• GERMANIC MIGRATIONS AND
  • FRANKISH KINGDOM
  • JOHANNES REUCHLIN
  • THE WEIMAR CONSTITUTION
  • W
  • INFLATION, REPARATIONS, AND
  • THE STRESEMANN ERA, 19231929
  • STABILIZATION AND LOCARNO,
  • CULTURE AND SOCIETY
  • ROAD TO DICTATORSHIP,
  • T
  • CONSOLIDATION OF POWER
  • THE NAZI TOTAL STATE
  • ULRICH VON HUTTEN
  • PERSECUTION OF THE JEWS
  • RELIGION AND THE CHURCHES
  • FOREIGN POLICY
  • W
  • THE BATTLE OF BRITAIN
  • INVASION OF RUSSIA
  • HITLERS PLANS FOR EUROPE
  • TURNING OF THE TIDE,
  • THE HOME FRONT
  • THE RESISTANCE
  • PHILIP MELANCHTHON
  • D-DAY TO DEFEAT NAZI GERMANY
  • THE HOLOCAUST
  • A
  • ALLIED PLANS AND CONFERENCES
  • DENAZIFICATION
  • POLITICAL PARTIES AND TRADE
  • LOCAL STATE FORMATION
  • PARLIAMENTARY COUNCIL AND THE
  • ECONOMIC RECONSTRUCTION
  • T
  • ERASMUS OF ROTTERDAM
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  • REGAINING SOVEREIGNTY AND INTEGRATION
  • RECONSTRUCTION AND THE ECONOMIC
  • TRANSITIONAL YEARS AND
  • THE GRAND COALITION AND YOUTH
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  • OSTPOLITIK (FOREIGN POLICY
  • CULTURE AND SOCIETY
  • SOCIAL STRUCTURE
  • SCHMIDT ERA: SOCIAL UNREST,
  • PRINTING AND MEDICINE
  • THE KOHL ERA, 19821998
  • T
  • UPRISING OF JUNE 17, 1953
  • ECONOMIC SYSTEM
  • SOCIETY, EDUCATION, AND
  • RELATIONS WITH THE FEDERAL
  • R
  • CONSEQUENCES AND PROBLEMS OF
  • ECONOMIC UNIFICATION,
  • P
  • RENAISSANCE ART
  • UNIFICATION POLITICS AND ITS
  • FOREIGN POLICY
  • GOVERNMENT AND ELECTIONS,
  • HISTORICAL DICTIONARY A
  • A
  • Abwehr
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  • NEED FOR CHURCH REFORM
  • Agricola, Rudolf
  • Air Force
  • Albert (Albrecht) of
  • Albert V
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  • Allied Control Council
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  • Amiens, Battle of
  • Anabaptists
  • P
  • Anglo-German Naval Treaty
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  • anti-Semitism/Jew hatred
  • anti-Semitism
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  • Ardennes, Battle of the
  • Arendt, Hannah
  • Armed Forces (Wehrmacht)
  • Armed Forces (Bundeswehr):
  • LUTHER AND MELANCHTHON
  • Army (Prussian to 1860)
  • Army (Second Empire,
  • Asylum Law
  • Atlantic, Battle of the
  • Auerstadt, Battle of
  • Augsburg, Diet of
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  • Augsburg, War of the League
  • Augsburg Confession
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  • LUTHER AND ZWINGLI
  • Auschwitz-Birkenau
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  • Austria
  • Austrian Succession, War of
  • autarchy
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  • Axis, The
  • B
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  • CAROLINGIAN EMPIRE
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  • Barbie, Klaus
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  • Bavaria
  • Bavarian Peoples Party (BVP)
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  • REFORMATION AND THE TOWNS
  • Bayer AG
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  • Beck, Ludwig August Theodor
  • Beckmann, Max
  • Beer-Hall Putsch of 1923
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  • Benjamin, Walter
  • Benn, Gottfried
  • Bennigsen, Rudolf von
  • ANABAPTISM AND MÜNTZER
  • Benz, Carl Friedrich
  • Bergen-Belsen
  • Berghof
  • Berlin
  • Berlin, Battle for (Fall of)
  • Berlin, Congress of
  • Berlin-Baghdad Railway
  • Berlin Blockade
  • Berlin Conference
  • Berlin Wall
  • CALVINISM IN GERMANY
  • Bernstein, Eduard
  • Bethmann Hollweg, Theobald
  • Biedermeier
  • Biermann, Wolf
  • Bismarck, Otto Eduard Leopold
  • blank check
  • Bleichröder, Gerson von
  • Blenheim, Battle of
  • Blomberg, Werner von
  • Blücher, Gebhard
  • CHARLES V AND THE REFORMATION
  • Böll, Heinrich
  • Bonhoeffer, Dietrich
  • Bonn
  • Bormann, Martin
  • Born, Max
  • Borsig, August
  • Bosch, Robert
  • Bosnia-Herzegovina
  • Brahms, Johannes
  • Brandenburg
  • C
  • Brauchitsch, Walther von
  • Braun, Eva
  • Braun, Karl Ferdinand
  • Braun, Otto
  • Braun, Wernher von
  • Brecht, Bertolt
  • Bremen/Bremerhaven
  • Brentano, Elizabeth Bettina
  • Breslau
  • The Bridge
  • THE THIRTY YEARS WAR
  • Britain, Battle of
  • Brüning, Heinrich
  • Buchenwald
  • Bülow, Bernhard von
  • Bundesrat
  • Bundestag
  • Burschenschaft
  • C
  • Canisius, Peter
  • canton system
  • A
  • Carlsbad Decrees
  • Celtis, Conrad
  • Center Party
  • Chamberlain, Houston Stewart
  • Charles V
  • Charles VI
  • Charles VII
  • Charlottenburg, Palace of
  • Christian Democratic Union
  • Christian Social Union
  • LITERATURE
  • Civil Code, German (Revised
  • Clausewitz, Carl von
  • Concordat of 1933
  • Condor Legion
  • The Confederation of the Rhine was a
  • Confessing Church
  • Congress of Vienna
  • conservatism
  • constitutional traditions
  • Counter-Reformation
  • MUSIC
  • Cranach, Lucas, the Elder
  • cultured elites
  • D
  • Daimler, Gottlieb
  • Danish War
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  • Dawes Plan
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  • Degenerate Art
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  • SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION
  • denazification
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  • Depression, The Great
  • Depressions
  • détente
  • Diesel, Rudolf
  • Dietrich, Josef Sepp
  • Diplomatic Revolution of 1756
  • Dix, Otto
  • Döblin, Alfred
  • GOTTFRIED WILHELM VON LEIBNIZ
  • Dönitz, Karl
  • Dresden
  • Droste-Hülshoff, Annette
  • Dual Alliance
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  • Düsseldorf
  • E
  • Edict of Toleration
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  • Eichendorff, Joseph von
  • PIETISM
  • Eichmann, Adolf
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  • Elbe River
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  • European Coal and Steel
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  • A
  • European Economic Community
  • European Union
  • euthanasia
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  • Falkenhayn, Erich von
  • F
  • Fatherland Party
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  • feminism, 18151945
  • feminism, 19452005
  • Ferdinand II
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  • Final Solution
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  • G
  • Galen, Clemens August von
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  • Gentz, Friedrich
  • JOSEPH II AND REFORM
  • German Christians
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  • German Reich (Imperial) Party
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  • R
  • FREDERICK III
  • FREDERICK WILLIAM I, THE
  • FREDERICK THE GREAT
  • SEVEN YEARS WAR
  • S
  • ECONOMY
  • POLITICAL DECENTRALIZATION
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  • THE DANISH WAR, 1864
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  • I
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  • FOREIGN POLICY AND ALLIANCE
  • BISMARCKS DISMISSAL
  • WILHELMINE GERMANY
  • T
  • THE QUESTION OF
  • LATE MEDIEVAL CULTURE
  • CONDUCT OF THE WAR
  • PEACE RESOLUTION, REFORM, AND
  • AN UNPLANNED REVOLUTION
  • N
  • POLITICAL PARTIES UNPREPARED
  • A REVOLUTIONARY PATTERN
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  • A REPUBLIC PROCLAIMED
  • A SEVERE ARMISTICE
  • T
  • ESTABLISHMENT OF A REVOLUTIONARY
  • EBERT MAKES A DEAL WITH THE
  • THE SPARTACISTS
  • INTERPRETATION OF THE
  • A VENGEFUL PEACE
  • V
  • THE GOALS OF THE PEACEMAKERS
  • TERMS OF THE TREATY
  • WAR GUILT AND REPARATIONS
  • DENUNCIATION AND RELUCTANT
  • GERMANIC MIGRATIONS AND
  • Auerstadt, Battle of

    lang=EN-US style='font-size:10.5pt;font-family:"Meridien-Medium","serif"; color:black'>(1806)

    Fought at the same time as the BATTLE OF JENA,

    Napoleons forces defeated the Prussians at the

    Battle of Auerstadt just as they did at Jena.

    While Napoleon won the Battle of Jena

    almost before it began and faced the smaller of

    the two Prussian forces, he sent Marshal Davout

    to Auerstadt, where he was surprised by the

    main Prussian army under the duke of

    Brunswick. He deployed his three divisions in a

    defensive line and fought off multiple attacks by

    the Prussian infantry and cavalry. The Prussian

    232 Auerstadt, Battle of

    German submarine being launched (Library of Congress)

    army lost its leaders; the duke of Brunswick was

    wounded and then died, and General Mollendorf

    was then captured by the French. Into the

    confusion stepped King FREDERICK WILLIAM III,

    who tried to coordinate the efforts of the army

    and save the day. He launched a series of poorly

    planned assaults on Davousts troops, which

    were easily repulsed. During the battle his son,

    Prince Louis, was killed. Frederick William

    launched a counterattack but was unable to stop

    the French. Although the Prussian troops fought

    bravely, they broke into a rout under French

    pressure. The Battle of Jena-Auerstadt was a

    decisive French victory.

    Augsburg

    Augsburg was established as a military colony by

    the Romans about A.D. 1516 and derives its

    name from the Emperor Augustus. It became an

    administrative center during the Carolingian

    Empire. During his long episcopacy Saint Ulrich

    (923973), who strengthened his power as the

    secular lord of Augsburg, also contributed to stopping

    the Magyar invasion of Germany. Established

    as a center for commerce and crafts during

    the 11th century, its citizens gained the right of

    self-government by 1276, and its status as a free

    imperial city was affirmed by a charter in 1316.

    During the 15th century Augsburg reached

    the peak of its prosperity as the center of trade

    between southern Germany, Italy, and the

    East. It also had a community of humanists

    whose famous leader was the patrician Conrad

    Peutinger (14651547). Augsburg also was the

    home of the artist Hans Holbein the Elder

    (14701524), whose paintings hang in the cathedral.

    Two of Augsburgs most famous families

    the Fuggers and the Welsersrose to prominence

    as international merchants and bankers. Jacob

    FUGGER (14591525) spent some of his considerable

    wealth for charitable purposes, endowing the

    Fuggerei, a unique experiment in social welfare

    for poor older citizens.

    Augsburg was the location of important

    imperial parliaments (diets) during the Reformation.

    In 1518 Luthers meeting with Cardinal

    Cajetan took place, while the classic expression

    of Lutheran doctrine, the AUGSBURG CONFESSION,

    was submitted to the emperor CHARLES V at the

    imperial diet of 1530. Many Augsburgers converted

    to Lutheranism, although some like the

    Fuggers remained loyal to Catholicism. To punish

    Augsburg for participating in the Schmalkaldic

    War, Charles V in 1548 abolished the guilds

    and abrogated the constitution of 1368, which

    restricted to the patricians three-fourths of the

    seats on the town council. Catholics were sufficiently

    numerous so that under the PEACE OF

    AUGSBURG of 1555, both Protestant and Catholic

    worship coexisted, which did not often occur

    during the Reformation. The Fuggers withdrew

    from financial life and became landed aristocrats,

    while the Welsers went bankrupt in 1614.

    Among the civic buildings erected during this

    period was the magnificent town hall built

    between 1615 and 1620 in Renaissance style by

    the municipal architect Elias Holl, who transformed

    Augsburg into the Pompeii of the German

    Renaissance. The prosperity came to an

    end during the THIRTY YEARS WAR.

    Augsburg became part of the kingdom of

    Bavaria in 1806, and in 1817 it became the

    administrative center of the region of Bavarian

    Swabia. Yet even before the end of the HOLY

    ROMAN EMPIRE Augsburgs economy was reviving

    as a center of cotton weaving and banking. The

    factory of the German cotton king, Johann

    Heinrich von Schüle, was built in 177072,

    beginning Augsburgs history as a textile manufacturing

    center. This began a new age of prosperity.

    Engineering firms also were established,

    which still exist today. During WORLD WAR II

    about half of the city was destroyed. The city was

    rebuilt and enlarged in 1972, when land from

    neighboring communities was incorporated. A

    vibrant cultural life is enjoyed by its citizens and

    a new university was opened in 1970.

    Among the famous Germans born in Augsburg

    were Rudolf DIESEL (18581913), who invented

    the revolutionary internal combustion engine.

    The controversial dramatist Bertolt BRECHT

    (18981956) also was born there. The aircraft

    designer Wilhelm MESSERSCHMIDT (18981978)

    Augsburg 233

    established an aircraft factory and designed one of

    the superior fighter planes of World War II, the

    ME 109. One of his planes was the first to break

    the sound barrier in 1943.

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