• GERMANIC MIGRATIONS AND
  • FRANKISH KINGDOM
  • JOHANNES REUCHLIN
  • THE WEIMAR CONSTITUTION
  • W
  • INFLATION, REPARATIONS, AND
  • THE STRESEMANN ERA, 19231929
  • STABILIZATION AND LOCARNO,
  • CULTURE AND SOCIETY
  • ROAD TO DICTATORSHIP,
  • T
  • CONSOLIDATION OF POWER
  • THE NAZI TOTAL STATE
  • ULRICH VON HUTTEN
  • PERSECUTION OF THE JEWS
  • RELIGION AND THE CHURCHES
  • FOREIGN POLICY
  • W
  • THE BATTLE OF BRITAIN
  • INVASION OF RUSSIA
  • HITLERS PLANS FOR EUROPE
  • TURNING OF THE TIDE,
  • THE HOME FRONT
  • THE RESISTANCE
  • PHILIP MELANCHTHON
  • D-DAY TO DEFEAT NAZI GERMANY
  • THE HOLOCAUST
  • A
  • ALLIED PLANS AND CONFERENCES
  • DENAZIFICATION
  • POLITICAL PARTIES AND TRADE
  • LOCAL STATE FORMATION
  • PARLIAMENTARY COUNCIL AND THE
  • ECONOMIC RECONSTRUCTION
  • T
  • ERASMUS OF ROTTERDAM
  • BUNDESTAG ELECTION AND
  • REGAINING SOVEREIGNTY AND INTEGRATION
  • RECONSTRUCTION AND THE ECONOMIC
  • TRANSITIONAL YEARS AND
  • THE GRAND COALITION AND YOUTH
  • THE SOCIAL-LIBERAL COALITION
  • OSTPOLITIK (FOREIGN POLICY
  • CULTURE AND SOCIETY
  • SOCIAL STRUCTURE
  • SCHMIDT ERA: SOCIAL UNREST,
  • PRINTING AND MEDICINE
  • THE KOHL ERA, 19821998
  • T
  • UPRISING OF JUNE 17, 1953
  • ECONOMIC SYSTEM
  • SOCIETY, EDUCATION, AND
  • RELATIONS WITH THE FEDERAL
  • R
  • CONSEQUENCES AND PROBLEMS OF
  • ECONOMIC UNIFICATION,
  • P
  • RENAISSANCE ART
  • UNIFICATION POLITICS AND ITS
  • FOREIGN POLICY
  • GOVERNMENT AND ELECTIONS,
  • HISTORICAL DICTIONARY A
  • A
  • Abwehr
  • Adenauer, Konrad
  • Afrika Korps
  • Agadir Incident
  • Agrarian League
  • NEED FOR CHURCH REFORM
  • Agricola, Rudolf
  • Air Force
  • Albert (Albrecht) of
  • Albert V
  • Algeciras, Conference of
  • Allied Control Council
  • Alsace-Lorraine
  • Altdorfer, Albrecht
  • Amiens, Battle of
  • Anabaptists
  • P
  • Anglo-German Naval Treaty
  • Anschluss
  • Anti-Comintern Pact
  • anti-Semitism/Jew hatred
  • anti-Semitism
  • Anti-Socialist Law
  • Ardennes, Battle of the
  • Arendt, Hannah
  • Armed Forces (Wehrmacht)
  • Armed Forces (Bundeswehr):
  • LUTHER AND MELANCHTHON
  • Army (Prussian to 1860)
  • Army (Second Empire,
  • Asylum Law
  • Atlantic, Battle of the
  • Auerstadt, Battle of
  • Augsburg, Diet of
  • Augsburg, Religious Peace of
  • Augsburg, War of the League
  • Augsburg Confession
  • Augspurg, Anita
  • LUTHER AND ZWINGLI
  • Auschwitz-Birkenau
  • Austerlitz, Battle of
  • Austria
  • Austrian Succession, War of
  • autarchy
  • autobahns
  • Axis, The
  • B
  • Baden-Württemberg
  • Ballin, Albert
  • CAROLINGIAN EMPIRE
  • KNIGHTS REVOLT AND GREAT
  • Barbie, Klaus
  • Barmen Declaration
  • Barth, Karl
  • Basic Treaty
  • Bauernschutz
  • Bauhaus
  • Baumer, Gertrud
  • Bavaria
  • Bavarian Peoples Party (BVP)
  • Bavarian Succession, War of
  • REFORMATION AND THE TOWNS
  • Bayer AG
  • Bayreuth
  • Bebel, August
  • Beck, Ludwig August Theodor
  • Beckmann, Max
  • Beer-Hall Putsch of 1923
  • Beethoven, Ludwig van
  • Benjamin, Walter
  • Benn, Gottfried
  • Bennigsen, Rudolf von
  • ANABAPTISM AND MÜNTZER
  • Benz, Carl Friedrich
  • Bergen-Belsen
  • Berghof
  • Berlin
  • Berlin, Battle for (Fall of)
  • Berlin, Congress of
  • Berlin-Baghdad Railway
  • Berlin Blockade
  • Berlin Conference
  • Berlin Wall
  • CALVINISM IN GERMANY
  • Bernstein, Eduard
  • Bethmann Hollweg, Theobald
  • Biedermeier
  • Biermann, Wolf
  • Bismarck, Otto Eduard Leopold
  • blank check
  • Bleichröder, Gerson von
  • Blenheim, Battle of
  • Blomberg, Werner von
  • Blücher, Gebhard
  • CHARLES V AND THE REFORMATION
  • Böll, Heinrich
  • Bonhoeffer, Dietrich
  • Bonn
  • Bormann, Martin
  • Born, Max
  • Borsig, August
  • Bosch, Robert
  • Bosnia-Herzegovina
  • Brahms, Johannes
  • Brandenburg
  • C
  • Brauchitsch, Walther von
  • Braun, Eva
  • Braun, Karl Ferdinand
  • Braun, Otto
  • Braun, Wernher von
  • Brecht, Bertolt
  • Bremen/Bremerhaven
  • Brentano, Elizabeth Bettina
  • Breslau
  • The Bridge
  • THE THIRTY YEARS WAR
  • Britain, Battle of
  • Brüning, Heinrich
  • Buchenwald
  • Bülow, Bernhard von
  • Bundesrat
  • Bundestag
  • Burschenschaft
  • C
  • Canisius, Peter
  • canton system
  • A
  • Carlsbad Decrees
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  • Center Party
  • Chamberlain, Houston Stewart
  • Charles V
  • Charles VI
  • Charles VII
  • Charlottenburg, Palace of
  • Christian Democratic Union
  • Christian Social Union
  • LITERATURE
  • Civil Code, German (Revised
  • Clausewitz, Carl von
  • Concordat of 1933
  • Condor Legion
  • The Confederation of the Rhine was a
  • Confessing Church
  • Congress of Vienna
  • conservatism
  • constitutional traditions
  • Counter-Reformation
  • MUSIC
  • Cranach, Lucas, the Elder
  • cultured elites
  • D
  • Daimler, Gottlieb
  • Danish War
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  • Dawes Plan
  • D-Banks
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  • Degenerate Art
  • SAXON AND SALIAN DYNASTIES,
  • SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION
  • denazification
  • Denck, Hans
  • Depression, The Great
  • Depressions
  • détente
  • Diesel, Rudolf
  • Dietrich, Josef Sepp
  • Diplomatic Revolution of 1756
  • Dix, Otto
  • Döblin, Alfred
  • GOTTFRIED WILHELM VON LEIBNIZ
  • Dönitz, Karl
  • Dresden
  • Droste-Hülshoff, Annette
  • Dual Alliance
  • Dürer, Albrecht
  • Düsseldorf
  • E
  • Edict of Toleration
  • Ehrlich, Paul
  • Eichendorff, Joseph von
  • PIETISM
  • Eichmann, Adolf
  • Eicke, Theodor
  • Einsatzgruppen
  • Einstein, Albert
  • Eisner, Kurt
  • El Alamein, Battles of
  • Elbe River
  • Ems Telegram
  • Enabling Act
  • Engels, Friedrich
  • ROCOCO
  • ENIGMA/ULTRA
  • Enlightenment
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  • Erhard, Ludwig
  • Ernst, Max
  • Erzberger, Matthias
  • Eugene, prince of Savoy
  • European Coal and Steel
  • European Defense Community
  • A
  • European Economic Community
  • European Union
  • euthanasia
  • expressionism
  • Falkenhayn, Erich von
  • F
  • Fatherland Party
  • Federal Constitutional Court
  • Federal Republic of Germany
  • Federation of German Industry
  • TURKISH WARS
  • Federation of German Womens
  • feminism, 18151945
  • feminism, 19452005
  • Ferdinand II
  • Feuerbach, Ludwig Andreas
  • Fichte, Johann Gottlieb
  • Final Solution
  • Fischer, Josef Joschka
  • Fischer von Erlach, John
  • Fontane, Theodor
  • WARS OF AUSTRIAN SUCCESSION
  • Four Year Plan
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  • Frankfurt am Main
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  • Frederick I
  • Frederick II, The Great
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  • Frederick III, The Wise
  • STATE REFORMS
  • Frederick William
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  • Free Corps
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  • Freemasonry/Illuminati
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  • FOREIGN POLICY AND KAUNITZ
  • Friedrich, Caspar David
  • Fritsch, Werner von
  • Fugger, Jacob the Rich
  • Führerprinzip
  • G
  • Galen, Clemens August von
  • Gellert, Christian
  • General Directory
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  • Gentz, Friedrich
  • JOSEPH II AND REFORM
  • German Christians
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  • German Peoples Party
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  • HOHENSTAUFEN DYNASTY,
  • VIENNA AND ARCHITECTURE
  • German Reich (Imperial) Party
  • German Womens Bureau
  • German Workers Party
  • Germany Treaty
  • R
  • FREDERICK III
  • FREDERICK WILLIAM I, THE
  • FREDERICK THE GREAT
  • SEVEN YEARS WAR
  • S
  • ECONOMY
  • POLITICAL DECENTRALIZATION
  • SOCIAL STRUCTURE
  • HABSBURG DYNASTY
  • CULTURE
  • THE ENLIGHTENMENT
  • LITERATURE AND DRAMA
  • PHILOSOPHY
  • SECRET SOCIETIES
  • T
  • R
  • THE ROMANTIC MOVEMENT
  • NATIONALISM AND LIBERALISM
  • EARLY INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
  • CITIES AND CRAFT GUILDS
  • REVOLUTIONS OF 1848
  • ARMY REFORM AND PARLIAMENTARY
  • O
  • THE DANISH WAR, 1864
  • AUSTRO-PRUSSIAN WAR, 1866
  • THE FRANCO-PRUSSIAN WAR,
  • COLLAPSE OF THE SECOND FRENCH
  • I
  • N
  • ART AND ARCHITECTURE
  • ORIGINS OF CAPITALISM
  • SOCIAL STRUCTURE AND WOMEN
  • EDUCATION
  • T
  • POLITICAL PARTIES
  • THE KULTURKAMPF, SOCIALISM,
  • FOREIGN POLICY AND ALLIANCE
  • BISMARCKS DISMISSAL
  • WILHELMINE GERMANY
  • T
  • THE QUESTION OF
  • LATE MEDIEVAL CULTURE
  • CONDUCT OF THE WAR
  • PEACE RESOLUTION, REFORM, AND
  • AN UNPLANNED REVOLUTION
  • N
  • POLITICAL PARTIES UNPREPARED
  • A REVOLUTIONARY PATTERN
  • WORKERS AND SOLDIERS
  • KURT EISNER AND REVOLUTION IN
  • A REPUBLIC PROCLAIMED
  • A SEVERE ARMISTICE
  • T
  • ESTABLISHMENT OF A REVOLUTIONARY
  • EBERT MAKES A DEAL WITH THE
  • THE SPARTACISTS
  • INTERPRETATION OF THE
  • A VENGEFUL PEACE
  • V
  • THE GOALS OF THE PEACEMAKERS
  • TERMS OF THE TREATY
  • WAR GUILT AND REPARATIONS
  • DENUNCIATION AND RELUCTANT
  • GERMANIC MIGRATIONS AND
  • B

    Baader, Franz von (17651841)

    Catholic philosopher

    Franz von Baader, the son of a MUNICH physician,

    became a mining engineer and was

    appointed in 1826 to the chair of speculative

    theology at the University of Munich during the

    reign of LUDWIG I. Baader called attention to the

    growing seriousness of the social problems that

    resulted from the early INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

    and urged the Catholic Church to take the lead

    in their solution. Baader had lived in England

    for four years, observed the social problems

    there, and was influenced by the ideas of the

    Frenchman Félicité Robert de Lamennais

    (17821854), who already saw the dangers that

    threatened from the division of society into a

    propertied and a proletarian class. Baader noted

    that the industrial machines had a depersonalizing

    effect on workers and that the law of declining

    wages would impoverish them. He demanded

    limitations on free competition. He also thought

    that the church and the state should act as a

    Christian deaconry and jointly carry out a

    social policy on their behalf.

    Back in BAVARIA Baader was employed in the

    department of mines, operated a glass factory,

    and retired in 1820. In his speculative thinking

    he was eclectic and wrote on philosophical and

    theological subjects. Like his fellow romantic

    thinkers he was concerned with the process

    through which human beings learn about the

    external world. His solution was a blend of natural

    science and religious mysticism. He thought

    that he would find the answer in a world soul,

    which he believed bound all things together. His

    thinking was a mixture of science and alchemy,

    theosophy and logic. His search for an ordering

    intelligence never had the success that the

    philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich HEGEL

    (17701831) achieved in his system of philosophy.

    Baader believed in the religious primacy of

    the individual, was critical of but ignored by the

    hierarchy of the church, and believed in the possible

    union of the Christian denominations. His

    idea of a holy alliance was used by METTERNICH

    for his reactionary policies during the restoration.

    Baader-Meinhof Group (BMG)/Red

    Army Faction

    Between 1970 and 1974 the secret Red Army

    Faction became a Communist urban guerrilla

    band attempting to destabilize the FEDERAL

    REPUBLIC. The media created the popular designation

    of the terrorist organization as the

    Baader-Meinhof Group, which West German

    police labeled an organization of violent anarchists.

    They committed robbery and arson and

    murdered 30 people. They kidnapped numerous

    others and bombed U.S. and German government

    installations.

    Despite its sinister reputation the Baader-

    Meinhof Group had a hard core of only four militants.

    Ulrike Meinhof (193476) and Gudrun

    Ensslin were women students who were deeply

    influenced by a morally rigid and radical PROTESTANTISM.

    Of the two men, Andreas Baader was

    magnetic and brutal, while Jan-Carl Raspe was

    rootless, and both were less intellectual and

    more impulsive than the women. They never

    developed a coherent political ideology but

    243

    believed that the only way to change the established

    political system was to employ violence.

    Gudrun Ensslin, a Lutheran pastors daughter,

    was once quoted as saying Violence is the only

    way to answer violence and oppose the cold

    war. They were a heartless part of the alienated

    postwar Auschwitz generation. Following the

    1972 bombing campaign the core members of

    the BMG were arrested and tried. Members of

    the original gang of four were tried for five

    murders and 54 attempted murders. Meinhof

    and Ensslin hanged themselves in prison while

    Baader shot himself.

    The goals of the terror campaign grew out of

    the 1960s student movement and its demand for

    free speech and of the Socialist Student Organization

    (SDS), which was a leading organization

    of the extraparliamentary movement (APO) of

    the late 1960s. Its roots, however went even further

    back to the 1950s and the German protest

    movement against NATO membership, rearmament,

    nuclear weapons, and the revulsion felt

    against the West German government for allowing

    former Nazis to hold high positions. Leftist

    intellectuals initially had sympathy with the

    BMGs goals, although not its methods of violence.

    Two famous supporters were the novelist

    Heinrich BÖLL, and Peter Brandt, the son of

    Willy BRANDT. Ulrike Meinhof had taken part in

    the 1958 antiatom death campaign and edited a

    leading radical student monthly in HAMBURG,

    Konkret. She was antiauthoritarian, opposed to

    the consumer society of West Germany, and

    advocated an armed struggle. It was she who

    wrote the first manifesto of the group, which

    introduced the concept of the urban guerrilla,

    and who tried to provoke the repressive potential

    of the West German state. Along with Meinhof,

    Baader had lost patience with debates and

    protests and believed that only a resort to violent

    political action could change political structures.

    In 1967 the movement decided that physical

    force was a necessary means of resistance

    against what they considered a fascist state. In

    1968 Baader, Ensslin, and two others decided to

    fire-bomb two department stores in FRANKFURT

    AM MAIN. Although convicted for the arson,

    both fled the country, returned, were rearrested,

    and freed in a jailbreak.

    After the deaths of the initial leadership, the

    Red Army Factions (RAF) second generation,

    continued its reign of terror. These included

    bank robberies, bombings, kidnaps, and murders.

    The RAF succeeded in the assassinations of

    prominent West German politicians and businessmen.

    Government officials also were kidnapped.

    Throughout their campaign the BMG-RAF committed

    28 assassinations, injured 93, and

    attempted to take hostages 15 times. Even after

    unification in 1990 the RAF murdered the chief

    executive of Deutsche Bank and the director of

    the Trust Agency (Treuhandanstalt). The wave

    of terrorism climaxed in the autumn of 1977

    when attempts were made to free Baader and

    other prisoners. In 1977 Baader shot himself in

    prison, and Ensslin committed suicide. As a

    result of this campaign of terror the Federal Government

    restricted the civil liberties of younger

    leftists and the defense lawyers in what was

    called the Contact Ban Law of 1977.

    Bach, Johann Sebastian (16851750)

    greatest composer of the baroque period

    Johann Sebastian Bach is undisputedly considered

    the greatest composer of the BAROQUE

    period. He was born in Eisenach, Thuringia, the

    most famous member of a family that produced

    six generations of musicians. The family was

    Lutheran and remained loyal throughout the

    THIRTY YEARS WAR. His father instructed him in

    the violin, and he sang in the choir at St.

    Georges Church. He became orphaned at an

    early age, was taught keyboard lessons by his

    brother, then joined a choir in Lüneburg. Later,

    he became the organist at the New Church in

    Arnstadt in the Thuringian Forest. Not long

    thereafter, he became court organist at Weimar,

    was encouraged by Duke William Ernest, but

    failed to be appointed musical director in

    Weimar. Near the ELBE RIVER in Saxony-Anhalt

    lies the city of Köthen, where Bach served for six

    years as musical director to the court of the

    prince of Anhalt-Köthen, where his musical tal-

    244 Bach, Johann Sebastian

    ents reached their greatest expression, especially

    in chamber and orchestral music. In 1721 he

    became director of church music in LEIPZIG and

    then city music director (court composer for the

    elector of Saxony) in 1723, a post he occupied

    until his death. An especially noteworthy experience

    was the opportunity in 1747 to play for

    FREDERICK THE GREAT at Potsdam. All of Bachs

    four sons led musical careers.

    Bachs works encompass more than 1,000

    works and cover all the musical genres of the

    baroque period. Bachs sacred works include

    cantatas, passions, the Christmas Oratorio, and

    many organ works. These have been considered

    by many to have been the epitome of church

    music. Many of his choral and organ works were

    composed during his lengthy tenure as musical

    director of the Church of St. Thomas in Leipzig.

    He also composed vocal works, including more

    than 200 cantatas. His great choral masterpieces

    were the B Minor Mass, the Christmas and

    Easter Oratorios and the St. Matthew and St. John

    Passions. Bach also created secular works of

    unparalleled beauty. These included the six

    Brandenburg Concertos, but also violin and keyboard

    concertos, some called The Well-Tempered

    Clavier.

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