• GERMANIC MIGRATIONS AND
  • FRANKISH KINGDOM
  • JOHANNES REUCHLIN
  • THE WEIMAR CONSTITUTION
  • W
  • INFLATION, REPARATIONS, AND
  • THE STRESEMANN ERA, 19231929
  • STABILIZATION AND LOCARNO,
  • CULTURE AND SOCIETY
  • ROAD TO DICTATORSHIP,
  • T
  • CONSOLIDATION OF POWER
  • THE NAZI TOTAL STATE
  • ULRICH VON HUTTEN
  • PERSECUTION OF THE JEWS
  • RELIGION AND THE CHURCHES
  • FOREIGN POLICY
  • W
  • THE BATTLE OF BRITAIN
  • INVASION OF RUSSIA
  • HITLERS PLANS FOR EUROPE
  • TURNING OF THE TIDE,
  • THE HOME FRONT
  • THE RESISTANCE
  • PHILIP MELANCHTHON
  • D-DAY TO DEFEAT NAZI GERMANY
  • THE HOLOCAUST
  • A
  • ALLIED PLANS AND CONFERENCES
  • DENAZIFICATION
  • POLITICAL PARTIES AND TRADE
  • LOCAL STATE FORMATION
  • PARLIAMENTARY COUNCIL AND THE
  • ECONOMIC RECONSTRUCTION
  • T
  • ERASMUS OF ROTTERDAM
  • BUNDESTAG ELECTION AND
  • REGAINING SOVEREIGNTY AND INTEGRATION
  • RECONSTRUCTION AND THE ECONOMIC
  • TRANSITIONAL YEARS AND
  • THE GRAND COALITION AND YOUTH
  • THE SOCIAL-LIBERAL COALITION
  • OSTPOLITIK (FOREIGN POLICY
  • CULTURE AND SOCIETY
  • SOCIAL STRUCTURE
  • SCHMIDT ERA: SOCIAL UNREST,
  • PRINTING AND MEDICINE
  • THE KOHL ERA, 19821998
  • T
  • UPRISING OF JUNE 17, 1953
  • ECONOMIC SYSTEM
  • SOCIETY, EDUCATION, AND
  • RELATIONS WITH THE FEDERAL
  • R
  • CONSEQUENCES AND PROBLEMS OF
  • ECONOMIC UNIFICATION,
  • P
  • RENAISSANCE ART
  • UNIFICATION POLITICS AND ITS
  • FOREIGN POLICY
  • GOVERNMENT AND ELECTIONS,
  • HISTORICAL DICTIONARY A
  • A
  • Abwehr
  • Adenauer, Konrad
  • Afrika Korps
  • Agadir Incident
  • Agrarian League
  • NEED FOR CHURCH REFORM
  • Agricola, Rudolf
  • Air Force
  • Albert (Albrecht) of
  • Albert V
  • Algeciras, Conference of
  • Allied Control Council
  • Alsace-Lorraine
  • Altdorfer, Albrecht
  • Amiens, Battle of
  • Anabaptists
  • P
  • Anglo-German Naval Treaty
  • Anschluss
  • Anti-Comintern Pact
  • anti-Semitism/Jew hatred
  • anti-Semitism
  • Anti-Socialist Law
  • Ardennes, Battle of the
  • Arendt, Hannah
  • Armed Forces (Wehrmacht)
  • Armed Forces (Bundeswehr):
  • LUTHER AND MELANCHTHON
  • Army (Prussian to 1860)
  • Army (Second Empire,
  • Asylum Law
  • Atlantic, Battle of the
  • Auerstadt, Battle of
  • Augsburg, Diet of
  • Augsburg, Religious Peace of
  • Augsburg, War of the League
  • Augsburg Confession
  • Augspurg, Anita
  • LUTHER AND ZWINGLI
  • Auschwitz-Birkenau
  • Austerlitz, Battle of
  • Austria
  • Austrian Succession, War of
  • autarchy
  • autobahns
  • Axis, The
  • B
  • Baden-Württemberg
  • Ballin, Albert
  • CAROLINGIAN EMPIRE
  • KNIGHTS REVOLT AND GREAT
  • Barbie, Klaus
  • Barmen Declaration
  • Barth, Karl
  • Basic Treaty
  • Bauernschutz
  • Bauhaus
  • Baumer, Gertrud
  • Bavaria
  • Bavarian Peoples Party (BVP)
  • Bavarian Succession, War of
  • REFORMATION AND THE TOWNS
  • Bayer AG
  • Bayreuth
  • Bebel, August
  • Beck, Ludwig August Theodor
  • Beckmann, Max
  • Beer-Hall Putsch of 1923
  • Beethoven, Ludwig van
  • Benjamin, Walter
  • Benn, Gottfried
  • Bennigsen, Rudolf von
  • ANABAPTISM AND MÜNTZER
  • Benz, Carl Friedrich
  • Bergen-Belsen
  • Berghof
  • Berlin
  • Berlin, Battle for (Fall of)
  • Berlin, Congress of
  • Berlin-Baghdad Railway
  • Berlin Blockade
  • Berlin Conference
  • Berlin Wall
  • CALVINISM IN GERMANY
  • Bernstein, Eduard
  • Bethmann Hollweg, Theobald
  • Biedermeier
  • Biermann, Wolf
  • Bismarck, Otto Eduard Leopold
  • blank check
  • Bleichröder, Gerson von
  • Blenheim, Battle of
  • Blomberg, Werner von
  • Blücher, Gebhard
  • CHARLES V AND THE REFORMATION
  • Böll, Heinrich
  • Bonhoeffer, Dietrich
  • Bonn
  • Bormann, Martin
  • Born, Max
  • Borsig, August
  • Bosch, Robert
  • Bosnia-Herzegovina
  • Brahms, Johannes
  • Brandenburg
  • C
  • Brauchitsch, Walther von
  • Braun, Eva
  • Braun, Karl Ferdinand
  • Braun, Otto
  • Braun, Wernher von
  • Brecht, Bertolt
  • Bremen/Bremerhaven
  • Brentano, Elizabeth Bettina
  • Breslau
  • The Bridge
  • THE THIRTY YEARS WAR
  • Britain, Battle of
  • Brüning, Heinrich
  • Buchenwald
  • Bülow, Bernhard von
  • Bundesrat
  • Bundestag
  • Burschenschaft
  • C
  • Canisius, Peter
  • canton system
  • A
  • Carlsbad Decrees
  • Celtis, Conrad
  • Center Party
  • Chamberlain, Houston Stewart
  • Charles V
  • Charles VI
  • Charles VII
  • Charlottenburg, Palace of
  • Christian Democratic Union
  • Christian Social Union
  • LITERATURE
  • Civil Code, German (Revised
  • Clausewitz, Carl von
  • Concordat of 1933
  • Condor Legion
  • The Confederation of the Rhine was a
  • Confessing Church
  • Congress of Vienna
  • conservatism
  • constitutional traditions
  • Counter-Reformation
  • MUSIC
  • Cranach, Lucas, the Elder
  • cultured elites
  • D
  • Daimler, Gottlieb
  • Danish War
  • Danzig
  • Dawes Plan
  • D-Banks
  • D-Day
  • Degenerate Art
  • SAXON AND SALIAN DYNASTIES,
  • SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION
  • denazification
  • Denck, Hans
  • Depression, The Great
  • Depressions
  • détente
  • Diesel, Rudolf
  • Dietrich, Josef Sepp
  • Diplomatic Revolution of 1756
  • Dix, Otto
  • Döblin, Alfred
  • GOTTFRIED WILHELM VON LEIBNIZ
  • Dönitz, Karl
  • Dresden
  • Droste-Hülshoff, Annette
  • Dual Alliance
  • Dürer, Albrecht
  • Düsseldorf
  • E
  • Edict of Toleration
  • Ehrlich, Paul
  • Eichendorff, Joseph von
  • PIETISM
  • Eichmann, Adolf
  • Eicke, Theodor
  • Einsatzgruppen
  • Einstein, Albert
  • Eisner, Kurt
  • El Alamein, Battles of
  • Elbe River
  • Ems Telegram
  • Enabling Act
  • Engels, Friedrich
  • ROCOCO
  • ENIGMA/ULTRA
  • Enlightenment
  • Erasmus, Desiderius
  • Erfurt Program
  • Erhard, Ludwig
  • Ernst, Max
  • Erzberger, Matthias
  • Eugene, prince of Savoy
  • European Coal and Steel
  • European Defense Community
  • A
  • European Economic Community
  • European Union
  • euthanasia
  • expressionism
  • Falkenhayn, Erich von
  • F
  • Fatherland Party
  • Federal Constitutional Court
  • Federal Republic of Germany
  • Federation of German Industry
  • TURKISH WARS
  • Federation of German Womens
  • feminism, 18151945
  • feminism, 19452005
  • Ferdinand II
  • Feuerbach, Ludwig Andreas
  • Fichte, Johann Gottlieb
  • Final Solution
  • Fischer, Josef Joschka
  • Fischer von Erlach, John
  • Fontane, Theodor
  • WARS OF AUSTRIAN SUCCESSION
  • Four Year Plan
  • Francis II
  • Frank, Anne
  • Frank, Hans
  • Frankfurt am Main
  • Frankfurt Parliament
  • Frederick I
  • Frederick II, The Great
  • Frederick III
  • Frederick III, The Wise
  • STATE REFORMS
  • Frederick William
  • Frederick William I
  • Frederick William II
  • Frederick William III
  • Frederick William IV
  • Free Corps
  • Free Democratic Party
  • Freemasonry/Illuminati
  • French Revolutionary Wars
  • Freytag, Gustav
  • FOREIGN POLICY AND KAUNITZ
  • Friedrich, Caspar David
  • Fritsch, Werner von
  • Fugger, Jacob the Rich
  • Führerprinzip
  • G
  • Galen, Clemens August von
  • Gellert, Christian
  • General Directory
  • Genscher, Hans-Dietrich
  • Gentz, Friedrich
  • JOSEPH II AND REFORM
  • German Christians
  • German Communist Party
  • German Confederation
  • German Conservative Party
  • German Democratic Party
  • German Democratic Republic
  • German Labor Front
  • German National Peoples
  • German Peoples Party
  • German Progressive Party
  • HOHENSTAUFEN DYNASTY,
  • VIENNA AND ARCHITECTURE
  • German Reich (Imperial) Party
  • German Womens Bureau
  • German Workers Party
  • Germany Treaty
  • R
  • FREDERICK III
  • FREDERICK WILLIAM I, THE
  • FREDERICK THE GREAT
  • SEVEN YEARS WAR
  • S
  • ECONOMY
  • POLITICAL DECENTRALIZATION
  • SOCIAL STRUCTURE
  • HABSBURG DYNASTY
  • CULTURE
  • THE ENLIGHTENMENT
  • LITERATURE AND DRAMA
  • PHILOSOPHY
  • SECRET SOCIETIES
  • T
  • R
  • THE ROMANTIC MOVEMENT
  • NATIONALISM AND LIBERALISM
  • EARLY INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
  • CITIES AND CRAFT GUILDS
  • REVOLUTIONS OF 1848
  • ARMY REFORM AND PARLIAMENTARY
  • O
  • THE DANISH WAR, 1864
  • AUSTRO-PRUSSIAN WAR, 1866
  • THE FRANCO-PRUSSIAN WAR,
  • COLLAPSE OF THE SECOND FRENCH
  • I
  • N
  • ART AND ARCHITECTURE
  • ORIGINS OF CAPITALISM
  • SOCIAL STRUCTURE AND WOMEN
  • EDUCATION
  • T
  • POLITICAL PARTIES
  • THE KULTURKAMPF, SOCIALISM,
  • FOREIGN POLICY AND ALLIANCE
  • BISMARCKS DISMISSAL
  • WILHELMINE GERMANY
  • T
  • THE QUESTION OF
  • LATE MEDIEVAL CULTURE
  • CONDUCT OF THE WAR
  • PEACE RESOLUTION, REFORM, AND
  • AN UNPLANNED REVOLUTION
  • N
  • POLITICAL PARTIES UNPREPARED
  • A REVOLUTIONARY PATTERN
  • WORKERS AND SOLDIERS
  • KURT EISNER AND REVOLUTION IN
  • A REPUBLIC PROCLAIMED
  • A SEVERE ARMISTICE
  • T
  • ESTABLISHMENT OF A REVOLUTIONARY
  • EBERT MAKES A DEAL WITH THE
  • THE SPARTACISTS
  • INTERPRETATION OF THE
  • A VENGEFUL PEACE
  • V
  • THE GOALS OF THE PEACEMAKERS
  • TERMS OF THE TREATY
  • WAR GUILT AND REPARATIONS
  • DENUNCIATION AND RELUCTANT
  • GERMANIC MIGRATIONS AND
  • anti-Semitism/Jew hatred

    (15001848)

    Before the advent of modern concepts of race,

    anti-Semitism should more accurately be

    described as prejudice or hatred toward the

    Jews because of their religion, cultural separateness,

    or economic power. During the late

    Middle Ages the image of the Jew became fixed

    as a symbol of hidden menaces and was stripped

    of normal human characteristics that would

    control civilized conduct toward them. Outbreaks

    of violence occurred frequently in northern

    Europe, and although the popes tried to

    protect Jews, Christian teaching continued to

    define them as religious antagonists. Sporadic

    popular outbursts by rioters found it easier to

    identify their victims when they were forced, as

    in Bamberg, to wear yellow patches or horned

    caps. Sometimes Christian merchants were jealous

    of Jewish peddlers, while others may have

    wanted to free themselves from debts to Jewish

    moneylenders. Then, between 1290 and

    1421, secular rulers expelled Jews from their

    lands, and specifically in the HOLY ROMAN

    EMPIRE, from Prague in 1400 and Vienna in

    1421. Compulsory segregation into ghettos

    began in Venice in 1516, and by 1600 the physical

    and economic segregation of Jews throughout

    Europe was mostly complete.

    The Lutheran Reformation in Germany held

    out prospects of some relief. LUTHER at first

    hoped that Jews would convert to his brand of

    Christianity, but disappointed by their continued

    resistance, Luther published Concerning the Jews

    and Their Lies (1543). Fortunately, Luthers

    admonition of harsh punishment for the Jews

    anti-Semitism/Jew hatred 215

    was not adopted. Conditions improved in Protestant

    Europe because of the rejection of the

    Catholic doctrine of transubstantiation, which

    reduced accusations of ritual murder against

    Jews and the generally better treatment of

    Jews in Calvinist areas. The Catholic COUNTERREFORMATION

    reemphasized hostility toward the

    Jews. During and after the THIRTY YEARS WAR

    the conditions somewhat improved as the various

    German states sought the aid of Jewish

    lenders to rebuild their lands. Many territorial

    princes even invited Jewish settlement and Court

    Jews (Hofjuden) played an important role in

    financial administration. Brandenburg-Prussia

    probably demonstrated the greatest degree of

    toleration. Being a Court Jew, however, did not

    always protect one, as was the case for Joseph

    Süss Oppenheimer, who, even though he had

    been the banker of Duke Karl Alexander of

    Württemberg, was tried and executed after the

    dukes death. More generally, Jews were regularly

    expelled from cities and states and were segregated,

    impoverished, and treated with

    contempt. When the Jews were expelled from

    Vienna in 1670, some 50 families were invited to

    Prussia, where they played a significant economic

    role helping the country recover from the

    lengthy and devastating SEVEN YEARS WAR. During

    the latter 18th century it appeared possible

    that an integration of rich Jewish families in

    BERLIN and the enlightened aristocracy and middle

    class might have been possible. The philosopher

    Moses MENDELSSOHN and his daughter,

    Dorothea Mendelssohn Veit, conducted a reading

    and discussion society in Berlin, which

    played a significant role in demonstrating that

    the differences between Jews and Germans could

    be bridged. Contrary to expectation, the rationalism

    of the ENLIGHTENMENT did not free

    Judaism from the criticism that thinkers like

    Immanuel KANT leveled against all religions.

    Judaism according to his viewpoint was primitive

    and intellectually stagnant. There were those,

    like Christian Wilhelm Dohm, who advocated

    toleration and emancipation and believed that

    Jews were equal human beings, with which

    much of the population probably disagreed.

    During the French Revolution French Jews

    were given full civil rights in France. In Prussia

    Wilhelm von HUMBOLDT argued for emancipation,

    but a condition was added that they assimilate

    into German society. Only under pressure

    of the French conquerors did Jews receive the

    rights of citizenship through the introduction of

    the Napoleonic Code in the Rhineland, in most

    German states between 1806 and 1808, but not

    in Prussia until 1812. When the French left

    Germany and a severe economic depression

    occurred, there was a revival of Jew hatred and

    a revisionist mood that sought to abolish their

    citizenship or limit its practice. While the issue

    of Jewish rights was being debated at the

    CONGRESS OF VIENNA, local governments in

    Frankfurt, Bremen, Lübeck, and Hamburg

    already had withdrawn the rights granted Jews

    during the French occupation. In fact, in Lübeck

    and Bremen Jewish families were expelled and

    sporadic attacks by mobs occurred. A notable

    instance of Germans coming to their defense

    occurred at the University of Heidelberg, where

    students were inspired by the famous jurist

    Anton Thibaut, an advocate of legal reform.

    A considerable amount of anti-Semitic literature

    was published after the Napoleonic period,

    undoubtedly influenced by romantic nationalism.

    This form of nationalism admired everything

    rooted in German culture and history,

    emphasized a feeling of exclusivity deepened by

    suffering and struggle, and demanded the purification

    of the German people (Volk) of alien elements.

    At this point the motivation was not

    racial but religious. The Christian faith was considered

    an essential part of German identity, and

    Jews had to convert in order to become members

    of the German nation. Even when Jews

    tried to assimilate and become good Germans,

    they were often criticized for their arrogance and

    judged as un-German as was the case of Heinrich

    HEINE.

    The REVOLUTION OF 1848 spread anti-

    Semitism throughout Europe. Jewish emancipation

    was an objective of the liberals and

    radicals, and some of the revolutionary leaders

    were Jews, which reinforced the negative con-

    216 anti-Semitism/Jew hatred

    nection with the threat of subversion. Nationalism

    also became a source of conflict between

    Jews and Gentiles, and the so-called Jewish

    question was dominated by such fundamental

    issues as Jewish radicalism, economic domination,

    media control, and whether the gulf

    between Jew and Gentile could be bridged.

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