• GERMANIC MIGRATIONS AND
  • FRANKISH KINGDOM
  • JOHANNES REUCHLIN
  • THE WEIMAR CONSTITUTION
  • W
  • INFLATION, REPARATIONS, AND
  • THE STRESEMANN ERA, 19231929
  • STABILIZATION AND LOCARNO,
  • CULTURE AND SOCIETY
  • ROAD TO DICTATORSHIP,
  • T
  • CONSOLIDATION OF POWER
  • THE NAZI TOTAL STATE
  • ULRICH VON HUTTEN
  • PERSECUTION OF THE JEWS
  • RELIGION AND THE CHURCHES
  • FOREIGN POLICY
  • W
  • THE BATTLE OF BRITAIN
  • INVASION OF RUSSIA
  • HITLERS PLANS FOR EUROPE
  • TURNING OF THE TIDE,
  • THE HOME FRONT
  • THE RESISTANCE
  • PHILIP MELANCHTHON
  • D-DAY TO DEFEAT NAZI GERMANY
  • THE HOLOCAUST
  • A
  • ALLIED PLANS AND CONFERENCES
  • DENAZIFICATION
  • POLITICAL PARTIES AND TRADE
  • LOCAL STATE FORMATION
  • PARLIAMENTARY COUNCIL AND THE
  • ECONOMIC RECONSTRUCTION
  • T
  • ERASMUS OF ROTTERDAM
  • BUNDESTAG ELECTION AND
  • REGAINING SOVEREIGNTY AND INTEGRATION
  • RECONSTRUCTION AND THE ECONOMIC
  • TRANSITIONAL YEARS AND
  • THE GRAND COALITION AND YOUTH
  • THE SOCIAL-LIBERAL COALITION
  • OSTPOLITIK (FOREIGN POLICY
  • CULTURE AND SOCIETY
  • SOCIAL STRUCTURE
  • SCHMIDT ERA: SOCIAL UNREST,
  • PRINTING AND MEDICINE
  • THE KOHL ERA, 19821998
  • T
  • UPRISING OF JUNE 17, 1953
  • ECONOMIC SYSTEM
  • SOCIETY, EDUCATION, AND
  • RELATIONS WITH THE FEDERAL
  • R
  • CONSEQUENCES AND PROBLEMS OF
  • ECONOMIC UNIFICATION,
  • P
  • RENAISSANCE ART
  • UNIFICATION POLITICS AND ITS
  • FOREIGN POLICY
  • GOVERNMENT AND ELECTIONS,
  • HISTORICAL DICTIONARY A
  • A
  • Abwehr
  • Adenauer, Konrad
  • Afrika Korps
  • Agadir Incident
  • Agrarian League
  • NEED FOR CHURCH REFORM
  • Agricola, Rudolf
  • Air Force
  • Albert (Albrecht) of
  • Albert V
  • Algeciras, Conference of
  • Allied Control Council
  • Alsace-Lorraine
  • Altdorfer, Albrecht
  • Amiens, Battle of
  • Anabaptists
  • P
  • Anglo-German Naval Treaty
  • Anschluss
  • Anti-Comintern Pact
  • anti-Semitism/Jew hatred
  • anti-Semitism
  • Anti-Socialist Law
  • Ardennes, Battle of the
  • Arendt, Hannah
  • Armed Forces (Wehrmacht)
  • Armed Forces (Bundeswehr):
  • LUTHER AND MELANCHTHON
  • Army (Prussian to 1860)
  • Army (Second Empire,
  • Asylum Law
  • Atlantic, Battle of the
  • Auerstadt, Battle of
  • Augsburg, Diet of
  • Augsburg, Religious Peace of
  • Augsburg, War of the League
  • Augsburg Confession
  • Augspurg, Anita
  • LUTHER AND ZWINGLI
  • Auschwitz-Birkenau
  • Austerlitz, Battle of
  • Austria
  • Austrian Succession, War of
  • autarchy
  • autobahns
  • Axis, The
  • B
  • Baden-Württemberg
  • Ballin, Albert
  • CAROLINGIAN EMPIRE
  • KNIGHTS REVOLT AND GREAT
  • Barbie, Klaus
  • Barmen Declaration
  • Barth, Karl
  • Basic Treaty
  • Bauernschutz
  • Bauhaus
  • Baumer, Gertrud
  • Bavaria
  • Bavarian Peoples Party (BVP)
  • Bavarian Succession, War of
  • REFORMATION AND THE TOWNS
  • Bayer AG
  • Bayreuth
  • Bebel, August
  • Beck, Ludwig August Theodor
  • Beckmann, Max
  • Beer-Hall Putsch of 1923
  • Beethoven, Ludwig van
  • Benjamin, Walter
  • Benn, Gottfried
  • Bennigsen, Rudolf von
  • ANABAPTISM AND MÜNTZER
  • Benz, Carl Friedrich
  • Bergen-Belsen
  • Berghof
  • Berlin
  • Berlin, Battle for (Fall of)
  • Berlin, Congress of
  • Berlin-Baghdad Railway
  • Berlin Blockade
  • Berlin Conference
  • Berlin Wall
  • CALVINISM IN GERMANY
  • Bernstein, Eduard
  • Bethmann Hollweg, Theobald
  • Biedermeier
  • Biermann, Wolf
  • Bismarck, Otto Eduard Leopold
  • blank check
  • Bleichröder, Gerson von
  • Blenheim, Battle of
  • Blomberg, Werner von
  • Blücher, Gebhard
  • CHARLES V AND THE REFORMATION
  • Böll, Heinrich
  • Bonhoeffer, Dietrich
  • Bonn
  • Bormann, Martin
  • Born, Max
  • Borsig, August
  • Bosch, Robert
  • Bosnia-Herzegovina
  • Brahms, Johannes
  • Brandenburg
  • C
  • Brauchitsch, Walther von
  • Braun, Eva
  • Braun, Karl Ferdinand
  • Braun, Otto
  • Braun, Wernher von
  • Brecht, Bertolt
  • Bremen/Bremerhaven
  • Brentano, Elizabeth Bettina
  • Breslau
  • The Bridge
  • THE THIRTY YEARS WAR
  • Britain, Battle of
  • Brüning, Heinrich
  • Buchenwald
  • Bülow, Bernhard von
  • Bundesrat
  • Bundestag
  • Burschenschaft
  • C
  • Canisius, Peter
  • canton system
  • A
  • Carlsbad Decrees
  • Celtis, Conrad
  • Center Party
  • Chamberlain, Houston Stewart
  • Charles V
  • Charles VI
  • Charles VII
  • Charlottenburg, Palace of
  • Christian Democratic Union
  • Christian Social Union
  • LITERATURE
  • Civil Code, German (Revised
  • Clausewitz, Carl von
  • Concordat of 1933
  • Condor Legion
  • The Confederation of the Rhine was a
  • Confessing Church
  • Congress of Vienna
  • conservatism
  • constitutional traditions
  • Counter-Reformation
  • MUSIC
  • Cranach, Lucas, the Elder
  • cultured elites
  • D
  • Daimler, Gottlieb
  • Danish War
  • Danzig
  • Dawes Plan
  • D-Banks
  • D-Day
  • Degenerate Art
  • SAXON AND SALIAN DYNASTIES,
  • SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION
  • denazification
  • Denck, Hans
  • Depression, The Great
  • Depressions
  • détente
  • Diesel, Rudolf
  • Dietrich, Josef Sepp
  • Diplomatic Revolution of 1756
  • Dix, Otto
  • Döblin, Alfred
  • GOTTFRIED WILHELM VON LEIBNIZ
  • Dönitz, Karl
  • Dresden
  • Droste-Hülshoff, Annette
  • Dual Alliance
  • Dürer, Albrecht
  • Düsseldorf
  • E
  • Edict of Toleration
  • Ehrlich, Paul
  • Eichendorff, Joseph von
  • PIETISM
  • Eichmann, Adolf
  • Eicke, Theodor
  • Einsatzgruppen
  • Einstein, Albert
  • Eisner, Kurt
  • El Alamein, Battles of
  • Elbe River
  • Ems Telegram
  • Enabling Act
  • Engels, Friedrich
  • ROCOCO
  • ENIGMA/ULTRA
  • Enlightenment
  • Erasmus, Desiderius
  • Erfurt Program
  • Erhard, Ludwig
  • Ernst, Max
  • Erzberger, Matthias
  • Eugene, prince of Savoy
  • European Coal and Steel
  • European Defense Community
  • A
  • European Economic Community
  • European Union
  • euthanasia
  • expressionism
  • Falkenhayn, Erich von
  • F
  • Fatherland Party
  • Federal Constitutional Court
  • Federal Republic of Germany
  • Federation of German Industry
  • TURKISH WARS
  • Federation of German Womens
  • feminism, 18151945
  • feminism, 19452005
  • Ferdinand II
  • Feuerbach, Ludwig Andreas
  • Fichte, Johann Gottlieb
  • Final Solution
  • Fischer, Josef Joschka
  • Fischer von Erlach, John
  • Fontane, Theodor
  • WARS OF AUSTRIAN SUCCESSION
  • Four Year Plan
  • Francis II
  • Frank, Anne
  • Frank, Hans
  • Frankfurt am Main
  • Frankfurt Parliament
  • Frederick I
  • Frederick II, The Great
  • Frederick III
  • Frederick III, The Wise
  • STATE REFORMS
  • Frederick William
  • Frederick William I
  • Frederick William II
  • Frederick William III
  • Frederick William IV
  • Free Corps
  • Free Democratic Party
  • Freemasonry/Illuminati
  • French Revolutionary Wars
  • Freytag, Gustav
  • FOREIGN POLICY AND KAUNITZ
  • Friedrich, Caspar David
  • Fritsch, Werner von
  • Fugger, Jacob the Rich
  • Führerprinzip
  • G
  • Galen, Clemens August von
  • Gellert, Christian
  • General Directory
  • Genscher, Hans-Dietrich
  • Gentz, Friedrich
  • JOSEPH II AND REFORM
  • German Christians
  • German Communist Party
  • German Confederation
  • German Conservative Party
  • German Democratic Party
  • German Democratic Republic
  • German Labor Front
  • German National Peoples
  • German Peoples Party
  • German Progressive Party
  • HOHENSTAUFEN DYNASTY,
  • VIENNA AND ARCHITECTURE
  • German Reich (Imperial) Party
  • German Womens Bureau
  • German Workers Party
  • Germany Treaty
  • R
  • FREDERICK III
  • FREDERICK WILLIAM I, THE
  • FREDERICK THE GREAT
  • SEVEN YEARS WAR
  • S
  • ECONOMY
  • POLITICAL DECENTRALIZATION
  • SOCIAL STRUCTURE
  • HABSBURG DYNASTY
  • CULTURE
  • THE ENLIGHTENMENT
  • LITERATURE AND DRAMA
  • PHILOSOPHY
  • SECRET SOCIETIES
  • T
  • R
  • THE ROMANTIC MOVEMENT
  • NATIONALISM AND LIBERALISM
  • EARLY INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
  • CITIES AND CRAFT GUILDS
  • REVOLUTIONS OF 1848
  • ARMY REFORM AND PARLIAMENTARY
  • O
  • THE DANISH WAR, 1864
  • AUSTRO-PRUSSIAN WAR, 1866
  • THE FRANCO-PRUSSIAN WAR,
  • COLLAPSE OF THE SECOND FRENCH
  • I
  • N
  • ART AND ARCHITECTURE
  • ORIGINS OF CAPITALISM
  • SOCIAL STRUCTURE AND WOMEN
  • EDUCATION
  • T
  • POLITICAL PARTIES
  • THE KULTURKAMPF, SOCIALISM,
  • FOREIGN POLICY AND ALLIANCE
  • BISMARCKS DISMISSAL
  • WILHELMINE GERMANY
  • T
  • THE QUESTION OF
  • LATE MEDIEVAL CULTURE
  • CONDUCT OF THE WAR
  • PEACE RESOLUTION, REFORM, AND
  • AN UNPLANNED REVOLUTION
  • N
  • POLITICAL PARTIES UNPREPARED
  • A REVOLUTIONARY PATTERN
  • WORKERS AND SOLDIERS
  • KURT EISNER AND REVOLUTION IN
  • A REPUBLIC PROCLAIMED
  • A SEVERE ARMISTICE
  • T
  • ESTABLISHMENT OF A REVOLUTIONARY
  • EBERT MAKES A DEAL WITH THE
  • THE SPARTACISTS
  • INTERPRETATION OF THE
  • A VENGEFUL PEACE
  • V
  • THE GOALS OF THE PEACEMAKERS
  • TERMS OF THE TREATY
  • WAR GUILT AND REPARATIONS
  • DENUNCIATION AND RELUCTANT
  • GERMANIC MIGRATIONS AND
  • Austria

    Austria originated in the geographic area of the

    narrow funnel-shaped Danube corridor where it

    opens onto the Vienna basin, which continues

    onto the Pannonian and Carpathian plain. Austria

    was established as a defensive Eastern March

    against the aggressive Hungarians. It was first

    referred to in 996 as Ostarrichi. Austria was

    originally a margravate with its capital in VIENNA

    and ruled by the Babenberg family. It became a

    duchy in 1156. This family then acquired Styria

    in 1192 and what today is upper Austria. During

    the 13th century Ottokar II of Bohemia came

    into control of Austria. To these territories were

    added Carinthia and Carniola in 1335, Fuino in

    1335, and Trieste in 1382. After Ottokars defeat

    by the German king Rudolf I in 1278, it passed to

    the Habsburgs, who ruled it until the collapse of

    the Austrian Empire at the end of WORLD WAR I

    (1918). With hereditary domains in Switzerland

    and southwest Germany and controlling the

    important Alpine passes and the Vienna basin,

    the Habsburgs were able to build a great empire

    primarily through marriage and inheritance. The

    Habsburg dukes became Holy Roman emperors

    from 1273 to 1308 and from 1438 to 1806. During

    the REFORMATION Austria was threatened by

    a significant spread of PROTESTANTISM, but during

    the COUNTER-REFORMATION that was reversed

    through a strong pro-Catholic policy. During the

    THIRTY YEARS WAR Austria was the strongest

    German state. By this time it also had become a

    multiracial state, including Germans, Czechs,

    Hungarians, and Croats.

    In the 18th century Austria engaged in a

    power struggle with Prussia for dominance in the

    HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE. The empress MARIA

    THERESA and King FREDERICK II of Prussia fought

    each other for control of SAXONY. Then the

    NAPOLEONICWARS demonstrated Austrias weaknesses,

    and in 1806 the Holy Roman Empire was

    dissolved by Napoleon. In 1804 Emperor FRANCIS

    II, who had perceived the coming end of the Holy

    Roman Empire, had himself proclaimed Francis I,

    emperor of Austria. Under Prince Clemens METTERNICH

    it led the coalition of allies, which

    defeated Napoleon and convened the conference

    in Vienna, known as the CONGRESS OF VIENNA. At

    the congress the territories that would compose

    the modern Austrian Empire were Austria, Hungary,

    Bohemia, Moravia, Galicia, Silesia, Slovakia,

    Transylvania, the Bukovina, Croatia-Slavonia,

    Carniola, Gorizia, Istria, Dalmatia, Lombardy, and

    Venetia. This included 11 nationalities, and with

    an absence of geographical and economic unity

    the empire was hampered from establishing an

    effective central government. From 1815 to 1848

    Austria was the principal power in Europe,

    upholding the conservative order along with

    czarist Russia. The REVOLUTION OF 1848 almost

    overthrew the monarchy, but it was suppressed

    by the army. Between 1848 and 1866 Otto von

    BISMARCK of Prussia outmaneuvered the Austrians.

    In the Austro-Prussian War (Seven Weeks

    War) Bismarck secured the exclusion of Austria

    from the GERMAN CONFEDERATION. In response to

    the Hungarian demands for additional rights, a

    compromise was reached called the Ausgleich

    and subsequently, between 1867 and 1918, the

    empire was known as Austria-Hungary.

    Since Austria-Hungary was allied with Imperial

    Germany and lost the war, it was inevitable

    that the empire would disintegrate. The various

    nationalities demanded their independence.

    The Treaties of St. Germain and Trianon

    (191920) formally recognized the empires

    end. After the fall of the Habsburgs in 1918 only

    German Austria remained along with Salzburg

    and parts of Tyrol. The non-German nationalities

    were formed into the successor states of

    Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Yugoslavia,

    and Romania. A republic was established in

    Austria in November 1918, a constituent assembly

    met in March 1919, and Karl Renner was

    elected chancellor. Although the Austrians

    Austria 239

    wanted to be united to Germany, that was forbidden

    by the treaty of St. Germain-en-Laye.

    What remained was called the Federal Republic

    of Austria and was organized as a federation

    according to a Swiss model. There was little positive

    feeling of support for the republic, and the

    Viennese especially suffered economic privations.

    While the Viennese voted primarily for

    socialist parties, the provinces supported churchrelated

    (clericalist) political parties. Under the

    new chancellor, Engelbert Dollfuss (18921934),

    a virtual fascist constitution was adopted. Then

    an abortive Nazi putsch in July 1934 killed Dollfuss.

    His successor was Kurt von Schuschnigg

    (18971977), whose authority was weakened

    by Nazi pressures. In March 1938 the Nazis conducted

    an ANSCHLUSS, an annexation, by which

    Nazi Germany occupied Austria, giving it the

    name Ostmark. From 1938 to 1945 Austria

    formed a province of Greater Germany.

    The Soviets occupied Vienna in April 1945

    and divided the country into four zones of occupation.

    Under Allied occupation a Federal

    Republic was established, and Karl Renner

    became its first president. By the Austrian State

    Treaty of 1955 the Allies recognized Austrias

    independence and neutrality and their troops

    were withdrawn. The federal republic is based

    on parliamentary and democratic principles.

    There are nine provinces with each electing its

    own provincial assembly (Landtag) and head of

    government (Landeshauptmann). Vienna is the

    capital and itself a province. It has a municipal

    council, which is also a provincial assembly. The

    mayor (Bürgermeister) is chairman of the Municipal

    Senate (Stadtsenat). The parliament of the

    republic is the Federal Assembly (Bundesversammlung)

    and consists of two houses. The head

    of state is the federal president (Bundespräsident),

    who appoints the federal government presided

    over by the federal chancellor (Bundeskanzler).

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