• GERMANIC MIGRATIONS AND
  • FRANKISH KINGDOM
  • JOHANNES REUCHLIN
  • THE WEIMAR CONSTITUTION
  • W
  • INFLATION, REPARATIONS, AND
  • THE STRESEMANN ERA, 19231929
  • STABILIZATION AND LOCARNO,
  • CULTURE AND SOCIETY
  • ROAD TO DICTATORSHIP,
  • T
  • CONSOLIDATION OF POWER
  • THE NAZI TOTAL STATE
  • ULRICH VON HUTTEN
  • PERSECUTION OF THE JEWS
  • RELIGION AND THE CHURCHES
  • FOREIGN POLICY
  • W
  • THE BATTLE OF BRITAIN
  • INVASION OF RUSSIA
  • HITLERS PLANS FOR EUROPE
  • TURNING OF THE TIDE,
  • THE HOME FRONT
  • THE RESISTANCE
  • PHILIP MELANCHTHON
  • D-DAY TO DEFEAT NAZI GERMANY
  • THE HOLOCAUST
  • A
  • ALLIED PLANS AND CONFERENCES
  • DENAZIFICATION
  • POLITICAL PARTIES AND TRADE
  • LOCAL STATE FORMATION
  • PARLIAMENTARY COUNCIL AND THE
  • ECONOMIC RECONSTRUCTION
  • T
  • ERASMUS OF ROTTERDAM
  • BUNDESTAG ELECTION AND
  • REGAINING SOVEREIGNTY AND INTEGRATION
  • RECONSTRUCTION AND THE ECONOMIC
  • TRANSITIONAL YEARS AND
  • THE GRAND COALITION AND YOUTH
  • THE SOCIAL-LIBERAL COALITION
  • OSTPOLITIK (FOREIGN POLICY
  • CULTURE AND SOCIETY
  • SOCIAL STRUCTURE
  • SCHMIDT ERA: SOCIAL UNREST,
  • PRINTING AND MEDICINE
  • THE KOHL ERA, 19821998
  • T
  • UPRISING OF JUNE 17, 1953
  • ECONOMIC SYSTEM
  • SOCIETY, EDUCATION, AND
  • RELATIONS WITH THE FEDERAL
  • R
  • CONSEQUENCES AND PROBLEMS OF
  • ECONOMIC UNIFICATION,
  • P
  • RENAISSANCE ART
  • UNIFICATION POLITICS AND ITS
  • FOREIGN POLICY
  • GOVERNMENT AND ELECTIONS,
  • HISTORICAL DICTIONARY A
  • A
  • Abwehr
  • Adenauer, Konrad
  • Afrika Korps
  • Agadir Incident
  • Agrarian League
  • NEED FOR CHURCH REFORM
  • Agricola, Rudolf
  • Air Force
  • Albert (Albrecht) of
  • Albert V
  • Algeciras, Conference of
  • Allied Control Council
  • Alsace-Lorraine
  • Altdorfer, Albrecht
  • Amiens, Battle of
  • Anabaptists
  • P
  • Anglo-German Naval Treaty
  • Anschluss
  • Anti-Comintern Pact
  • anti-Semitism/Jew hatred
  • anti-Semitism
  • Anti-Socialist Law
  • Ardennes, Battle of the
  • Arendt, Hannah
  • Armed Forces (Wehrmacht)
  • Armed Forces (Bundeswehr):
  • LUTHER AND MELANCHTHON
  • Army (Prussian to 1860)
  • Army (Second Empire,
  • Asylum Law
  • Atlantic, Battle of the
  • Auerstadt, Battle of
  • Augsburg, Diet of
  • Augsburg, Religious Peace of
  • Augsburg, War of the League
  • Augsburg Confession
  • Augspurg, Anita
  • LUTHER AND ZWINGLI
  • Auschwitz-Birkenau
  • Austerlitz, Battle of
  • Austria
  • Austrian Succession, War of
  • autarchy
  • autobahns
  • Axis, The
  • B
  • Baden-Württemberg
  • Ballin, Albert
  • CAROLINGIAN EMPIRE
  • KNIGHTS REVOLT AND GREAT
  • Barbie, Klaus
  • Barmen Declaration
  • Barth, Karl
  • Basic Treaty
  • Bauernschutz
  • Bauhaus
  • Baumer, Gertrud
  • Bavaria
  • Bavarian Peoples Party (BVP)
  • Bavarian Succession, War of
  • REFORMATION AND THE TOWNS
  • Bayer AG
  • Bayreuth
  • Bebel, August
  • Beck, Ludwig August Theodor
  • Beckmann, Max
  • Beer-Hall Putsch of 1923
  • Beethoven, Ludwig van
  • Benjamin, Walter
  • Benn, Gottfried
  • Bennigsen, Rudolf von
  • ANABAPTISM AND MÜNTZER
  • Benz, Carl Friedrich
  • Bergen-Belsen
  • Berghof
  • Berlin
  • Berlin, Battle for (Fall of)
  • Berlin, Congress of
  • Berlin-Baghdad Railway
  • Berlin Blockade
  • Berlin Conference
  • Berlin Wall
  • CALVINISM IN GERMANY
  • Bernstein, Eduard
  • Bethmann Hollweg, Theobald
  • Biedermeier
  • Biermann, Wolf
  • Bismarck, Otto Eduard Leopold
  • blank check
  • Bleichröder, Gerson von
  • Blenheim, Battle of
  • Blomberg, Werner von
  • Blücher, Gebhard
  • CHARLES V AND THE REFORMATION
  • Böll, Heinrich
  • Bonhoeffer, Dietrich
  • Bonn
  • Bormann, Martin
  • Born, Max
  • Borsig, August
  • Bosch, Robert
  • Bosnia-Herzegovina
  • Brahms, Johannes
  • Brandenburg
  • C
  • Brauchitsch, Walther von
  • Braun, Eva
  • Braun, Karl Ferdinand
  • Braun, Otto
  • Braun, Wernher von
  • Brecht, Bertolt
  • Bremen/Bremerhaven
  • Brentano, Elizabeth Bettina
  • Breslau
  • The Bridge
  • THE THIRTY YEARS WAR
  • Britain, Battle of
  • Brüning, Heinrich
  • Buchenwald
  • Bülow, Bernhard von
  • Bundesrat
  • Bundestag
  • Burschenschaft
  • C
  • Canisius, Peter
  • canton system
  • A
  • Carlsbad Decrees
  • Celtis, Conrad
  • Center Party
  • Chamberlain, Houston Stewart
  • Charles V
  • Charles VI
  • Charles VII
  • Charlottenburg, Palace of
  • Christian Democratic Union
  • Christian Social Union
  • LITERATURE
  • Civil Code, German (Revised
  • Clausewitz, Carl von
  • Concordat of 1933
  • Condor Legion
  • The Confederation of the Rhine was a
  • Confessing Church
  • Congress of Vienna
  • conservatism
  • constitutional traditions
  • Counter-Reformation
  • MUSIC
  • Cranach, Lucas, the Elder
  • cultured elites
  • D
  • Daimler, Gottlieb
  • Danish War
  • Danzig
  • Dawes Plan
  • D-Banks
  • D-Day
  • Degenerate Art
  • SAXON AND SALIAN DYNASTIES,
  • SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION
  • denazification
  • Denck, Hans
  • Depression, The Great
  • Depressions
  • détente
  • Diesel, Rudolf
  • Dietrich, Josef Sepp
  • Diplomatic Revolution of 1756
  • Dix, Otto
  • Döblin, Alfred
  • GOTTFRIED WILHELM VON LEIBNIZ
  • Dönitz, Karl
  • Dresden
  • Droste-Hülshoff, Annette
  • Dual Alliance
  • Dürer, Albrecht
  • Düsseldorf
  • E
  • Edict of Toleration
  • Ehrlich, Paul
  • Eichendorff, Joseph von
  • PIETISM
  • Eichmann, Adolf
  • Eicke, Theodor
  • Einsatzgruppen
  • Einstein, Albert
  • Eisner, Kurt
  • El Alamein, Battles of
  • Elbe River
  • Ems Telegram
  • Enabling Act
  • Engels, Friedrich
  • ROCOCO
  • ENIGMA/ULTRA
  • Enlightenment
  • Erasmus, Desiderius
  • Erfurt Program
  • Erhard, Ludwig
  • Ernst, Max
  • Erzberger, Matthias
  • Eugene, prince of Savoy
  • European Coal and Steel
  • European Defense Community
  • A
  • European Economic Community
  • European Union
  • euthanasia
  • expressionism
  • Falkenhayn, Erich von
  • F
  • Fatherland Party
  • Federal Constitutional Court
  • Federal Republic of Germany
  • Federation of German Industry
  • TURKISH WARS
  • Federation of German Womens
  • feminism, 18151945
  • feminism, 19452005
  • Ferdinand II
  • Feuerbach, Ludwig Andreas
  • Fichte, Johann Gottlieb
  • Final Solution
  • Fischer, Josef Joschka
  • Fischer von Erlach, John
  • Fontane, Theodor
  • WARS OF AUSTRIAN SUCCESSION
  • Four Year Plan
  • Francis II
  • Frank, Anne
  • Frank, Hans
  • Frankfurt am Main
  • Frankfurt Parliament
  • Frederick I
  • Frederick II, The Great
  • Frederick III
  • Frederick III, The Wise
  • STATE REFORMS
  • Frederick William
  • Frederick William I
  • Frederick William II
  • Frederick William III
  • Frederick William IV
  • Free Corps
  • Free Democratic Party
  • Freemasonry/Illuminati
  • French Revolutionary Wars
  • Freytag, Gustav
  • FOREIGN POLICY AND KAUNITZ
  • Friedrich, Caspar David
  • Fritsch, Werner von
  • Fugger, Jacob the Rich
  • Führerprinzip
  • G
  • Galen, Clemens August von
  • Gellert, Christian
  • General Directory
  • Genscher, Hans-Dietrich
  • Gentz, Friedrich
  • JOSEPH II AND REFORM
  • German Christians
  • German Communist Party
  • German Confederation
  • German Conservative Party
  • German Democratic Party
  • German Democratic Republic
  • German Labor Front
  • German National Peoples
  • German Peoples Party
  • German Progressive Party
  • HOHENSTAUFEN DYNASTY,
  • VIENNA AND ARCHITECTURE
  • German Reich (Imperial) Party
  • German Womens Bureau
  • German Workers Party
  • Germany Treaty
  • R
  • FREDERICK III
  • FREDERICK WILLIAM I, THE
  • FREDERICK THE GREAT
  • SEVEN YEARS WAR
  • S
  • ECONOMY
  • POLITICAL DECENTRALIZATION
  • SOCIAL STRUCTURE
  • HABSBURG DYNASTY
  • CULTURE
  • THE ENLIGHTENMENT
  • LITERATURE AND DRAMA
  • PHILOSOPHY
  • SECRET SOCIETIES
  • T
  • R
  • THE ROMANTIC MOVEMENT
  • NATIONALISM AND LIBERALISM
  • EARLY INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
  • CITIES AND CRAFT GUILDS
  • REVOLUTIONS OF 1848
  • ARMY REFORM AND PARLIAMENTARY
  • O
  • THE DANISH WAR, 1864
  • AUSTRO-PRUSSIAN WAR, 1866
  • THE FRANCO-PRUSSIAN WAR,
  • COLLAPSE OF THE SECOND FRENCH
  • I
  • N
  • ART AND ARCHITECTURE
  • ORIGINS OF CAPITALISM
  • SOCIAL STRUCTURE AND WOMEN
  • EDUCATION
  • T
  • POLITICAL PARTIES
  • THE KULTURKAMPF, SOCIALISM,
  • FOREIGN POLICY AND ALLIANCE
  • BISMARCKS DISMISSAL
  • WILHELMINE GERMANY
  • T
  • THE QUESTION OF
  • LATE MEDIEVAL CULTURE
  • CONDUCT OF THE WAR
  • PEACE RESOLUTION, REFORM, AND
  • AN UNPLANNED REVOLUTION
  • N
  • POLITICAL PARTIES UNPREPARED
  • A REVOLUTIONARY PATTERN
  • WORKERS AND SOLDIERS
  • KURT EISNER AND REVOLUTION IN
  • A REPUBLIC PROCLAIMED
  • A SEVERE ARMISTICE
  • T
  • ESTABLISHMENT OF A REVOLUTIONARY
  • EBERT MAKES A DEAL WITH THE
  • THE SPARTACISTS
  • INTERPRETATION OF THE
  • A VENGEFUL PEACE
  • V
  • THE GOALS OF THE PEACEMAKERS
  • TERMS OF THE TREATY
  • WAR GUILT AND REPARATIONS
  • DENUNCIATION AND RELUCTANT
  • GERMANIC MIGRATIONS AND
  • Barmen Declaration

    lang=EN-US style='font-size:10.5pt;font-family:"Meridien-Medium","serif"; color:black'>(1934)

    The Barmen Declaration was a statement of

    belief of the CONFESSING CHURCH. It expressed its

    opposition to the official national church and the

    new ideology of the GERMAN CHRISTIANS, reject-

    Barmen Declaration 247

    ing the totalitarian claims of the Nazi state on

    the church.

    The purpose of the Barmen Declaration was

    to give the traditionally divided German Protestant

    churches a basis for cooperation and a

    defense against the onslaught of the Faith

    Movement of the German Christians from

    within their own churches, and against the

    increasing encroachment of the Nazi state and

    party on church institutions and activities. Such

    a uniting creedal document was drafted and

    accepted, and further elaboration of the document

    within the different denominations was

    planned but never materialized.

    Most of the pastors delegated to the Barmen

    Synod of May 1934 had been members of the

    Emergency League since 1933, and as members

    of this league each one had to sign that the

    application of racial laws (i.e., the Aryan paragraph)

    to the church community was a violation

    of the Christian creed. Some of the leading

    members that drafted the declaration hoped,

    after winning unity among the heterogeneous

    groups of different Protestant denominations,

    that a theologically revived and unified church

    would oppose the nonbiblical racism of the Nazi

    movementa belief that turned out to be naive

    at best. The Barmen Declaration meant different

    things to different people; it has been called a

    bridge, rather than a new foundation for the

    various churches that agreed to it, and it was

    certainly realistic that any explicit political

    agenda would have had no chance of being

    adopted. Nevertheless, the Confessing Church

    did appear, at home and abroad, as the last

    refuge of freedom and independence in a land

    locked into gear and oppressed.

    The Barmen confessional corresponded significantly

    with the teaching of the theologian Karl

    BARTH. According to Barth, The church is that

    community which derives its being from the decisiveness

    of Gods presence among men in Jesus

    Christ and lives by acknowledging and confessing

    that fact before men. Barth interjected his own

    brand of aggressive theology by urging participation

    of Christians within the community of men.

    He knew that serious differences existed between

    the Nazis and the church. Barth attempted to

    redress the polarization of church and state so

    that these differences could be contested. For him

    it was more than just a matter of jurisdiction. It

    was not enough to merely accept the existing role

    of the church; the church was also responsible

    for the state in times of political misconduct.

    Although Barth was interested in redressing state

    policies, most Confessing Church members tried

    to achieve a modus vivendi with the Reich government

    and supported Nazi policies so long as

    they did not intrude upon the autonomy and

    prestige of the Protestant Church. The church

    was attempting to regain its hegemony within the

    realm of religious affairs.

    baroque culture, German

    The term baroque applies to the style in the arts

    of painting, architecture, and sculpture that

    expressed dynamic energy, flux and swaying

    movement, and dramatic contrast. It was a significant

    part of the culture of the 17th century

    but lasted in some cases into the 18th. Baroque

    artists tried to harmonize the classical styles of

    Renaissance art with the intense religious feelings

    manifested in the REFORMATION. The pictorial

    nature of the art of that period emphasizes

    softened contours in light and shade, as in a

    Rembrandt painting. Baroque painting, sculpture,

    and architecture stressed space and used

    light and color to dissolve form. Contours were

    irregular, and the total effect of a building was

    indented rather than the compact and solid

    nature of the classical style. Baroque architecture

    aimed at dramatic effects, and baroque

    sculpture portrayed emotional intensity or imitated

    the realities of nature. The baroque was

    able to fuse elements inherited from the past.

    From the Gothic, baroque art took over a striving

    to express the supernatural and an interest

    in closely observed detail in nature, while from

    the Renaissance the baroque continued the use

    of classic forms in architecture.

    The baroque style began in Italy in the last

    quarter of the 16th century and then moved into

    Germany and AUSTRIA. Architecture reflected the

    248 baroque culture, German

    search for grandeur and power that was

    widespread in the 17th century. Overall splendor

    with magnificently ornamented facades and

    sweeping staircases were meant to impress

    princes and awe a rulers subjects. The numerous

    absolute rulers of the German principalities

    during the period from 1690 to 1770 aspired to

    reside in palaces that imitated Versailles of Louis

    XIV. Two examples were the Zwinger Palace at

    Dresden designed by Mätthias Pöppelmann and

    the Würzburg and Bruchsal Palaces by Balthasar

    NEUMANN (16871753). In Austria the chief

    architects were Johann Bernard FISCHER VON

    ERLACH (16561723) and Johann Lucas von

    HILDEBRANDT (16681745).

    The baroque style was enthusiastically

    embraced by the Catholic COUNTER-REFORMATION.

    It was especially popular in the Habsburg

    courts of Vienna, Prague, Madrid, and Brussels.

    Eventually it spread to Latin America. The

    Catholic Church commissioned many new monumental

    churches, providing for the faithful an

    earthly demonstration of the truth and power of

    the Catholic faith. Grandeur in the use of domes

    was softened by delicacy of detail in sculpture

    and carving. An effective exterior is the facade

    of the Church of the Fourteen Saints by Balthasar

    Neumann. Classical motifs such as pilasters and

    pediments were used in an original attempt to

    reproduce the verticality of the Gothic. Andreas

    Schlüter created perhaps the best-known baroque

    bronze in the equestrian statue of the Great Elector

    in Berlin. It incorporated various influences,

    especially the Marcus Aurelius statue of ancient

    Rome. The painted wood sculptures of Bavaria

    and Austria in church altars are so realistic and

    charming that one can imagine oneself in their

    presence. The figures of the Virgin Mary, Mary

    Magdalene, the saints and angels, and representations

    of the Christ Child appear to be representations

    of beautiful models, while their

    features and gestures are expressive of grief, tearful

    sorrow, or radiant joy. At Weyarn in Upper

    Bavaria Franz Ignaz Günther (172575) sculpted

    his Pietà and Annunciation (1764) representing

    Bavarian rococo at its very best. In MUNICHs

    Bürgersaal Church there stands the unique

    statue of the Guardian Angel, which shows the

    Archangel Raphael leading the young, overawed,

    and trusting Tobias by the hand.

    In the 17th century German literature was

    still enslaved to foreign and especially French

    models. Yet, leadership for a new beginning was

    provided by Martin Opitz, who was the father of

    modern German poetry and provided rules for

    generations of German writers. Paul Fleming

    expressed his creative imagination in his lyric

    poetry, while Friedrich von Spee introduced a

    mystical love of Christ into religious literature.

    The most conspicuous writer, however, was

    Andreas Gryphius (161664), who was both a

    poet and tragic dramatist. He wrote in a dramatic

    rhetorical style. One of the creators of a satirical

    baroque prose was Abraham a Santa Clara. Dramas

    of political and religious violence were common,

    and the theme of pending disaster is not so

    surprising in a century that witnessed the THIRTY

    YEARS WAR, plagues, and many other misfortunes.

    The greatest work of German literature

    during the 17th century was by H. J. C. von

    Grimmelshausen (162576) in his Adventurous

    Simplicissimus, which followed the pattern of the

    Spanish novel and breathed the reality of German

    life into his story of a poor boy during the

    horrors of the Thirty Years War. The great intellectual

    and father of the German ENLIGHTENMENT

    and progenitor of German IDEALISM, Gottfried

    Wilhelm von LEIBNIZ (16461716) has also been

    grouped with writers of the baroque. While

    Leibniz thought of Samuel PUFENDORF (163294)

    as a mere jurist, he nonetheless along with

    Christian THOMASIUS (16551728) and Christian

    von WOLFF (16791754) followed the English

    philosopher Thomas Hobbes; they, however,

    disagreed with his idea of a chaotic and antisocial

    beginning of human history and instead

    believed in a two-fold social contract within the

    community and between the community and

    the ruler. Finally, Nikolaus Ludwig von Zinzendorf

    (170060) should be added to the list of

    baroque writers. He gave PIETISM a new direction

    and organizational form. He wrote more

    than 2,000 religious poems that gave expression

    to the mysticism in Protestant Pietism.

    baroque culture, German 249

    The baroque witnessed the introduction of

    new musical forms, such as the oratorio and

    opera. The oratorio flourished both in the

    Catholic south and the Protestant north. Yet, the

    baroque is primarily associated with the names

    of Johann Sebastian BACH (16851750) and

    George Frideric HANDEL (16851759). Bach concentrated

    on vocal and instrumental music for

    church ceremonies, especially in the form of cantatas,

    and music for the organ. Bachs Passions

    and his monumental Mass in B Minor took the

    German musical tradition to new heights. Handel,

    on the other hand, composed some 35

    operas for much more cosmopolitan audiences in

    Italy and London. He also composed works for

    the organ and great oratorios, such as Messiah.

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