• GERMANIC MIGRATIONS AND
  • FRANKISH KINGDOM
  • JOHANNES REUCHLIN
  • THE WEIMAR CONSTITUTION
  • W
  • INFLATION, REPARATIONS, AND
  • THE STRESEMANN ERA, 19231929
  • STABILIZATION AND LOCARNO,
  • CULTURE AND SOCIETY
  • ROAD TO DICTATORSHIP,
  • T
  • CONSOLIDATION OF POWER
  • THE NAZI TOTAL STATE
  • ULRICH VON HUTTEN
  • PERSECUTION OF THE JEWS
  • RELIGION AND THE CHURCHES
  • FOREIGN POLICY
  • W
  • THE BATTLE OF BRITAIN
  • INVASION OF RUSSIA
  • HITLERS PLANS FOR EUROPE
  • TURNING OF THE TIDE,
  • THE HOME FRONT
  • THE RESISTANCE
  • PHILIP MELANCHTHON
  • D-DAY TO DEFEAT NAZI GERMANY
  • THE HOLOCAUST
  • A
  • ALLIED PLANS AND CONFERENCES
  • DENAZIFICATION
  • POLITICAL PARTIES AND TRADE
  • LOCAL STATE FORMATION
  • PARLIAMENTARY COUNCIL AND THE
  • ECONOMIC RECONSTRUCTION
  • T
  • ERASMUS OF ROTTERDAM
  • BUNDESTAG ELECTION AND
  • REGAINING SOVEREIGNTY AND INTEGRATION
  • RECONSTRUCTION AND THE ECONOMIC
  • TRANSITIONAL YEARS AND
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  • THE SOCIAL-LIBERAL COALITION
  • OSTPOLITIK (FOREIGN POLICY
  • CULTURE AND SOCIETY
  • SOCIAL STRUCTURE
  • SCHMIDT ERA: SOCIAL UNREST,
  • PRINTING AND MEDICINE
  • THE KOHL ERA, 19821998
  • T
  • UPRISING OF JUNE 17, 1953
  • ECONOMIC SYSTEM
  • SOCIETY, EDUCATION, AND
  • RELATIONS WITH THE FEDERAL
  • R
  • CONSEQUENCES AND PROBLEMS OF
  • ECONOMIC UNIFICATION,
  • P
  • RENAISSANCE ART
  • UNIFICATION POLITICS AND ITS
  • FOREIGN POLICY
  • GOVERNMENT AND ELECTIONS,
  • HISTORICAL DICTIONARY A
  • A
  • Abwehr
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  • Afrika Korps
  • Agadir Incident
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  • NEED FOR CHURCH REFORM
  • Agricola, Rudolf
  • Air Force
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  • Albert V
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  • Allied Control Council
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  • Amiens, Battle of
  • Anabaptists
  • P
  • Anglo-German Naval Treaty
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  • Anti-Comintern Pact
  • anti-Semitism/Jew hatred
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  • Ardennes, Battle of the
  • Arendt, Hannah
  • Armed Forces (Wehrmacht)
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  • LUTHER AND MELANCHTHON
  • Army (Prussian to 1860)
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  • Augsburg, Diet of
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  • LUTHER AND ZWINGLI
  • Auschwitz-Birkenau
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  • Austria
  • Austrian Succession, War of
  • autarchy
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  • Axis, The
  • B
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  • Bavaria
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  • Bayer AG
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  • Beer-Hall Putsch of 1923
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  • ANABAPTISM AND MÜNTZER
  • Benz, Carl Friedrich
  • Bergen-Belsen
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  • Berlin, Battle for (Fall of)
  • Berlin, Congress of
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  • CALVINISM IN GERMANY
  • Bernstein, Eduard
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  • Biedermeier
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  • Bismarck, Otto Eduard Leopold
  • blank check
  • Bleichröder, Gerson von
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  • Blomberg, Werner von
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  • CHARLES V AND THE REFORMATION
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  • Bonn
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  • Bosnia-Herzegovina
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  • Brandenburg
  • C
  • Brauchitsch, Walther von
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  • Braun, Wernher von
  • Brecht, Bertolt
  • Bremen/Bremerhaven
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  • THE THIRTY YEARS WAR
  • Britain, Battle of
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  • Bundesrat
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  • C
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  • canton system
  • A
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  • Christian Democratic Union
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  • LITERATURE
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  • MUSIC
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  • cultured elites
  • D
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  • Diplomatic Revolution of 1756
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  • GOTTFRIED WILHELM VON LEIBNIZ
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  • Düsseldorf
  • E
  • Edict of Toleration
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  • PIETISM
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  • A
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  • euthanasia
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  • F
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  • feminism, 18151945
  • feminism, 19452005
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  • G
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  • JOSEPH II AND REFORM
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  • HOHENSTAUFEN DYNASTY,
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  • German Reich (Imperial) Party
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  • R
  • FREDERICK III
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  • FREDERICK THE GREAT
  • SEVEN YEARS WAR
  • S
  • ECONOMY
  • POLITICAL DECENTRALIZATION
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  • HABSBURG DYNASTY
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  • THE ENLIGHTENMENT
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  • O
  • THE DANISH WAR, 1864
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  • COLLAPSE OF THE SECOND FRENCH
  • I
  • N
  • ART AND ARCHITECTURE
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  • EDUCATION
  • T
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  • THE KULTURKAMPF, SOCIALISM,
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  • BISMARCKS DISMISSAL
  • WILHELMINE GERMANY
  • T
  • THE QUESTION OF
  • LATE MEDIEVAL CULTURE
  • CONDUCT OF THE WAR
  • PEACE RESOLUTION, REFORM, AND
  • AN UNPLANNED REVOLUTION
  • N
  • POLITICAL PARTIES UNPREPARED
  • A REVOLUTIONARY PATTERN
  • WORKERS AND SOLDIERS
  • KURT EISNER AND REVOLUTION IN
  • A REPUBLIC PROCLAIMED
  • A SEVERE ARMISTICE
  • T
  • ESTABLISHMENT OF A REVOLUTIONARY
  • EBERT MAKES A DEAL WITH THE
  • THE SPARTACISTS
  • INTERPRETATION OF THE
  • A VENGEFUL PEACE
  • V
  • THE GOALS OF THE PEACEMAKERS
  • TERMS OF THE TREATY
  • WAR GUILT AND REPARATIONS
  • DENUNCIATION AND RELUCTANT
  • GERMANIC MIGRATIONS AND
  • Arendt, Hannah

    lang=EN-US style='font-size:10.5pt;font-family:"Meridien-Medium","serif"; color:black'>(19061975)

    German-Jewish philosopher

    Hannah Arendt was a philosopher and political

    scientist who focused her research on the totalitarian

    regimes of the 20th century. Born in

    Hanover, she was the only child of middle-class

    Jews of Russian descent. A brilliant student, she

    studied with such great scholars as Rudolf Bultmann

    in the New Testament, Martin HEIDEGGER

    in philosophy at Marburg, with the phenomenologist,

    Edmund HUSSERL at Freiburg, and the

    existentialist Karl JASPERS at Heidelberg.

    When the Nazis came to power, Arendt

    moved to Paris, engaging in social work for a

    French organization responsible for finding

    homes in Palestine for Jewish orphans. She

    immigrated to New York, where she helped

    Jews flee from Nazi-occupied Europe. She

    embarked on a career in journalism, writing on

    such topics as racism, imperialism, and nationalism.

    In 1949 Arendt became the executive secretary

    for the Jewish Cultural Reconstruction

    Incorporated, which collected writings the Nazis

    had banned.

    In 1951 she published the work that made

    her famous, The Origins of Totalitarianism. It

    explored the historical conditions that gave rise

    to the oppressive movements of fascism and

    Soviet communism. She explained how modern

    European states were influenced by ANTISEMITISM,

    racism, and imperialism. She explained

    how people could come to be totally controlled

    by their political systems. The tools of power the

    dictators used were their ideologies (political

    belief systems), terror, concentration camps, and

    the permanent abolition of civil liberties.

    Her second major work was The Human Condition,

    in which she examines the human

    predicament in a world faced with radically new

    problems. After this books publication she was

    appointed the first woman professor at Princeton

    University. In 1961 she was an observer at

    the trial in Jerusalem of Adolf EICHMANN, who

    was a Nazi bureaucrat responsible for sending an

    untold number of Jews to the gas chambers. Her

    observations were published in Eichmann in

    Jerusalem (1964), in which she concluded that

    Eichman was a bureaucrat whose participation

    in the evil of genocide was more banal than radically

    evil. Her public reputation suffered from

    these eccentric judgments. She also taught at the

    University of Chicago and the New School for

    Social Research, where she stimulated many

    students. Other books included The Great Philosophers

    (1962), Men in Dark Times (1968), and The

    Life of the Mind (1979).

    aristocracy

    The German aristocracy constituted the landowning

    rulers of the HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE. They did

    not constitute a modern social class, but the first

    estate in the premodern political system. German

    society of the early modern period breaks

    down into three main groups with substrata in

    each group: the nobility, the bourgeoisie, and

    the peasantry. There were also a variety of

    minorities and outsiders who were not an integral

    part of it. The clergy was divided among the

    three groups.

    By 1800 it is estimated that some 50,000

    noble families with 250,000 members existed.

    The most important division was between the

    imperial nobility, who were directly responsible

    to the emperor, and the territorial nobility, who

    were responsible to a regional or local territorial

    aristocracy 221

    lord. The former included the secular and ecclesiastical

    territorial princes, and the imperial

    counts and knights. In order to restrict employment

    in the church, around 1700 a distinction

    was made between old and new nobility, the

    old predating 1400 and given preference. There

    was another category of nobility including some

    patricians in the cities. Sometimes even commoners

    could be ennobled, but that was rare.

    Within the nobility there were different rights

    of lordship (Herrschaftsrechte), which was the

    most distinctive qualifier of status from the highest

    of the territorial princes and imperial nobility

    to the lowest local lord. Nevertheless, all

    nobles enjoyed certain privileges not possessed

    by the rest of society. These were special judicial

    treatment, freedom from direct taxation, special

    hunting rights, and freedom from state interference

    in their lives. Between 1500 and 1800 the

    aristocracy increasingly lived a variety of

    lifestyles, had different amounts and sources of

    income, worked at an assortment of occupations,

    had greater education and were more cultured,

    and no longer resided only in rural areas. Territorial

    princes included the emperor, whose

    courts, armies, and governments employed

    many thousands of nobles who no longer could

    support themselves from agriculture. Consequently,

    nobles were increasingly employed in

    civil administration or military command. By the

    18th century an increasingly large number of

    nobles derived much or all of their income from

    service to the state. Perhaps not typical, but

    nonetheless indicative, was the fact that by 1718

    four-fifths of the adult Prussian nobility were

    employed in the civil or military service. Employment

    in state service also changed the way the

    nobility thought about education. Since state

    service required juristic or other specialized

    knowledge, university training became necessary.

    As the nobility increasingly worked and

    resided in cities, they also mixed more frequently

    with the upper bourgeoisie as the leaders of city

    administration, the cultural elite, and professional

    people. In the 17th and 18th centuries

    they also increasingly participated in literary and

    cultural societies that had mixed memberships of

    nobles and bourgeoisie. They also mixed with

    the upper bourgeoisie in the hundreds of lodges

    of the Freemasons and other patriotic and literary

    societies. The German nobility made an

    important contribution to society, was not parasitic

    but dutifully employed, and the territorial

    princes, by providing employment in their

    courts, government, and armies, contributed to

    their reputation of a true service class. This new

    lease on life that they acquired in this period of

    transition helps explain how they survived the

    upheavals of the period of the French Revolution

    and why the institutions of nobility and monarchy

    were so accepted in Germany.

    It was, however, the Prussian nobility who

    were preeminently dedicated to state service. In

    return for service King FREDERICK WILLIAM I

    decreed that the nobility of the sword would be

    the first estate of the realm. The king had

    established the CANTON SYSTEM, which divided

    the kingdom into military districts and the districts

    into cantons. Each canton had to provide a

    regiment, and officers and men had to live in

    their home districts. There no longer was a distinction

    between private and military life. The

    JUNKER was both lord and officer, while the

    peasant was both serf and soldier.

    Nobles continued to maintain their prestige,

    identities, and political influence throughout the

    19th century. Neither the REVOLUTION OF 1848

    nor unification and the establishment of the Second

    Empire eliminated them. In fact, they dominated

    the government of the empire and were

    predominant among the officers. They continued

    to be distinguished by their region, religion,

    wealth, and type of land ownership. They, of

    course, were faced by numerous challenges due

    to commercial development and the INDUSTRIAL

    REVOLUTION. Besides rivaling the nobility in

    wealth, the middle class also purchased their

    landed estates with increased frequency.

    Nonetheless, the nobility were able to adapt to

    the political and economic consequences of

    industrialization. Nobles with estates modernized

    them and used their political power to raise

    tariffs against grain imports. Others were

    employed in bureaucracies as well as in the mil-

    222 aristocracy

    itary. Through patronage they even maintained

    influence in the Protestant and Catholic Churches.

    They also played prominent roles in the conservative

    AGRARIAN LEAGUES (Bund der Landwirte)

    and in two of the imperial political parties, the

    Protestant CONSERVATIVE PARTY and the Catholic

    CENTER PARTY.

    During the WEIMAR REPUBLIC the influence of

    the nobility declined, but manifested itself in

    monarchist and nationalist groups and especially

    in the GERMAN NATIONAL PEOPLES PARTY. Some

    nobles, such as the President Paul von HINDENBURG

    and the Catholic Franz von PAPEN contributed

    to the fall of the republic. Many younger

    nobles supported the NAZI PARTY and believed

    that its authoritarianism was preferable to the

    democracy of the republic. Once in power, the

    Nazis did not break up the large estates on which

    aristocratic wealth depended. Aristocratic enthusiasm

    for the Nazis dampened with the Nazi persecution

    of the Christian churches, Hitlers

    assumption of the command of the military, and

    the belief that his wars were going to destroy

    Germany. Some joined the anti-Nazi RESISTANCE.

    Not until the end of the Third Reich were the

    aristocracy permanently undermined. The Prussian

    Junkers were eliminated by the GERMAN

    DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC and the loss of eastern territories

    to Poland. In the FEDERAL REPUBLIC aristocratic

    titles remained, but their social status and

    influence depended on how well they adapted to

    the capitalist democracy.

    were   GERMANC   Germany   Party   their   Prussians   army   state   government   became   they   during   Austrian   CHURCHES   French   political   Frederick   Nazis   Social   Hitler   after   against   economic   some   republican