• GERMANIC MIGRATIONS AND
  • FRANKISH KINGDOM
  • JOHANNES REUCHLIN
  • THE WEIMAR CONSTITUTION
  • W
  • INFLATION, REPARATIONS, AND
  • THE STRESEMANN ERA, 19231929
  • STABILIZATION AND LOCARNO,
  • CULTURE AND SOCIETY
  • ROAD TO DICTATORSHIP,
  • T
  • CONSOLIDATION OF POWER
  • THE NAZI TOTAL STATE
  • ULRICH VON HUTTEN
  • PERSECUTION OF THE JEWS
  • RELIGION AND THE CHURCHES
  • FOREIGN POLICY
  • W
  • THE BATTLE OF BRITAIN
  • INVASION OF RUSSIA
  • HITLERS PLANS FOR EUROPE
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  • THE HOME FRONT
  • THE RESISTANCE
  • PHILIP MELANCHTHON
  • D-DAY TO DEFEAT NAZI GERMANY
  • THE HOLOCAUST
  • A
  • ALLIED PLANS AND CONFERENCES
  • DENAZIFICATION
  • POLITICAL PARTIES AND TRADE
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  • ECONOMIC RECONSTRUCTION
  • T
  • ERASMUS OF ROTTERDAM
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  • RECONSTRUCTION AND THE ECONOMIC
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  • PRINTING AND MEDICINE
  • THE KOHL ERA, 19821998
  • T
  • UPRISING OF JUNE 17, 1953
  • ECONOMIC SYSTEM
  • SOCIETY, EDUCATION, AND
  • RELATIONS WITH THE FEDERAL
  • R
  • CONSEQUENCES AND PROBLEMS OF
  • ECONOMIC UNIFICATION,
  • P
  • RENAISSANCE ART
  • UNIFICATION POLITICS AND ITS
  • FOREIGN POLICY
  • GOVERNMENT AND ELECTIONS,
  • HISTORICAL DICTIONARY A
  • A
  • Abwehr
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  • Anabaptists
  • P
  • Anglo-German Naval Treaty
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  • anti-Semitism/Jew hatred
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  • Ardennes, Battle of the
  • Arendt, Hannah
  • Armed Forces (Wehrmacht)
  • Armed Forces (Bundeswehr):
  • LUTHER AND MELANCHTHON
  • Army (Prussian to 1860)
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  • LUTHER AND ZWINGLI
  • Auschwitz-Birkenau
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  • Austria
  • Austrian Succession, War of
  • autarchy
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  • B
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  • Bavaria
  • Bavarian Peoples Party (BVP)
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  • Beer-Hall Putsch of 1923
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  • ANABAPTISM AND MÜNTZER
  • Benz, Carl Friedrich
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  • CALVINISM IN GERMANY
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  • Biedermeier
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  • Bismarck, Otto Eduard Leopold
  • blank check
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  • CHARLES V AND THE REFORMATION
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  • Bosnia-Herzegovina
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  • Brandenburg
  • C
  • Brauchitsch, Walther von
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  • Braun, Wernher von
  • Brecht, Bertolt
  • Bremen/Bremerhaven
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  • Breslau
  • The Bridge
  • THE THIRTY YEARS WAR
  • Britain, Battle of
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  • Buchenwald
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  • Bundesrat
  • Bundestag
  • Burschenschaft
  • C
  • Canisius, Peter
  • canton system
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  • Christian Democratic Union
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  • LITERATURE
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  • Clausewitz, Carl von
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  • D
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  • E
  • Edict of Toleration
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  • A
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  • F
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  • JOSEPH II AND REFORM
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  • R
  • FREDERICK III
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  • FREDERICK THE GREAT
  • SEVEN YEARS WAR
  • S
  • ECONOMY
  • POLITICAL DECENTRALIZATION
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  • O
  • THE DANISH WAR, 1864
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  • I
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  • BISMARCKS DISMISSAL
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  • T
  • THE QUESTION OF
  • LATE MEDIEVAL CULTURE
  • CONDUCT OF THE WAR
  • PEACE RESOLUTION, REFORM, AND
  • AN UNPLANNED REVOLUTION
  • N
  • POLITICAL PARTIES UNPREPARED
  • A REVOLUTIONARY PATTERN
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  • KURT EISNER AND REVOLUTION IN
  • A REPUBLIC PROCLAIMED
  • A SEVERE ARMISTICE
  • T
  • ESTABLISHMENT OF A REVOLUTIONARY
  • EBERT MAKES A DEAL WITH THE
  • THE SPARTACISTS
  • INTERPRETATION OF THE
  • A VENGEFUL PEACE
  • V
  • THE GOALS OF THE PEACEMAKERS
  • TERMS OF THE TREATY
  • WAR GUILT AND REPARATIONS
  • DENUNCIATION AND RELUCTANT
  • GERMANIC MIGRATIONS AND
  • Ardennes, Battle of the

    lang=EN-US style='font-size:10.5pt;font-family:"Meridien-Medium","serif"; color:black'>(December

    1944)

    The Battle of the Ardennes forest or Battle of the

    Bulge was the last attempt by the Germans to

    break through the Allied front in the West. Their

    goal was to capture Antwerp and cut off Allied

    troops in northern Belgium and the Netherlands

    who were preparing to invade Germany.

    Because the Americans were holding the

    Ardennes with a minimum of troops, Adolf

    HITLER decided on a counterattack through this

    difficult terrain of forests and a minimum of

    roads. The weather was harsh with fog, wind,

    and snow. In the past German armies had successfully

    invaded through the Ardennes in 1914

    and 1940.

    The offensive was a total strategic and tactical

    surprise launched in poor weather. In order for

    the breakthrough to be successful, Hitler created

    the Sixth SS Panzer Army with four SS panzer

    divisions and placed his favorite, Sepp Dietrich,

    in command. While he was to attack to the

    north, at the same time another new panzer

    army under General Manteufel would attack in

    the center. To the south Lt. General Erich Brandenbergers

    Seventh Army would attack. An

    amazing total of 30 divisions were amassed

    along with 1,000 aircraft in utmost secrecy. The

    commander in chief of the West, General von

    Rundstedt, had been kept in the dark and was

    appalled when he learned of the campaign.

    Rundstedt thought the campaign lacked all the

    right conditions for success.

    General Eisenhower appointed Field Marshal

    Montgomery to temporary command of the

    front, even though the heaviest fighting

    involved American troops. American forces

    resisted the German onslaught as well as possible,

    but Manteufels panzers broke through and

    headed for St. Vith and Bastogne. At Bastogne

    the 101st Airborne Division and part of the 10th

    Armored were rushed to establish a perimeter

    defense around Bastogne. Eisenhower was

    informed by ULTRA intelligence that the Germans

    were heading toward the Meuse, and

    ordered General Patton to attack northward.

    Part of Pattons 7th Corps was used to blunt

    Manteufels 2nd Panzer Division. Resistance was

    so stiff at Bastogne that nine panzer divisions

    had to get involved in the battle. Runstedt

    requested Hitler to let his forces withdraw, but

    220 Ardennes, Battle of the

    was refused. At the same time the skies cleared

    and Allied planes by the thousands bombarded

    the Germans on December 2324. The Allies

    launched their counteroffensive on January 3,

    1945, and forced the Germans to retreat by mid-

    January, losing some 100,000 out of the half

    million men they had committed to the battle.

    Nearly all the tanks and aircraft were lost.

    Churchill called the battle the greatest of the

    war. The American army in four days doubled its

    infantry and tripled its armor. The German losses

    were so severe that subsequently they were not

    able to hold the defenses of the Rhine, and the

    failure of the offensive dissipated Germanys

    reserves and hastened the final defeat of the

    Reich.

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