• GERMANIC MIGRATIONS AND
  • FRANKISH KINGDOM
  • JOHANNES REUCHLIN
  • THE WEIMAR CONSTITUTION
  • W
  • INFLATION, REPARATIONS, AND
  • THE STRESEMANN ERA, 19231929
  • STABILIZATION AND LOCARNO,
  • CULTURE AND SOCIETY
  • ROAD TO DICTATORSHIP,
  • T
  • CONSOLIDATION OF POWER
  • THE NAZI TOTAL STATE
  • ULRICH VON HUTTEN
  • PERSECUTION OF THE JEWS
  • RELIGION AND THE CHURCHES
  • FOREIGN POLICY
  • W
  • THE BATTLE OF BRITAIN
  • INVASION OF RUSSIA
  • HITLERS PLANS FOR EUROPE
  • TURNING OF THE TIDE,
  • THE HOME FRONT
  • THE RESISTANCE
  • PHILIP MELANCHTHON
  • D-DAY TO DEFEAT NAZI GERMANY
  • THE HOLOCAUST
  • A
  • ALLIED PLANS AND CONFERENCES
  • DENAZIFICATION
  • POLITICAL PARTIES AND TRADE
  • LOCAL STATE FORMATION
  • PARLIAMENTARY COUNCIL AND THE
  • ECONOMIC RECONSTRUCTION
  • T
  • ERASMUS OF ROTTERDAM
  • BUNDESTAG ELECTION AND
  • REGAINING SOVEREIGNTY AND INTEGRATION
  • RECONSTRUCTION AND THE ECONOMIC
  • TRANSITIONAL YEARS AND
  • THE GRAND COALITION AND YOUTH
  • THE SOCIAL-LIBERAL COALITION
  • OSTPOLITIK (FOREIGN POLICY
  • CULTURE AND SOCIETY
  • SOCIAL STRUCTURE
  • SCHMIDT ERA: SOCIAL UNREST,
  • PRINTING AND MEDICINE
  • THE KOHL ERA, 19821998
  • T
  • UPRISING OF JUNE 17, 1953
  • ECONOMIC SYSTEM
  • SOCIETY, EDUCATION, AND
  • RELATIONS WITH THE FEDERAL
  • R
  • CONSEQUENCES AND PROBLEMS OF
  • ECONOMIC UNIFICATION,
  • P
  • RENAISSANCE ART
  • UNIFICATION POLITICS AND ITS
  • FOREIGN POLICY
  • GOVERNMENT AND ELECTIONS,
  • HISTORICAL DICTIONARY A
  • A
  • Abwehr
  • Adenauer, Konrad
  • Afrika Korps
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  • Agrarian League
  • NEED FOR CHURCH REFORM
  • Agricola, Rudolf
  • Air Force
  • Albert (Albrecht) of
  • Albert V
  • Algeciras, Conference of
  • Allied Control Council
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  • Amiens, Battle of
  • Anabaptists
  • P
  • Anglo-German Naval Treaty
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  • Anti-Comintern Pact
  • anti-Semitism/Jew hatred
  • anti-Semitism
  • Anti-Socialist Law
  • Ardennes, Battle of the
  • Arendt, Hannah
  • Armed Forces (Wehrmacht)
  • Armed Forces (Bundeswehr):
  • LUTHER AND MELANCHTHON
  • Army (Prussian to 1860)
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  • Asylum Law
  • Atlantic, Battle of the
  • Auerstadt, Battle of
  • Augsburg, Diet of
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  • LUTHER AND ZWINGLI
  • Auschwitz-Birkenau
  • Austerlitz, Battle of
  • Austria
  • Austrian Succession, War of
  • autarchy
  • autobahns
  • Axis, The
  • B
  • Baden-Württemberg
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  • CAROLINGIAN EMPIRE
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  • Bavaria
  • Bavarian Peoples Party (BVP)
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  • REFORMATION AND THE TOWNS
  • Bayer AG
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  • Bebel, August
  • Beck, Ludwig August Theodor
  • Beckmann, Max
  • Beer-Hall Putsch of 1923
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  • Benjamin, Walter
  • Benn, Gottfried
  • Bennigsen, Rudolf von
  • ANABAPTISM AND MÜNTZER
  • Benz, Carl Friedrich
  • Bergen-Belsen
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  • Berlin
  • Berlin, Battle for (Fall of)
  • Berlin, Congress of
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  • CALVINISM IN GERMANY
  • Bernstein, Eduard
  • Bethmann Hollweg, Theobald
  • Biedermeier
  • Biermann, Wolf
  • Bismarck, Otto Eduard Leopold
  • blank check
  • Bleichröder, Gerson von
  • Blenheim, Battle of
  • Blomberg, Werner von
  • Blücher, Gebhard
  • CHARLES V AND THE REFORMATION
  • Böll, Heinrich
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  • Bonn
  • Bormann, Martin
  • Born, Max
  • Borsig, August
  • Bosch, Robert
  • Bosnia-Herzegovina
  • Brahms, Johannes
  • Brandenburg
  • C
  • Brauchitsch, Walther von
  • Braun, Eva
  • Braun, Karl Ferdinand
  • Braun, Otto
  • Braun, Wernher von
  • Brecht, Bertolt
  • Bremen/Bremerhaven
  • Brentano, Elizabeth Bettina
  • Breslau
  • The Bridge
  • THE THIRTY YEARS WAR
  • Britain, Battle of
  • Brüning, Heinrich
  • Buchenwald
  • Bülow, Bernhard von
  • Bundesrat
  • Bundestag
  • Burschenschaft
  • C
  • Canisius, Peter
  • canton system
  • A
  • Carlsbad Decrees
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  • Center Party
  • Chamberlain, Houston Stewart
  • Charles V
  • Charles VI
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  • Charlottenburg, Palace of
  • Christian Democratic Union
  • Christian Social Union
  • LITERATURE
  • Civil Code, German (Revised
  • Clausewitz, Carl von
  • Concordat of 1933
  • Condor Legion
  • The Confederation of the Rhine was a
  • Confessing Church
  • Congress of Vienna
  • conservatism
  • constitutional traditions
  • Counter-Reformation
  • MUSIC
  • Cranach, Lucas, the Elder
  • cultured elites
  • D
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  • Danish War
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  • Degenerate Art
  • SAXON AND SALIAN DYNASTIES,
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  • denazification
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  • Depression, The Great
  • Depressions
  • détente
  • Diesel, Rudolf
  • Dietrich, Josef Sepp
  • Diplomatic Revolution of 1756
  • Dix, Otto
  • Döblin, Alfred
  • GOTTFRIED WILHELM VON LEIBNIZ
  • Dönitz, Karl
  • Dresden
  • Droste-Hülshoff, Annette
  • Dual Alliance
  • Dürer, Albrecht
  • Düsseldorf
  • E
  • Edict of Toleration
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  • Eichendorff, Joseph von
  • PIETISM
  • Eichmann, Adolf
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  • Eugene, prince of Savoy
  • European Coal and Steel
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  • A
  • European Economic Community
  • European Union
  • euthanasia
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  • Falkenhayn, Erich von
  • F
  • Fatherland Party
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  • TURKISH WARS
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  • feminism, 18151945
  • feminism, 19452005
  • Ferdinand II
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  • Final Solution
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  • G
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  • Gentz, Friedrich
  • JOSEPH II AND REFORM
  • German Christians
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  • R
  • FREDERICK III
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  • FREDERICK THE GREAT
  • SEVEN YEARS WAR
  • S
  • ECONOMY
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  • O
  • THE DANISH WAR, 1864
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  • I
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  • ART AND ARCHITECTURE
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  • BISMARCKS DISMISSAL
  • WILHELMINE GERMANY
  • T
  • THE QUESTION OF
  • LATE MEDIEVAL CULTURE
  • CONDUCT OF THE WAR
  • PEACE RESOLUTION, REFORM, AND
  • AN UNPLANNED REVOLUTION
  • N
  • POLITICAL PARTIES UNPREPARED
  • A REVOLUTIONARY PATTERN
  • WORKERS AND SOLDIERS
  • KURT EISNER AND REVOLUTION IN
  • A REPUBLIC PROCLAIMED
  • A SEVERE ARMISTICE
  • T
  • ESTABLISHMENT OF A REVOLUTIONARY
  • EBERT MAKES A DEAL WITH THE
  • THE SPARTACISTS
  • INTERPRETATION OF THE
  • A VENGEFUL PEACE
  • V
  • THE GOALS OF THE PEACEMAKERS
  • TERMS OF THE TREATY
  • WAR GUILT AND REPARATIONS
  • DENUNCIATION AND RELUCTANT
  • GERMANIC MIGRATIONS AND
  • anti-Semitism

    lang=EN-US style='font-size:10.5pt;font-family:"Meridien-Medium","serif"; color:black'>(18711945)

    The term anti-Semitism appeared in Germany in

    1879, first being used by the journalist Wilhelm

    MARR, indicating a new attitude toward Jews

    and Gentiles in a secularized Europe. Modern

    political identity, he thought, was based on race

    and nationality, and the differences between

    Jews and non-Jews were irreconcilable because

    they were racial. Anti-Semitism implies more

    than a distaste for Jews or intense emotional

    hatred; it advocates a goal of committed action

    against the Jews. It was no longer just a personal

    hatred nor an issue of religious conversion, nor

    mob action. What was new and menacingly different

    about anti-Semitism was its institutionalization,

    that is, its embodiment in permanent

    political parties, associations, and published

    journals. Not even racism was the distinguishing

    characteristic between anti-Semitism and the

    Jew hatred of the past. Racism had existed

    before 1879 and was not universally part of the

    new outlook, especially in eastern Europe,

    where, for instance, the most significant anti-

    Semitic book of the 20th century was The Protocols

    of the Elders of Zion, which did not conceive

    the Jewish question to be racial.

    It was the abolition of discriminatory laws

    through emancipation that empowered the Jews

    and reversed the relation between Jews and

    non-Jews. To their enemies emancipation had

    been an invalid bestowal of rights, which Jews

    would use to control the nation. Anti-Semites

    were usually powerless little people who

    thought that anti-Semitism offered them a way

    of achieving power and of acting out their hateful

    feelings toward Jews, although conservative

    groups and parties could also use anti-Semitism

    to get votes and protect their interests.

    The anti-Semitic movement of the 1870s

    arose in response to Jewish migration to cities,

    attendance at universities, entrance into the professions,

    and participation in public and cultural

    life. Their upward mobility became highly visible.

    Also significant was the economic depression

    of the 1870s, which worsened the already

    difficult situation and created resentment in the

    lower middle class and peasantry, who were

    having a difficult time adjusting to a capitalistic

    market economy. In modern history anti-

    Semitic resentment usually appeared much

    stronger during economic crises, such as that of

    the 1870s, and then later in the aftermath of

    WORLDWAR I and during the GREAT DEPRESSION

    of the 1930s. Anti-Semitism first took organized

    political form in Germany, where it became a

    fundamental platform of the CHRISTIAN SOCIAL

    PARTY, launched in 1879 by the court preacher

    Adolf Stöcker, who depicted Jews as agents of

    social decay, revolutionary discontent, and subversive

    to German hierarchical patriarchal society.

    It also appeared in Austria-Hungary as an

    artisan defense movement and was politically

    successful when Karl Lueger was elected mayor

    of Vienna. Germanys most famous nationalist

    historian, Heinrich von TREITSCHKE, warned

    against the Jewish threat to the national unity of

    Otto von BISMARCKs new German state, coining

    the infamous phrase, the Jews are our misfortune.

    Most of the anti-Semitic politicians, however,

    came out of the ranks of failed academics,

    journalists, and would-be intellectuals who

    blamed Jews for most of the economic, cultural,

    and moral evils of the time. The new anti-

    Semites believed in a Jewish world conspiracy,

    had a theory of history, and were committed to

    fighting against the Jewish danger. They institutionalized

    anti-Semitism in journals, newspapers,

    reform clubs, and political parties.

    None of these groups and political parties

    developed into strong mass movements nor

    became powerful enough before World War I to

    pass laws in the REICHSTAG to restrict Jewish

    rights. This, however, opened the way for those

    anti-Semites who rejected conventional parliaments

    as a manifestation of the evil Jewish influanti-

    Semitism 217

    ence. The Russian Revolution of 1917 and German

    defeat in 1918 had proven the worst fears

    of these anti-Semites. Postwar resentments

    fueled the proliferation of radical right organizations,

    especially in BAVARIA with large numbers

    of ex-servicemen who were anti-republican

    and anti-Semitic and willing to use violence and

    political assassination. For instance, Walter

    RATHENAU, the famous Jewish foreign minister,

    was assassinated in 1922. The Republic lacked

    legitimacy in the eyes of anti-Semites; in fact, it

    was difficult for the republican government to

    fight against anti-Semitism. German economic

    and educational elites were willing to use anti-

    Semitism to fight for their interests and finance

    anti-Semitic publications. The NAZI PARTY

    espoused extreme anti-Semitism in order to

    mobilize a mass following. After Hitler became

    chancellor, the persecution of Jews became

    commonplace and their rights were eliminated.

    Jews were excluded from public life and government

    service; then deprived of citizenship

    through the NUREMBERG LAWS of 1935; and

    finally expelled from professions and commercial

    life by 1938. The Nazi state made the solution

    to the Jewish question one of its chief tasks.

    The culmination of modern anti-Semitism

    came after the outbreak of WORLD WAR II. Jews

    were deported to ghettos in eastern Europe and

    then to extermination camps like Auschwitz.

    Nazi leaders were responsible for the decision of

    the FINAL SOLUTION, but collaborators in the

    occupied areas made the genocide possible. All

    the participants were motivated in this mass

    genocide by the anti-Semitic prejudices, racism,

    conspiracy theories, and demonic images that

    had dehumanized the Jews and made it acceptable

    to deprive them of their human rights.

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