel, Rudolf
  • Dietrich, Josef Sepp
  • Diplomatic Revolution of 1756
  • Dix, Otto
  • Döblin, Alfred
  • GOTTFRIED WILHELM VON LEIBNIZ
  • Dönitz, Karl
  • Dresden
  • Droste-Hülshoff, Annette
  • Dual Alliance
  • Dürer, Albrecht
  • Düsseldorf
  • E
  • Edict of Toleration
  • Ehrlich, Paul
  • Eichendorff, Joseph von
  • PIETISM
  • Eichmann, Adolf
  • Eicke, Theodor
  • Einsatzgruppen
  • Einstein, Albert
  • Eisner, Kurt
  • El Alamein, Battles of
  • Elbe River
  • Ems Telegram
  • Enabling Act
  • Engels, Friedrich
  • ROCOCO
  • ENIGMA/ULTRA
  • Enlightenment
  • Erasmus, Desiderius
  • Erfurt Program
  • Erhard, Ludwig
  • Ernst, Max
  • Erzberger, Matthias
  • Eugene, prince of Savoy
  • European Coal and Steel
  • European Defense Community
  • A
  • European Economic Community
  • European Union
  • euthanasia
  • expressionism
  • Falkenhayn, Erich von
  • F
  • Fatherland Party
  • Federal Constitutional Court
  • Federal Republic of Germany
  • Federation of German Industry
  • TURKISH WARS
  • Federation of German Womens
  • feminism, 18151945
  • feminism, 19452005
  • Ferdinand II
  • Feuerbach, Ludwig Andreas
  • Fichte, Johann Gottlieb
  • Final Solution
  • Fischer, Josef Joschka
  • Fischer von Erlach, John
  • Fontane, Theodor
  • WARS OF AUSTRIAN SUCCESSION
  • Four Year Plan
  • Francis II
  • Frank, Anne
  • Frank, Hans
  • Frankfurt am Main
  • Frankfurt Parliament
  • Frederick I
  • Frederick II, The Great
  • Frederick III
  • Frederick III, The Wise
  • STATE REFORMS
  • Frederick William
  • Frederick William I
  • Frederick William II
  • Frederick William III
  • Frederick William IV
  • Free Corps
  • Free Democratic Party
  • Freemasonry/Illuminati
  • French Revolutionary Wars
  • Freytag, Gustav
  • FOREIGN POLICY AND KAUNITZ
  • Friedrich, Caspar David
  • Fritsch, Werner von
  • Fugger, Jacob the Rich
  • Führerprinzip
  • G
  • Galen, Clemens August von
  • Gellert, Christian
  • General Directory
  • Genscher, Hans-Dietrich
  • Gentz, Friedrich
  • JOSEPH II AND REFORM
  • German Christians
  • German Communist Party
  • German Confederation
  • German Conservative Party
  • German Democratic Party
  • German Democratic Republic
  • German Labor Front
  • German National Peoples
  • German Peoples Party
  • German Progressive Party
  • HOHENSTAUFEN DYNASTY,
  • VIENNA AND ARCHITECTURE
  • German Reich (Imperial) Party
  • German Womens Bureau
  • German Workers Party
  • Germany Treaty
  • R
  • FREDERICK III
  • FREDERICK WILLIAM I, THE
  • FREDERICK THE GREAT
  • SEVEN YEARS WAR
  • S
  • ECONOMY
  • POLITICAL DECENTRALIZATION
  • SOCIAL STRUCTURE
  • HABSBURG DYNASTY
  • CULTURE
  • THE ENLIGHTENMENT
  • LITERATURE AND DRAMA
  • PHILOSOPHY
  • SECRET SOCIETIES
  • T
  • R
  • THE ROMANTIC MOVEMENT
  • NATIONALISM AND LIBERALISM
  • EARLY INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
  • CITIES AND CRAFT GUILDS
  • REVOLUTIONS OF 1848
  • ARMY REFORM AND PARLIAMENTARY
  • O
  • THE DANISH WAR, 1864
  • AUSTRO-PRUSSIAN WAR, 1866
  • THE FRANCO-PRUSSIAN WAR,
  • COLLAPSE OF THE SECOND FRENCH
  • I
  • N
  • ART AND ARCHITECTURE
  • ORIGINS OF CAPITALISM
  • SOCIAL STRUCTURE AND WOMEN
  • EDUCATION
  • T
  • POLITICAL PARTIES
  • THE KULTURKAMPF, SOCIALISM,
  • FOREIGN POLICY AND ALLIANCE
  • BISMARCKS DISMISSAL
  • WILHELMINE GERMANY
  • T
  • THE QUESTION OF
  • LATE MEDIEVAL CULTURE
  • CONDUCT OF THE WAR
  • PEACE RESOLUTION, REFORM, AND
  • AN UNPLANNED REVOLUTION
  • N
  • POLITICAL PARTIES UNPREPARED
  • A REVOLUTIONARY PATTERN
  • WORKERS AND SOLDIERS
  • KURT EISNER AND REVOLUTION IN
  • A REPUBLIC PROCLAIMED
  • A SEVERE ARMISTICE
  • T
  • ESTABLISHMENT OF A REVOLUTIONARY
  • EBERT MAKES A DEAL WITH THE
  • THE SPARTACISTS
  • INTERPRETATION OF THE
  • A VENGEFUL PEACE
  • V
  • THE GOALS OF THE PEACEMAKERS
  • TERMS OF THE TREATY
  • WAR GUILT AND REPARATIONS
  • DENUNCIATION AND RELUCTANT
  • GERMANIC MIGRATIONS AND
  • Bavaria

    As one of the tributary duchies in the Carolingian

    Empire, Bavaria was ruled by the Agilofinger

    dynasty. Until 1255 its capital was

    REGENSBURG. Later the WITTELSBACH family

    ruled from 1180 to 1918. The duke of Bavaria

    became an elector (Kurfürst) in 1623, succeeding

    Bavaria 253

    the elector of the Palatinate, Friedrich V, who

    was deprived of his electoral privilege after being

    defeated in the THIRTY YEARS WAR. The new

    elector also received the Palatinate, which continued

    as part of Bavaria until 1945. During the

    COUNTER-REFORMATION Bavaria became a principal

    supporter of Roman Catholicism. In the

    18th century Bavaria sought unsuccessfully to

    rival AUSTRIA as the leading state in Germany.

    The French Revolution and Napoleonic periods

    significantly influenced Bavaria. In 1805

    under Napoleon Bonaparte Bavaria became a

    monarchy when the elector received the title of

    King Maximilian I Joseph (180625). Bavaria

    was also geographically enlarged with predominantly

    Protestant areas in Franconia and Swabia

    being added to an almost exclusively Catholic

    state. While Bavaria was Napoleons ally, it made

    a significant contribution to Napoleons invasion

    of Russia but turned against him during the

    WARS OF LIBERATION, which allowed Bavaria to

    retain most of its territorial gains at the

    CONGRESS OF VIENNA.

    Under the succeeding king, LUDWIG I, Bavaria

    became a center of the arts, especially in

    MUNICH. The REVOLUTION OF 1848 forced him to

    abdicate, and he was succeeded by MAXIMILIAN

    II. On the national question Bavaria favored the

    greater German solution, the inclusion of Austria

    in a united Germany. In 1866 Bavaria supported

    Austria against Prussia in the Seven

    Weeks War but was invaded, defeated, and

    forced to pay reparations. Having been forced by

    Otto von BISMARCK to sign a defensive alliance

    with Prussia, Bavaria was drawn into the

    Franco-Prussian War and was included in the

    new Second German Empire on January 18,

    1871. As part of the bargain of accepting membership

    in the new German empire, certain

    rights were reserved for Bavaria, reflecting its

    attempt to preserve its identity. Bismarck

    allowed Bavaria to maintain a separate army

    and command structure in peacetime, separate

    diplomatic representation abroad, and a separate

    rail and postal system. Bavaria retained permanent

    seats on the Imperial committees of defense

    and foreign affairs. In addition it retained its

    taxes on alcoholic beverages, independent control

    of citizenship, residency, colonization, and

    emigration. King LUDWIG II also received a secret

    fund from Bismarck, despite the lack of enthusiasm

    demonstrated by his absence at the coronation

    ceremony of the emperor at Versailles.

    Bavaria was a predominantly Catholic state,

    but was administered by a liberal government

    and bureaucracy. It soon was at odds with Bismarck

    over the KULTURKAMPF. The Bavarian

    Patriots Party founded in 1869 represented the

    interests of the Catholic majority as would the

    Bavarian wing of the Catholic CENTER PARTY. The

    late 19th century was also a period of social and

    economic change in this still predominantly

    agricultural region. Industrialism and urbanization

    first affected AUGSBURG and NUREMBERG and

    later MUNICH. The capital also flowered as a center

    for literature, theater, art, and architecture.

    After the strange death of Ludwig II in 1886, his

    successor, Otto, was mentally incapable of ruling.

    From 1886 to 1912 Prince Regent Luitpold

    remained nominally king until 1913, when Ludwig

    III succeeded him.

    During WORLD WAR I Bavaria contributed

    some 900,000 soldiers to the war effort with

    some 200,000 killed. As elsewhere the population

    suffered, but Bavarians became especially

    resentful toward BERLINs centralization of

    power. With the end of the war the revolutionary

    turmoil of 1918 first toppled the Wittelsbach

    dynasty, which was swept away by Kurt EISNER,

    who established a socialist republic. Munich was

    one of the few German cities to experience a

    Soviet-type republic during spring 1919 and its

    brutal suppression. Although Bavarians initially

    supported the WEIMAR CONSTITUTION and the

    WEIMAR REPUBLIC, the political trend was to the

    right and proto-Nazi paramilitary groups called

    Free Corps were tolerated. Bavarias native conservatism

    was represented by the BAVARIAN PEOPLES

    PARTY (BVP), which also significantly

    contributed to the election of Paul von HINDENBURG

    as president of the Reich in 1925. In

    November 1923 the Nazis under the leadership

    of Adolf HITLER failed in their attempt to take

    over the government. Hitler was tried and con-

    254 Bavaria

    victed, and spent a short period in Landsberg

    prison. During the period when the Nazi Party

    dramatically expanded between 1930 and 1933,

    the Bavarian Peoples Party steadfastly opposed

    it. After the seizure of power in 1933 Bavaria

    like the other German states became a party district

    (partygaue) and succumbed to Nazi control.

    The first concentration camp of the Third Reich

    was established by Heinrich HIMMLER in

    DACHAU. The war severely affected Bavaria, and

    it experienced the same catastrophic destruction

    as the rest of Germany.

    With the division of Germany into occupation

    zones, the principal southern part of Bavaria

    came under the American occupation authorities,

    while the Bavarian Palatinate was lost to the

    French zone. DENAZIFICATION, as well as political

    and economic reconstruction occurred under

    Allied tutelage. Bavarian political leaders in

    keeping with their historical traditions favored a

    decentralized federal government as a protection

    against another dictatorship. Between 1946 and

    1948 the successor party to the Bavarian Peoples

    Party was formed, now constituted as the CHRISTIAN

    SOCIAL UNION (CSU), which supported the

    inauguration of the FEDERAL REPUBLIC of Germany

    in BONN in May 1949. The CSU continued

    to be the most outspoken champion of federalism

    and states rights in the new era.

    Developments over the decades leading up to

    reunification in 1990 witnessed many changes.

    As an interdenominational party the CSU was

    popular enough to control every Bavarian government

    except one. By 1970 Bavaria also was

    rapidly becoming an industrial state. Economic

    modernization was achieved especially in the

    fields of automotives, machine tools, electronics,

    aerospace, and tourism. The influx of some 2

    million Sudeten German refugees added significantly

    to this economic transformation. Bavarians

    liked to call their economic transformation

    the Isar Valley in imitation of Californias Silicon

    Valley. Agriculture, however, remained an

    important part of the economy and provided a

    conservative base of support for the CSU. In

    national politics the CSU was allied with the

    CHRISTIAN DEMOCRATIC UNION (CDU), which

    gave the Bavarians influence in the highest government

    circles, symbolized by the career and

    influence of Franz Josef STRAUSS (191588).

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