• GERMANIC MIGRATIONS AND
  • FRANKISH KINGDOM
  • JOHANNES REUCHLIN
  • THE WEIMAR CONSTITUTION
  • W
  • INFLATION, REPARATIONS, AND
  • THE STRESEMANN ERA, 19231929
  • STABILIZATION AND LOCARNO,
  • CULTURE AND SOCIETY
  • ROAD TO DICTATORSHIP,
  • T
  • CONSOLIDATION OF POWER
  • THE NAZI TOTAL STATE
  • ULRICH VON HUTTEN
  • PERSECUTION OF THE JEWS
  • RELIGION AND THE CHURCHES
  • FOREIGN POLICY
  • W
  • THE BATTLE OF BRITAIN
  • INVASION OF RUSSIA
  • HITLERS PLANS FOR EUROPE
  • TURNING OF THE TIDE,
  • THE HOME FRONT
  • THE RESISTANCE
  • PHILIP MELANCHTHON
  • D-DAY TO DEFEAT NAZI GERMANY
  • THE HOLOCAUST
  • A
  • ALLIED PLANS AND CONFERENCES
  • DENAZIFICATION
  • POLITICAL PARTIES AND TRADE
  • LOCAL STATE FORMATION
  • PARLIAMENTARY COUNCIL AND THE
  • ECONOMIC RECONSTRUCTION
  • T
  • ERASMUS OF ROTTERDAM
  • BUNDESTAG ELECTION AND
  • REGAINING SOVEREIGNTY AND INTEGRATION
  • RECONSTRUCTION AND THE ECONOMIC
  • TRANSITIONAL YEARS AND
  • THE GRAND COALITION AND YOUTH
  • THE SOCIAL-LIBERAL COALITION
  • OSTPOLITIK (FOREIGN POLICY
  • CULTURE AND SOCIETY
  • SOCIAL STRUCTURE
  • SCHMIDT ERA: SOCIAL UNREST,
  • PRINTING AND MEDICINE
  • THE KOHL ERA, 19821998
  • T
  • UPRISING OF JUNE 17, 1953
  • ECONOMIC SYSTEM
  • SOCIETY, EDUCATION, AND
  • RELATIONS WITH THE FEDERAL
  • R
  • CONSEQUENCES AND PROBLEMS OF
  • ECONOMIC UNIFICATION,
  • P
  • RENAISSANCE ART
  • UNIFICATION POLITICS AND ITS
  • FOREIGN POLICY
  • GOVERNMENT AND ELECTIONS,
  • HISTORICAL DICTIONARY A
  • A
  • Abwehr
  • Adenauer, Konrad
  • Afrika Korps
  • Agadir Incident
  • Agrarian League
  • NEED FOR CHURCH REFORM
  • Agricola, Rudolf
  • Air Force
  • Albert (Albrecht) of
  • Albert V
  • Algeciras, Conference of
  • Allied Control Council
  • Alsace-Lorraine
  • Altdorfer, Albrecht
  • Amiens, Battle of
  • Anabaptists
  • P
  • Anglo-German Naval Treaty
  • Anschluss
  • Anti-Comintern Pact
  • anti-Semitism/Jew hatred
  • anti-Semitism
  • Anti-Socialist Law
  • Ardennes, Battle of the
  • Arendt, Hannah
  • Armed Forces (Wehrmacht)
  • Armed Forces (Bundeswehr):
  • LUTHER AND MELANCHTHON
  • Army (Prussian to 1860)
  • Army (Second Empire,
  • Asylum Law
  • Atlantic, Battle of the
  • Auerstadt, Battle of
  • Augsburg, Diet of
  • Augsburg, Religious Peace of
  • Augsburg, War of the League
  • Augsburg Confession
  • Augspurg, Anita
  • LUTHER AND ZWINGLI
  • Auschwitz-Birkenau
  • Austerlitz, Battle of
  • Austria
  • Austrian Succession, War of
  • autarchy
  • autobahns
  • Axis, The
  • B
  • Baden-Württemberg
  • Ballin, Albert
  • CAROLINGIAN EMPIRE
  • KNIGHTS REVOLT AND GREAT
  • Barbie, Klaus
  • Barmen Declaration
  • Barth, Karl
  • Basic Treaty
  • Bauernschutz
  • Bauhaus
  • Baumer, Gertrud
  • Bavaria
  • Bavarian Peoples Party (BVP)
  • Bavarian Succession, War of
  • REFORMATION AND THE TOWNS
  • Bayer AG
  • Bayreuth
  • Bebel, August
  • Beck, Ludwig August Theodor
  • Beckmann, Max
  • Beer-Hall Putsch of 1923
  • Beethoven, Ludwig van
  • Benjamin, Walter
  • Benn, Gottfried
  • Bennigsen, Rudolf von
  • ANABAPTISM AND MÜNTZER
  • Benz, Carl Friedrich
  • Bergen-Belsen
  • Berghof
  • Berlin
  • Berlin, Battle for (Fall of)
  • Berlin, Congress of
  • Berlin-Baghdad Railway
  • Berlin Blockade
  • Berlin Conference
  • Berlin Wall
  • CALVINISM IN GERMANY
  • Bernstein, Eduard
  • Bethmann Hollweg, Theobald
  • Biedermeier
  • Biermann, Wolf
  • Bismarck, Otto Eduard Leopold
  • blank check
  • Bleichröder, Gerson von
  • Blenheim, Battle of
  • Blomberg, Werner von
  • Blücher, Gebhard
  • CHARLES V AND THE REFORMATION
  • Böll, Heinrich
  • Bonhoeffer, Dietrich
  • Bonn
  • Bormann, Martin
  • Born, Max
  • Borsig, August
  • Bosch, Robert
  • Bosnia-Herzegovina
  • Brahms, Johannes
  • Brandenburg
  • C
  • Brauchitsch, Walther von
  • Braun, Eva
  • Braun, Karl Ferdinand
  • Braun, Otto
  • Braun, Wernher von
  • Brecht, Bertolt
  • Bremen/Bremerhaven
  • Brentano, Elizabeth Bettina
  • Breslau
  • The Bridge
  • THE THIRTY YEARS WAR
  • Britain, Battle of
  • Brüning, Heinrich
  • Buchenwald
  • Bülow, Bernhard von
  • Bundesrat
  • Bundestag
  • Burschenschaft
  • C
  • Canisius, Peter
  • canton system
  • A
  • Carlsbad Decrees
  • Celtis, Conrad
  • Center Party
  • Chamberlain, Houston Stewart
  • Charles V
  • Charles VI
  • Charles VII
  • Charlottenburg, Palace of
  • Christian Democratic Union
  • Christian Social Union
  • LITERATURE
  • Civil Code, German (Revised
  • Clausewitz, Carl von
  • Concordat of 1933
  • Condor Legion
  • The Confederation of the Rhine was a
  • Confessing Church
  • Congress of Vienna
  • conservatism
  • constitutional traditions
  • Counter-Reformation
  • MUSIC
  • Cranach, Lucas, the Elder
  • cultured elites
  • D
  • Daimler, Gottlieb
  • Danish War
  • Danzig
  • Dawes Plan
  • D-Banks
  • D-Day
  • Degenerate Art
  • SAXON AND SALIAN DYNASTIES,
  • SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION
  • denazification
  • Denck, Hans
  • Depression, The Great
  • Depressions
  • détente
  • Diesel, Rudolf
  • Dietrich, Josef Sepp
  • Diplomatic Revolution of 1756
  • Dix, Otto
  • Döblin, Alfred
  • GOTTFRIED WILHELM VON LEIBNIZ
  • Dönitz, Karl
  • Dresden
  • Droste-Hülshoff, Annette
  • Dual Alliance
  • Dürer, Albrecht
  • Düsseldorf
  • E
  • Edict of Toleration
  • Ehrlich, Paul
  • Eichendorff, Joseph von
  • PIETISM
  • Eichmann, Adolf
  • Eicke, Theodor
  • Einsatzgruppen
  • Einstein, Albert
  • Eisner, Kurt
  • El Alamein, Battles of
  • Elbe River
  • Ems Telegram
  • Enabling Act
  • Engels, Friedrich
  • ROCOCO
  • ENIGMA/ULTRA
  • Enlightenment
  • Erasmus, Desiderius
  • Erfurt Program
  • Erhard, Ludwig
  • Ernst, Max
  • Erzberger, Matthias
  • Eugene, prince of Savoy
  • European Coal and Steel
  • European Defense Community
  • A
  • European Economic Community
  • European Union
  • euthanasia
  • expressionism
  • Falkenhayn, Erich von
  • F
  • Fatherland Party
  • Federal Constitutional Court
  • Federal Republic of Germany
  • Federation of German Industry
  • TURKISH WARS
  • Federation of German Womens
  • feminism, 18151945
  • feminism, 19452005
  • Ferdinand II
  • Feuerbach, Ludwig Andreas
  • Fichte, Johann Gottlieb
  • Final Solution
  • Fischer, Josef Joschka
  • Fischer von Erlach, John
  • Fontane, Theodor
  • WARS OF AUSTRIAN SUCCESSION
  • Four Year Plan
  • Francis II
  • Frank, Anne
  • Frank, Hans
  • Frankfurt am Main
  • Frankfurt Parliament
  • Frederick I
  • Frederick II, The Great
  • Frederick III
  • Frederick III, The Wise
  • STATE REFORMS
  • Frederick William
  • Frederick William I
  • Frederick William II
  • Frederick William III
  • Frederick William IV
  • Free Corps
  • Free Democratic Party
  • Freemasonry/Illuminati
  • French Revolutionary Wars
  • Freytag, Gustav
  • FOREIGN POLICY AND KAUNITZ
  • Friedrich, Caspar David
  • Fritsch, Werner von
  • Fugger, Jacob the Rich
  • Führerprinzip
  • G
  • Galen, Clemens August von
  • Gellert, Christian
  • General Directory
  • Genscher, Hans-Dietrich
  • Gentz, Friedrich
  • JOSEPH II AND REFORM
  • German Christians
  • German Communist Party
  • German Confederation
  • German Conservative Party
  • German Democratic Party
  • German Democratic Republic
  • German Labor Front
  • German National Peoples
  • German Peoples Party
  • German Progressive Party
  • HOHENSTAUFEN DYNASTY,
  • VIENNA AND ARCHITECTURE
  • German Reich (Imperial) Party
  • German Womens Bureau
  • German Workers Party
  • Germany Treaty
  • R
  • FREDERICK III
  • FREDERICK WILLIAM I, THE
  • FREDERICK THE GREAT
  • SEVEN YEARS WAR
  • S
  • ECONOMY
  • POLITICAL DECENTRALIZATION
  • SOCIAL STRUCTURE
  • HABSBURG DYNASTY
  • CULTURE
  • THE ENLIGHTENMENT
  • LITERATURE AND DRAMA
  • PHILOSOPHY
  • SECRET SOCIETIES
  • T
  • R
  • THE ROMANTIC MOVEMENT
  • NATIONALISM AND LIBERALISM
  • EARLY INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
  • CITIES AND CRAFT GUILDS
  • REVOLUTIONS OF 1848
  • ARMY REFORM AND PARLIAMENTARY
  • O
  • THE DANISH WAR, 1864
  • AUSTRO-PRUSSIAN WAR, 1866
  • THE FRANCO-PRUSSIAN WAR,
  • COLLAPSE OF THE SECOND FRENCH
  • I
  • N
  • ART AND ARCHITECTURE
  • ORIGINS OF CAPITALISM
  • SOCIAL STRUCTURE AND WOMEN
  • EDUCATION
  • T
  • POLITICAL PARTIES
  • THE KULTURKAMPF, SOCIALISM,
  • FOREIGN POLICY AND ALLIANCE
  • BISMARCKS DISMISSAL
  • WILHELMINE GERMANY
  • T
  • THE QUESTION OF
  • LATE MEDIEVAL CULTURE
  • CONDUCT OF THE WAR
  • PEACE RESOLUTION, REFORM, AND
  • AN UNPLANNED REVOLUTION
  • N
  • POLITICAL PARTIES UNPREPARED
  • A REVOLUTIONARY PATTERN
  • WORKERS AND SOLDIERS
  • KURT EISNER AND REVOLUTION IN
  • A REPUBLIC PROCLAIMED
  • A SEVERE ARMISTICE
  • T
  • ESTABLISHMENT OF A REVOLUTIONARY
  • EBERT MAKES A DEAL WITH THE
  • THE SPARTACISTS
  • INTERPRETATION OF THE
  • A VENGEFUL PEACE
  • V
  • THE GOALS OF THE PEACEMAKERS
  • TERMS OF THE TREATY
  • WAR GUILT AND REPARATIONS
  • DENUNCIATION AND RELUCTANT
  • GERMANIC MIGRATIONS AND
  • Army (Prussian to 1860)

    It was FREDERICK WILLIAM, the Great Elector,

    who was the founder of absolutist government

    in Brandenburg-Prussia, and who also established

    it as a military power. In 1657 Frederick

    William received the sovereignty over PRUSSIA

    and was convinced that the estates should support

    a standing army. The army, however, came

    directly under the electors control, and he used

    it to overwhelm internal opposition. The army

    became the center of the new Brandenburg-

    Prussian state and grew in size from about 2,000

    men in 1656 to 12,000 in 1672 and to 45,000

    during the period of war with the Swedes, when

    in 1678 he defeated them at Fehrbellin, establishing

    BRANDENBURG as a military power. The

    224 Armed Forces (Bundeswehr): Federal Republic

    army became a state enterprise, and private military

    entrepreneurs were eliminated. Beginning

    with the Great Elector, the social composition of

    the officer corps slowly became dominated by

    the JUNKER nobility.

    The Great Electors son in 1701 became king of

    Prussia as FREDERICK I. He used the army he inherited

    largely as the bulwark of his authority. His son,

    FREDERICKWILLIAM I (171340), who thought that

    the international position of a prince was based on

    the size of his army, increased it to 64,000 men in

    1725 and 89,000 men in 1740. Nicknamed the

    sergeant king he enforced severe discipline.

    Because of the enormous number of desertions,

    he turned to making military service legally binding

    upon all his subjects. Frederick William abolished

    the militia organizations and decreed that

    emigrants who intended to escape military service

    would be treated as deserters. More significant, in

    173233 the Prussian CANTON SYSTEM was established.

    Every regiment in the army was assigned

    a specific recruiting district, and all young males

    were enrolled on the regimental recruiting list. If

    voluntary enlistments did not make the necessary

    quotas, then the difference would be made up

    from the rolls. Although the universal obligation

    to serve became part of customary law, in practice

    because of economic considerations liberal

    exemptions were allowed to those in trade and

    industry, so the obligation fell on agricultural

    workers and poor peasantry. The impressment of

    foreigners was continued. In 1740 there still was

    a 2 to 1 predominance of foreigners in the army.

    During the wars of FREDERICK THE GREAT the ratio

    was 1 to 1, dropping to 1 to 3 during the SEVEN

    YEARS WAR (175663).

    Standardization, new tactics, and centralization

    also improved the army. Military uniforms

    and weapons were standardized; in 1714 the

    king wrote the first comprehensive military regulations

    to be issued to the army. Tactical exercises

    and endless drilling produced an infantry

    that had flexibility and precision as well as rapidity

    and accuracy of fire, which were to make

    Prussian armies famous. In 1723 Frederick

    William I established the GENERAL DIRECTORY,

    which centralized military, economic, and political

    authority. It shaped economic growth to the

    needs of the military. Out of war commissariats

    of the Great Elector grew the formidable administrative

    apparatus of Frederick the Greats Prussia.

    But this centralization stopped at the gates of

    the nobility.

    During the reign of Frederick William I a

    fully hierarchical officer corps was developed.

    The army became increasingly attractive to the

    Junkers as the revenues from their estates

    declined in the early 18th century and the king

    gave them the opportunity in the army to enjoy

    a monopoly in the higher ranks and be able to

    preserve their privileged position. By 1724 there

    was scarcely a noble family in the Hohenzollern

    domains that did not have a son in the officer

    corps. The officer corps became a new caste

    rooted in social privilege and dominance in the

    most important profession in the state. It

    became the chief defender of the existing political

    order. Even under the enlightened Frederick

    the Great the nobility had an almost

    absolute monopoly on commissions and a right

    to the highest posts in the civil service. Through

    the cantonal system, the mobilization of the

    nobility for the officer corps, and an economy

    that was geared to the maintenance of a large

    army, an antiquated social order and an authoritarian

    and increasingly militarized society was

    held together.

    The army declined during the latter years of

    the reign of Frederick the Great and his successor,

    FREDERICK WILLIAM II (178697). The turning

    point came with the military defeats at JENA

    (1806) and AUERSTADT (1806) and the dismemberment

    of Prussia.

    Within six years after the defeat of the Russians

    and the Treaty of Tilsit, however, Prussia

    was able to provide the leadership to defeat

    Napoleon. Then arose a group of leaders, among

    whom were Freiherr vom Stein, Gerhard

    Scharnhorst, August von GNEISENAU, Hermann

    von Boyen, and others who were able to reform

    both the military and the state. In July 1807

    King Frederick William III appointed a Military

    Reorganization Commission headed by Scharnhorst

    to recommend reforms. The commission

    Army (Prussian to 1860) 225

    might only have accomplished minor reforms

    were it not for the leadership of Scharnhorst and

    his disciples. Scharnhorsts goal was to create a

    national army in which every citizen was called

    to miliary service and was to be founded on the

    virtues of courage, gallantry, and honor. Voluntary

    enlistments and the brutal penal code were

    eliminated. Primary importance was placed on

    limiting service in future armies to Prussian citizens.

    The reform plan of 1807 called for a standing

    army and a national militia. A new patriotism

    was to be linked to the old Prussian military

    virtues, which involved a complete program of

    education. The result of these ideas was the creation

    of an army of the line side by side with a

    militia (Landwehr) and levy of the people (Landsturm).

    The militia was to consist of some 150,000

    reservists between the ages of 20 and 35; the

    Landsturm was the general mobilization of the

    whole male population over 35. The latter were

    to serve only within the country, wear no uniforms,

    and employ no weapon. It was in French

    terms a levée en masse. As important was the

    reform of the officer corps. Scharnhorst ruthlessly

    purged from the corps all those commanders

    who owed their positions to social prestige

    rather than to personal qualifications. The middle

    class were allowed into the officer corps, but

    after the War of Liberation the nobility reasserted

    their dominance.

    Training also changed. Old drill techniques

    were eliminated, and smaller army units composed

    of all branches of arms were organized.

    The cooperation of infantry, cavalry, and artillery

    in such units adapted the army to fighting in

    broken terrain and to attacking in deep columns.

    Rigid single battle lines were abandoned, and

    new tactics placed greater responsibility on subordinate

    officers and required more personal

    self-reliance in the lower ranks. The excellent

    staff work was one of the most important features

    of the new army and provided the roots for

    the Prussian general staff system. Different

    reformers like Gneisenau, Grolman, Boyen, and

    Carl von CLAUSEWITZ served as chiefs of staff

    with the individual corps commanders. At the

    decisive BATTLE OF LEIPZIG the Prussian forces

    fought heroically and made a significant contribution

    to the Allied victory.

    During the Restoration conservatives

    demanded an end to universal military service

    and the renewal of the cantonal system, eliminating

    the Landwehr. Nevertheless, as the reaction

    set in after the CARLSBAD DECREES were

    issued in 1819, the social and educational

    reforms effected in the officer corps by Scharnhorst

    were weakened. Deliberate evasions of the

    educational requirements for a commission

    maintained aristocratic preponderance in the

    officer corps. The Landwehr was reorganized and

    placed under the close supervision of the regular

    army. Professionalism and the concept that

    the army was a special calling and the old

    antipathy between the army and civilian society

    reasserted itself. This time an organized liberal

    movement inspired by desires for constitutional

    reform became increasingly critical of the government

    and the army. Between 1819 and 1840

    the efforts of Scharnhorst and the reformers to

    reconcile the military with civilian society were

    shattered. The army was again considered an

    obstacle to social progress.

    The Prussian army played a decisive role in

    the REVOLUTION OF 1848 and widened the gulf

    between the military and civilian society. It was

    the conduct of the troops in Berlin and the attitude

    of its leaders that precipitated the uprising

    of March 18; it was the withdrawal of troops

    that placed the constitutional reformers temporarily

    in control of events. Of course, the

    reformers realized their insecurity as long as

    they did not have control of the military. When

    the NATIONAL ASSEMBLY convened in April 1848,

    it drafted military reforms to restrict the power

    of the king over the army and to make it responsible

    for defending the constitution. The memory

    of the March days by army leaders made

    them fearful of revolutionary agitation in the

    future and convinced them for the next decade

    that the army should be primarily used as a

    domestic police force. The Revolution of 1848

    demonstrated to Prussian leaders that the survival

    of the monarchical order depended on the

    exclusive royal control of the army.

    226 Army (Prussian to 1860)

    After 1848 the main concern was not over

    the threat of foreign armies but domestic civil

    disturbance. The law governing the state of siege

    gave the army wide powers in the event of civil

    unrest. The Landwehr was purged of liberal elements

    and placed under the control of the army.

    After the economic crisis of 1857 plans for army

    reform were designed to make the army a reliable

    defender of royal absolutism. These reforms

    precipitated a constitutional crisis. The Liberals

    demanded constitutional concessions in return

    for support for the military reforms. General

    Manteuffel wanted a showdown, but the calmer

    von Roon was prepared to accept some kind of

    compromise with the Landtag. In September

    1862 the situation reached a complete deadlock

    when the Landtag refused to vote any further

    funds for army reform. In desperation Otto von

    BISMARCK was appointed minister president of

    Prussia with the task of solving the crisis.

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