• GERMANIC MIGRATIONS AND
  • FRANKISH KINGDOM
  • JOHANNES REUCHLIN
  • THE WEIMAR CONSTITUTION
  • W
  • INFLATION, REPARATIONS, AND
  • THE STRESEMANN ERA, 19231929
  • STABILIZATION AND LOCARNO,
  • CULTURE AND SOCIETY
  • ROAD TO DICTATORSHIP,
  • T
  • CONSOLIDATION OF POWER
  • THE NAZI TOTAL STATE
  • ULRICH VON HUTTEN
  • PERSECUTION OF THE JEWS
  • RELIGION AND THE CHURCHES
  • FOREIGN POLICY
  • W
  • THE BATTLE OF BRITAIN
  • INVASION OF RUSSIA
  • HITLERS PLANS FOR EUROPE
  • TURNING OF THE TIDE,
  • THE HOME FRONT
  • THE RESISTANCE
  • PHILIP MELANCHTHON
  • D-DAY TO DEFEAT NAZI GERMANY
  • THE HOLOCAUST
  • A
  • ALLIED PLANS AND CONFERENCES
  • DENAZIFICATION
  • POLITICAL PARTIES AND TRADE
  • LOCAL STATE FORMATION
  • PARLIAMENTARY COUNCIL AND THE
  • ECONOMIC RECONSTRUCTION
  • T
  • ERASMUS OF ROTTERDAM
  • BUNDESTAG ELECTION AND
  • REGAINING SOVEREIGNTY AND INTEGRATION
  • RECONSTRUCTION AND THE ECONOMIC
  • TRANSITIONAL YEARS AND
  • THE GRAND COALITION AND YOUTH
  • THE SOCIAL-LIBERAL COALITION
  • OSTPOLITIK (FOREIGN POLICY
  • CULTURE AND SOCIETY
  • SOCIAL STRUCTURE
  • SCHMIDT ERA: SOCIAL UNREST,
  • PRINTING AND MEDICINE
  • THE KOHL ERA, 19821998
  • T
  • UPRISING OF JUNE 17, 1953
  • ECONOMIC SYSTEM
  • SOCIETY, EDUCATION, AND
  • RELATIONS WITH THE FEDERAL
  • R
  • CONSEQUENCES AND PROBLEMS OF
  • ECONOMIC UNIFICATION,
  • P
  • RENAISSANCE ART
  • UNIFICATION POLITICS AND ITS
  • FOREIGN POLICY
  • GOVERNMENT AND ELECTIONS,
  • HISTORICAL DICTIONARY A
  • A
  • Abwehr
  • Adenauer, Konrad
  • Afrika Korps
  • Agadir Incident
  • Agrarian League
  • NEED FOR CHURCH REFORM
  • Agricola, Rudolf
  • Air Force
  • Albert (Albrecht) of
  • Albert V
  • Algeciras, Conference of
  • Allied Control Council
  • Alsace-Lorraine
  • Altdorfer, Albrecht
  • Amiens, Battle of
  • Anabaptists
  • P
  • Anglo-German Naval Treaty
  • Anschluss
  • Anti-Comintern Pact
  • anti-Semitism/Jew hatred
  • anti-Semitism
  • Anti-Socialist Law
  • Ardennes, Battle of the
  • Arendt, Hannah
  • Armed Forces (Wehrmacht)
  • Armed Forces (Bundeswehr):
  • LUTHER AND MELANCHTHON
  • Army (Prussian to 1860)
  • Army (Second Empire,
  • Asylum Law
  • Atlantic, Battle of the
  • Auerstadt, Battle of
  • Augsburg, Diet of
  • Augsburg, Religious Peace of
  • Augsburg, War of the League
  • Augsburg Confession
  • Augspurg, Anita
  • LUTHER AND ZWINGLI
  • Auschwitz-Birkenau
  • Austerlitz, Battle of
  • Austria
  • Austrian Succession, War of
  • autarchy
  • autobahns
  • Axis, The
  • B
  • Baden-Württemberg
  • Ballin, Albert
  • CAROLINGIAN EMPIRE
  • KNIGHTS REVOLT AND GREAT
  • Barbie, Klaus
  • Barmen Declaration
  • Barth, Karl
  • Basic Treaty
  • Bauernschutz
  • Bauhaus
  • Baumer, Gertrud
  • Bavaria
  • Bavarian Peoples Party (BVP)
  • Bavarian Succession, War of
  • REFORMATION AND THE TOWNS
  • Bayer AG
  • Bayreuth
  • Bebel, August
  • Beck, Ludwig August Theodor
  • Beckmann, Max
  • Beer-Hall Putsch of 1923
  • Beethoven, Ludwig van
  • Benjamin, Walter
  • Benn, Gottfried
  • Bennigsen, Rudolf von
  • ANABAPTISM AND MÜNTZER
  • Benz, Carl Friedrich
  • Bergen-Belsen
  • Berghof
  • Berlin
  • Berlin, Battle for (Fall of)
  • Berlin, Congress of
  • Berlin-Baghdad Railway
  • Berlin Blockade
  • Berlin Conference
  • Berlin Wall
  • CALVINISM IN GERMANY
  • Bernstein, Eduard
  • Bethmann Hollweg, Theobald
  • Biedermeier
  • Biermann, Wolf
  • Bismarck, Otto Eduard Leopold
  • blank check
  • Bleichröder, Gerson von
  • Blenheim, Battle of
  • Blomberg, Werner von
  • Blücher, Gebhard
  • CHARLES V AND THE REFORMATION
  • Böll, Heinrich
  • Bonhoeffer, Dietrich
  • Bonn
  • Bormann, Martin
  • Born, Max
  • Borsig, August
  • Bosch, Robert
  • Bosnia-Herzegovina
  • Brahms, Johannes
  • Brandenburg
  • C
  • Brauchitsch, Walther von
  • Braun, Eva
  • Braun, Karl Ferdinand
  • Braun, Otto
  • Braun, Wernher von
  • Brecht, Bertolt
  • Bremen/Bremerhaven
  • Brentano, Elizabeth Bettina
  • Breslau
  • The Bridge
  • THE THIRTY YEARS WAR
  • Britain, Battle of
  • Brüning, Heinrich
  • Buchenwald
  • Bülow, Bernhard von
  • Bundesrat
  • Bundestag
  • Burschenschaft
  • C
  • Canisius, Peter
  • canton system
  • A
  • Carlsbad Decrees
  • Celtis, Conrad
  • Center Party
  • Chamberlain, Houston Stewart
  • Charles V
  • Charles VI
  • Charles VII
  • Charlottenburg, Palace of
  • Christian Democratic Union
  • Christian Social Union
  • LITERATURE
  • Civil Code, German (Revised
  • Clausewitz, Carl von
  • Concordat of 1933
  • Condor Legion
  • The Confederation of the Rhine was a
  • Confessing Church
  • Congress of Vienna
  • conservatism
  • constitutional traditions
  • Counter-Reformation
  • MUSIC
  • Cranach, Lucas, the Elder
  • cultured elites
  • D
  • Daimler, Gottlieb
  • Danish War
  • Danzig
  • Dawes Plan
  • D-Banks
  • D-Day
  • Degenerate Art
  • SAXON AND SALIAN DYNASTIES,
  • SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION
  • denazification
  • Denck, Hans
  • Depression, The Great
  • Depressions
  • détente
  • Diesel, Rudolf
  • Dietrich, Josef Sepp
  • Diplomatic Revolution of 1756
  • Dix, Otto
  • Döblin, Alfred
  • GOTTFRIED WILHELM VON LEIBNIZ
  • Dönitz, Karl
  • Dresden
  • Droste-Hülshoff, Annette
  • Dual Alliance
  • Dürer, Albrecht
  • Düsseldorf
  • E
  • Edict of Toleration
  • Ehrlich, Paul
  • Eichendorff, Joseph von
  • PIETISM
  • Eichmann, Adolf
  • Eicke, Theodor
  • Einsatzgruppen
  • Einstein, Albert
  • Eisner, Kurt
  • El Alamein, Battles of
  • Elbe River
  • Ems Telegram
  • Enabling Act
  • Engels, Friedrich
  • ROCOCO
  • ENIGMA/ULTRA
  • Enlightenment
  • Erasmus, Desiderius
  • Erfurt Program
  • Erhard, Ludwig
  • Ernst, Max
  • Erzberger, Matthias
  • Eugene, prince of Savoy
  • European Coal and Steel
  • European Defense Community
  • A
  • European Economic Community
  • European Union
  • euthanasia
  • expressionism
  • Falkenhayn, Erich von
  • F
  • Fatherland Party
  • Federal Constitutional Court
  • Federal Republic of Germany
  • Federation of German Industry
  • TURKISH WARS
  • Federation of German Womens
  • feminism, 18151945
  • feminism, 19452005
  • Ferdinand II
  • Feuerbach, Ludwig Andreas
  • Fichte, Johann Gottlieb
  • Final Solution
  • Fischer, Josef Joschka
  • Fischer von Erlach, John
  • Fontane, Theodor
  • WARS OF AUSTRIAN SUCCESSION
  • Four Year Plan
  • Francis II
  • Frank, Anne
  • Frank, Hans
  • Frankfurt am Main
  • Frankfurt Parliament
  • Frederick I
  • Frederick II, The Great
  • Frederick III
  • Frederick III, The Wise
  • STATE REFORMS
  • Frederick William
  • Frederick William I
  • Frederick William II
  • Frederick William III
  • Frederick William IV
  • Free Corps
  • Free Democratic Party
  • Freemasonry/Illuminati
  • French Revolutionary Wars
  • Freytag, Gustav
  • FOREIGN POLICY AND KAUNITZ
  • Friedrich, Caspar David
  • Fritsch, Werner von
  • Fugger, Jacob the Rich
  • Führerprinzip
  • G
  • Galen, Clemens August von
  • Gellert, Christian
  • General Directory
  • Genscher, Hans-Dietrich
  • Gentz, Friedrich
  • JOSEPH II AND REFORM
  • German Christians
  • German Communist Party
  • German Confederation
  • German Conservative Party
  • German Democratic Party
  • German Democratic Republic
  • German Labor Front
  • German National Peoples
  • German Peoples Party
  • German Progressive Party
  • HOHENSTAUFEN DYNASTY,
  • VIENNA AND ARCHITECTURE
  • German Reich (Imperial) Party
  • German Womens Bureau
  • German Workers Party
  • Germany Treaty
  • R
  • FREDERICK III
  • FREDERICK WILLIAM I, THE
  • FREDERICK THE GREAT
  • SEVEN YEARS WAR
  • S
  • ECONOMY
  • POLITICAL DECENTRALIZATION
  • SOCIAL STRUCTURE
  • HABSBURG DYNASTY
  • CULTURE
  • THE ENLIGHTENMENT
  • LITERATURE AND DRAMA
  • PHILOSOPHY
  • SECRET SOCIETIES
  • T
  • R
  • THE ROMANTIC MOVEMENT
  • NATIONALISM AND LIBERALISM
  • EARLY INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
  • CITIES AND CRAFT GUILDS
  • REVOLUTIONS OF 1848
  • ARMY REFORM AND PARLIAMENTARY
  • O
  • THE DANISH WAR, 1864
  • AUSTRO-PRUSSIAN WAR, 1866
  • THE FRANCO-PRUSSIAN WAR,
  • COLLAPSE OF THE SECOND FRENCH
  • I
  • N
  • ART AND ARCHITECTURE
  • ORIGINS OF CAPITALISM
  • SOCIAL STRUCTURE AND WOMEN
  • EDUCATION
  • T
  • POLITICAL PARTIES
  • THE KULTURKAMPF, SOCIALISM,
  • FOREIGN POLICY AND ALLIANCE
  • BISMARCKS DISMISSAL
  • WILHELMINE GERMANY
  • T
  • THE QUESTION OF
  • LATE MEDIEVAL CULTURE
  • CONDUCT OF THE WAR
  • PEACE RESOLUTION, REFORM, AND
  • AN UNPLANNED REVOLUTION
  • N
  • POLITICAL PARTIES UNPREPARED
  • A REVOLUTIONARY PATTERN
  • WORKERS AND SOLDIERS
  • KURT EISNER AND REVOLUTION IN
  • A REPUBLIC PROCLAIMED
  • A SEVERE ARMISTICE
  • T
  • ESTABLISHMENT OF A REVOLUTIONARY
  • EBERT MAKES A DEAL WITH THE
  • THE SPARTACISTS
  • INTERPRETATION OF THE
  • A VENGEFUL PEACE
  • V
  • THE GOALS OF THE PEACEMAKERS
  • TERMS OF THE TREATY
  • WAR GUILT AND REPARATIONS
  • DENUNCIATION AND RELUCTANT
  • GERMANIC MIGRATIONS AND
  • Barth, Karl

    lang=EN-US style='font-size:10.5pt;font-family:"Meridien-Medium","serif"; color:black'>(18861968)

    theologian

    Karl Barth was a famous Swiss (Reformed) theologian

    who was opposed to liberal theology and

    became a proponent of so-called dialectical theology.

    He was famous for his opposition to the

    Nazi regime. He played a significant role in the

    formulation of the BARMEN DECLARATION of the

    CONFESSING CHURCH.

    Karl Barth was born in Basel, Switzerland, on

    May 10, 1886. He was ordained a pastor in the

    Reformed Church in 1911. During WORLD WAR

    I he developed pacifist views. Receiving his first

    professorship in 1921 at the UNIVERSITY OF GÖTTINGEN,

    he later moved to Münster and BONN.

    Barths teachings emphasized the absolute difference

    between man and God, mans inability

    to solve his own problems, and his complete

    dependence on revelation. He was opposed to

    liberal theology and developed a so-called

    dialectical theology, which became a center of

    theological debate. Seeking to end the subservience

    of theology to the interests of the state,

    he focused on the theme of the revelation of

    God as the Wholly Other. It was a theology

    focused on Gods work and critical of human

    endeavor. It was not, however, a distant Calvinist

    God, but under the influence of Martin

    LUTHER, a more human concept of God. His Epistle

    to the Romans of 1919 was the first work in this

    theological existentialism. The dialectical school

    was one of a number of schools of thought that

    wanted to restore the absoluteness of the Christian

    religion.

    Karl Barth was the leading theologian behind

    the Barmen Declaration of 1934. To Karl Barth

    the beliefs of the GERMAN CHRISTIANS were

    heretical. They had made race an expression of

    sacred truth, part of Gods revelation, and thus

    opened up German Christianity to a flood of

    non-Christian and anti-Christian beliefs, attitudes,

    and activities. Barth like other theologians,

    however, failed to see that the racism of

    the German Christians was rooted in anti-Jewishness.

    On the other hand, he wrote: Protest

    against the German Christian heresy cannot

    simply begin with the Aryan Paragraph, nor

    with their rejection of the Old Testament, the

    Arianism of their Christology, the naturalism

    and pelagianism (a heresy in the early church)

    of their teachings of justification and sanctification,

    nor the idolization of the state that characterizes

    German Christian ethics. Rather, the

    error of German Christians was to place the Germanic

    race (Volkstum) as a revelation equal to

    that of Holy Scripture.

    Because Barth refused to take an oath of allegiance

    to HITLER, he was removed from his professorship

    at Bonn. He was commanded to begin

    his lectures on God each day by raising his arm

    in salute and saying Heil Hitler! which he

    denounced as blasphemy.

    After being expelled from Germany, he spent

    the rest of his career at the University of Basel

    and was also well known in the United States

    after the war. He died on December 10, 1968.

    Basic Law, The

    The Basic Law for the FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY

    was adopted in 1949. Its authors intended

    it as a temporary framework for a new democratic

    system, not as a definitive constitution.

    The Basic Law called upon the people to

    achieve in free self-determination the unity and

    freedom of Germany. A parliamentary council,

    250 Barth, Karl

    whose 65 members had been designated by the

    state parliaments, drafted the Basic Law as the

    constitutional foundation for the future West

    German state. The Parliamentary Council

    adopted the Basic Law with a large majority on

    May 8, 1949. After having been approved by the

    military governors, the constitutional instrument

    was endorsed by the parliaments of all the

    states except BAVARIA. Konrad ADENAUER, the

    president of the Parliamentary Council, promulgated

    the Basic Law on May 23, 1949, after

    which it became effective. At first the Allied

    occupying powers retained substantial sovereign

    rights, but these were gradually transferred to

    the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) and the

    GERMAN DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC (GDR). The Allies

    retained responsibility for Germany as a whole,

    however, until October 3, 1990, when the German

    Democratic Republic acceded to the Federal

    Republic of Germany, thus uniting the two German

    states.

    The Basic Law provided the foundation for a

    stable democracy and thus prevented the kind of

    situation that during the end of the WEIMAR

    REPUBLIC made it possible to establish the Nazi

    dictatorship. One of the first requirements was

    to limit the powers of the state so as to protect

    the rights of the individual citizens. The Basic

    Law also created a system of values within

    which protection of individual freedom and

    human dignity is the highest principle of law.

    The citizen, however, is not viewed as an individual

    separate from the rest of society but as a

    part of the community.

    According to Article 20, four fundamental

    principles determined the political and social

    structure of the Federal Republic, and Article 79

    expressly states that these four central principles

    may not be amended. The Basic Law affirmed

    that the state is based on democracy, the rule of

    law, social justice, and that it is not a unitary but

    a federal state. Under the democratic principle

    all authority (sovereignty) comes from the people,

    and state authority is effected through an

    elected representative democracy. The Basic Law

    provided for direct decisions by the people

    through referendum, but only where federal territory

    is to be reorganized. The rule of law principle

    meant that the actions of the state are to be

    governed by the law and justice. The functions

    of the state were intended to be exercised by

    independent legislative, executive, and judicial

    authorities. All government measures may be

    reviewed by independent judges to determine

    whether they are in accord with the law.

    The basic rights enumerated in Articles 1 to

    20 reflected the liberal tradition expressed at the

    constitutional meetings in FRANKFURT during the

    REVOLUTION OF 1848. Citizen rights have been

    protected by the law against arbitrary actions of

    the state. The parliament (BUNDESTAG) is also

    bound by the constitution, and its laws must be

    consistent with it. The social-state principle recognized

    the responsibility of the state to ensure

    that members of the community are free from

    want, can live in dignified humane circumstances,

    and share in the nations prosperity. This

    requirement was intended to balance social discrepancies

    and to assure social security and

    social justice. The federal system was chosen

    because of Germanys deep-rooted federalist tradition,

    which also left scope for the expression

    of different cultural and political traditions. At

    the same time a separation of powers was established

    with the division of legislative, executive,

    and judicial powers, which strengthens constitutionalism.

    It was intended to prevent excessive

    concentrations of power and the abuses that can

    result. A FEDERAL CONSTITUTIONAL COURT was

    also established to ensure that all laws conform

    to the constitution.

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