• GERMANIC MIGRATIONS AND
  • FRANKISH KINGDOM
  • JOHANNES REUCHLIN
  • THE WEIMAR CONSTITUTION
  • W
  • INFLATION, REPARATIONS, AND
  • THE STRESEMANN ERA, 19231929
  • STABILIZATION AND LOCARNO,
  • CULTURE AND SOCIETY
  • ROAD TO DICTATORSHIP,
  • T
  • CONSOLIDATION OF POWER
  • THE NAZI TOTAL STATE
  • ULRICH VON HUTTEN
  • PERSECUTION OF THE JEWS
  • RELIGION AND THE CHURCHES
  • FOREIGN POLICY
  • W
  • THE BATTLE OF BRITAIN
  • INVASION OF RUSSIA
  • HITLERS PLANS FOR EUROPE
  • TURNING OF THE TIDE,
  • THE HOME FRONT
  • THE RESISTANCE
  • PHILIP MELANCHTHON
  • D-DAY TO DEFEAT NAZI GERMANY
  • THE HOLOCAUST
  • A
  • ALLIED PLANS AND CONFERENCES
  • DENAZIFICATION
  • POLITICAL PARTIES AND TRADE
  • LOCAL STATE FORMATION
  • PARLIAMENTARY COUNCIL AND THE
  • ECONOMIC RECONSTRUCTION
  • T
  • ERASMUS OF ROTTERDAM
  • BUNDESTAG ELECTION AND
  • REGAINING SOVEREIGNTY AND INTEGRATION
  • RECONSTRUCTION AND THE ECONOMIC
  • TRANSITIONAL YEARS AND
  • THE GRAND COALITION AND YOUTH
  • THE SOCIAL-LIBERAL COALITION
  • OSTPOLITIK (FOREIGN POLICY
  • CULTURE AND SOCIETY
  • SOCIAL STRUCTURE
  • SCHMIDT ERA: SOCIAL UNREST,
  • PRINTING AND MEDICINE
  • THE KOHL ERA, 19821998
  • T
  • UPRISING OF JUNE 17, 1953
  • ECONOMIC SYSTEM
  • SOCIETY, EDUCATION, AND
  • RELATIONS WITH THE FEDERAL
  • R
  • CONSEQUENCES AND PROBLEMS OF
  • ECONOMIC UNIFICATION,
  • P
  • RENAISSANCE ART
  • UNIFICATION POLITICS AND ITS
  • FOREIGN POLICY
  • GOVERNMENT AND ELECTIONS,
  • HISTORICAL DICTIONARY A
  • A
  • Abwehr
  • Adenauer, Konrad
  • Afrika Korps
  • Agadir Incident
  • Agrarian League
  • NEED FOR CHURCH REFORM
  • Agricola, Rudolf
  • Air Force
  • Albert (Albrecht) of
  • Albert V
  • Algeciras, Conference of
  • Allied Control Council
  • Alsace-Lorraine
  • Altdorfer, Albrecht
  • Amiens, Battle of
  • Anabaptists
  • P
  • Anglo-German Naval Treaty
  • Anschluss
  • Anti-Comintern Pact
  • anti-Semitism/Jew hatred
  • anti-Semitism
  • Anti-Socialist Law
  • Ardennes, Battle of the
  • Arendt, Hannah
  • Armed Forces (Wehrmacht)
  • Armed Forces (Bundeswehr):
  • LUTHER AND MELANCHTHON
  • Army (Prussian to 1860)
  • Army (Second Empire,
  • Asylum Law
  • Atlantic, Battle of the
  • Auerstadt, Battle of
  • Augsburg, Diet of
  • Augsburg, Religious Peace of
  • Augsburg, War of the League
  • Augsburg Confession
  • Augspurg, Anita
  • LUTHER AND ZWINGLI
  • Auschwitz-Birkenau
  • Austerlitz, Battle of
  • Austria
  • Austrian Succession, War of
  • autarchy
  • autobahns
  • Axis, The
  • B
  • Baden-Württemberg
  • Ballin, Albert
  • CAROLINGIAN EMPIRE
  • KNIGHTS REVOLT AND GREAT
  • Barbie, Klaus
  • Barmen Declaration
  • Barth, Karl
  • Basic Treaty
  • Bauernschutz
  • Bauhaus
  • Baumer, Gertrud
  • Bavaria
  • Bavarian Peoples Party (BVP)
  • Bavarian Succession, War of
  • REFORMATION AND THE TOWNS
  • Bayer AG
  • Bayreuth
  • Bebel, August
  • Beck, Ludwig August Theodor
  • Beckmann, Max
  • Beer-Hall Putsch of 1923
  • Beethoven, Ludwig van
  • Benjamin, Walter
  • Benn, Gottfried
  • Bennigsen, Rudolf von
  • ANABAPTISM AND MÜNTZER
  • Benz, Carl Friedrich
  • Bergen-Belsen
  • Berghof
  • Berlin
  • Berlin, Battle for (Fall of)
  • Berlin, Congress of
  • Berlin-Baghdad Railway
  • Berlin Blockade
  • Berlin Conference
  • Berlin Wall
  • CALVINISM IN GERMANY
  • Bernstein, Eduard
  • Bethmann Hollweg, Theobald
  • Biedermeier
  • Biermann, Wolf
  • Bismarck, Otto Eduard Leopold
  • blank check
  • Bleichröder, Gerson von
  • Blenheim, Battle of
  • Blomberg, Werner von
  • Blücher, Gebhard
  • CHARLES V AND THE REFORMATION
  • Böll, Heinrich
  • Bonhoeffer, Dietrich
  • Bonn
  • Bormann, Martin
  • Born, Max
  • Borsig, August
  • Bosch, Robert
  • Bosnia-Herzegovina
  • Brahms, Johannes
  • Brandenburg
  • C
  • Brauchitsch, Walther von
  • Braun, Eva
  • Braun, Karl Ferdinand
  • Braun, Otto
  • Braun, Wernher von
  • Brecht, Bertolt
  • Bremen/Bremerhaven
  • Brentano, Elizabeth Bettina
  • Breslau
  • The Bridge
  • THE THIRTY YEARS WAR
  • Britain, Battle of
  • Brüning, Heinrich
  • Buchenwald
  • Bülow, Bernhard von
  • Bundesrat
  • Bundestag
  • Burschenschaft
  • C
  • Canisius, Peter
  • canton system
  • A
  • Carlsbad Decrees
  • Celtis, Conrad
  • Center Party
  • Chamberlain, Houston Stewart
  • Charles V
  • Charles VI
  • Charles VII
  • Charlottenburg, Palace of
  • Christian Democratic Union
  • Christian Social Union
  • LITERATURE
  • Civil Code, German (Revised
  • Clausewitz, Carl von
  • Concordat of 1933
  • Condor Legion
  • The Confederation of the Rhine was a
  • Confessing Church
  • Congress of Vienna
  • conservatism
  • constitutional traditions
  • Counter-Reformation
  • MUSIC
  • Cranach, Lucas, the Elder
  • cultured elites
  • D
  • Daimler, Gottlieb
  • Danish War
  • Danzig
  • Dawes Plan
  • D-Banks
  • D-Day
  • Degenerate Art
  • SAXON AND SALIAN DYNASTIES,
  • SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION
  • denazification
  • Denck, Hans
  • Depression, The Great
  • Depressions
  • détente
  • Diesel, Rudolf
  • Dietrich, Josef Sepp
  • Diplomatic Revolution of 1756
  • Dix, Otto
  • Döblin, Alfred
  • GOTTFRIED WILHELM VON LEIBNIZ
  • Dönitz, Karl
  • Dresden
  • Droste-Hülshoff, Annette
  • Dual Alliance
  • Dürer, Albrecht
  • Düsseldorf
  • E
  • Edict of Toleration
  • Ehrlich, Paul
  • Eichendorff, Joseph von
  • PIETISM
  • Eichmann, Adolf
  • Eicke, Theodor
  • Einsatzgruppen
  • Einstein, Albert
  • Eisner, Kurt
  • El Alamein, Battles of
  • Elbe River
  • Ems Telegram
  • Enabling Act
  • Engels, Friedrich
  • ROCOCO
  • ENIGMA/ULTRA
  • Enlightenment
  • Erasmus, Desiderius
  • Erfurt Program
  • Erhard, Ludwig
  • Ernst, Max
  • Erzberger, Matthias
  • Eugene, prince of Savoy
  • European Coal and Steel
  • European Defense Community
  • A
  • European Economic Community
  • European Union
  • euthanasia
  • expressionism
  • Falkenhayn, Erich von
  • F
  • Fatherland Party
  • Federal Constitutional Court
  • Federal Republic of Germany
  • Federation of German Industry
  • TURKISH WARS
  • Federation of German Womens
  • feminism, 18151945
  • feminism, 19452005
  • Ferdinand II
  • Feuerbach, Ludwig Andreas
  • Fichte, Johann Gottlieb
  • Final Solution
  • Fischer, Josef Joschka
  • Fischer von Erlach, John
  • Fontane, Theodor
  • WARS OF AUSTRIAN SUCCESSION
  • Four Year Plan
  • Francis II
  • Frank, Anne
  • Frank, Hans
  • Frankfurt am Main
  • Frankfurt Parliament
  • Frederick I
  • Frederick II, The Great
  • Frederick III
  • Frederick III, The Wise
  • STATE REFORMS
  • Frederick William
  • Frederick William I
  • Frederick William II
  • Frederick William III
  • Frederick William IV
  • Free Corps
  • Free Democratic Party
  • Freemasonry/Illuminati
  • French Revolutionary Wars
  • Freytag, Gustav
  • FOREIGN POLICY AND KAUNITZ
  • Friedrich, Caspar David
  • Fritsch, Werner von
  • Fugger, Jacob the Rich
  • Führerprinzip
  • G
  • Galen, Clemens August von
  • Gellert, Christian
  • General Directory
  • Genscher, Hans-Dietrich
  • Gentz, Friedrich
  • JOSEPH II AND REFORM
  • German Christians
  • German Communist Party
  • German Confederation
  • German Conservative Party
  • German Democratic Party
  • German Democratic Republic
  • German Labor Front
  • German National Peoples
  • German Peoples Party
  • German Progressive Party
  • HOHENSTAUFEN DYNASTY,
  • VIENNA AND ARCHITECTURE
  • German Reich (Imperial) Party
  • German Womens Bureau
  • German Workers Party
  • Germany Treaty
  • R
  • FREDERICK III
  • FREDERICK WILLIAM I, THE
  • FREDERICK THE GREAT
  • SEVEN YEARS WAR
  • S
  • ECONOMY
  • POLITICAL DECENTRALIZATION
  • SOCIAL STRUCTURE
  • HABSBURG DYNASTY
  • CULTURE
  • THE ENLIGHTENMENT
  • LITERATURE AND DRAMA
  • PHILOSOPHY
  • SECRET SOCIETIES
  • T
  • R
  • THE ROMANTIC MOVEMENT
  • NATIONALISM AND LIBERALISM
  • EARLY INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
  • CITIES AND CRAFT GUILDS
  • REVOLUTIONS OF 1848
  • ARMY REFORM AND PARLIAMENTARY
  • O
  • THE DANISH WAR, 1864
  • AUSTRO-PRUSSIAN WAR, 1866
  • THE FRANCO-PRUSSIAN WAR,
  • COLLAPSE OF THE SECOND FRENCH
  • I
  • N
  • ART AND ARCHITECTURE
  • ORIGINS OF CAPITALISM
  • SOCIAL STRUCTURE AND WOMEN
  • EDUCATION
  • T
  • POLITICAL PARTIES
  • THE KULTURKAMPF, SOCIALISM,
  • FOREIGN POLICY AND ALLIANCE
  • BISMARCKS DISMISSAL
  • WILHELMINE GERMANY
  • T
  • THE QUESTION OF
  • LATE MEDIEVAL CULTURE
  • CONDUCT OF THE WAR
  • PEACE RESOLUTION, REFORM, AND
  • AN UNPLANNED REVOLUTION
  • N
  • POLITICAL PARTIES UNPREPARED
  • A REVOLUTIONARY PATTERN
  • WORKERS AND SOLDIERS
  • KURT EISNER AND REVOLUTION IN
  • A REPUBLIC PROCLAIMED
  • A SEVERE ARMISTICE
  • T
  • ESTABLISHMENT OF A REVOLUTIONARY
  • EBERT MAKES A DEAL WITH THE
  • THE SPARTACISTS
  • INTERPRETATION OF THE
  • A VENGEFUL PEACE
  • V
  • THE GOALS OF THE PEACEMAKERS
  • TERMS OF THE TREATY
  • WAR GUILT AND REPARATIONS
  • DENUNCIATION AND RELUCTANT
  • GERMANIC MIGRATIONS AND
  • A

    Aachen

    The old imperial city of Aachen is situated on the

    border between Germany, Belgium, and the

    Netherlands. It was the favorite residence and

    coronation site of the emperor Charlemagne

    (742814). Charlemagne, king of the Franks, and

    ultimately emperor of the HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE,

    is considered the founder of the Christian West

    and the political progenitor of Europe. The

    prominent position of the Carolingian empire in

    the world soon became manifest in its extensive

    network of foreign relations, which included the

    Byzantine imperial family and with Harun al-

    Rashid, the caliph of Baghdad. Charlemagne settled

    in Aachen, where he erected a magnificent

    imperial residence inspired by Roman and

    Byzantine models. Charlemagne made Aachen

    the second city of his empire, the center of culture

    and learning in what has come to be known

    as the Carolingian Revival. German kings were

    crowned in Aachen well into the 16th century,

    which event was moved to FRANKFURT AM MAIN

    in 1562. The city was fortified in the late 12th

    century and became a free imperial city in 1250.

    One of the most famous landmarks from this

    early period is the tomb of Charlemagne, over

    which hangs a bronze chandelier presented by

    Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa in 1168. The

    Palace Chapel of Charlemagne, built between

    790805, houses his throne and other medieval

    crafts.

    At the end of the 17th century Aachen was

    the scene of several peace conferences at the end

    of the War of Devolution in 1668. In 1748

    Aachen was the location of the peace conference

    at the end of the WAR OF AUSTRIAN SUCCESSION.

    After occupation by France in 1794 Aachen was

    annexed by France in 1801. It was then given to

    Prussia in 181415 by the CONGRESS OF VIENNA.

    After WORLD WAR I, Belgium occupied the city.

    During WORLD WAR II it was seriously damaged

    and became the first German city to fall to the

    Allies on October 20, 1944.

    Aachen has served as a railway hub and as an

    industrial and commercial center of the coal

    mining region. Almost every branch of the iron

    and steel industry functions in the vicinity of

    Aachen. Textiles, furniture, glass, and machinery

    are also produced there.

    absolutism

    Centralized political power in the hands of

    princes and kings emerged in the 17th and 18th

    centuries. While in the HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE the

    estates expanded their power, the territorial

    princes emerged as rulers with unlimited power

    in their own states in respect to state administration,

    the fiscal system, and the army whether

    they abolished or merely tolerated the cooperation

    of the estates. The will of the prince was

    supreme. The most typical representatives of this

    absolutism were August I of SAXONY (155386),

    who was the leader of the Lutherans, and MAXIMILIAN

    I of BAVARIA (15951651), the leader of

    the Catholics. In Bavaria the estates had already

    been deprived of their political power by 1618.

    The principle of religious uniformity was the

    lever that accomplished this. In AUSTRIA, on the

    other hand, large groups of nobility and the

    towns formed powerful associations to protect

    their political rights. But the bloody conflicts that

    203

    occurred in Austria ended with the Battle of

    White Mountain (1620) in complete victory for

    the royal power.

    The power of August I and Maximilian I grew

    through the expansion of bureaucratic organization,

    mercantilistic economic practices, and

    military power. Government by princely ordinance

    increasingly assumed priority over customary

    arrangements and the decisions of the

    diets. Now officials were recruited from the universities

    and the middle class, whose servility

    and subservience became increasingly evident.

    The power of the prince was, however, mitigated,

    especially in Lutheran states from 1550 to

    1650 because rulers and their subjects shared a

    strong bond of duty and obligation. There was a

    sense of calling and a personal sense of duty that

    permeated the social and political order. It was

    not until the century after the PEACE OF WESTPHALIA

    (1648) that bureaucratic functionalism

    and courtly ceremony created a wide chasm

    between the ruling classes and their subjects.

    Many of these absolute princes made their

    residences the center of cultural life. They

    invited theater groups and orchestras to the

    court, and they were very partial to Italian

    opera. Many established collections of works of

    art, and others founded libraries. The most

    famous architects, sculptors, and painters were

    employed to build and decorate their magnificent

    palaces, which were located in the city center,

    as in BERLIN, DRESDEN, and Würzburg. Some

    followed the example of Versailles, which lay

    outside of Paris, as in Numphenburg near MUNICH

    and Ludwigsburg near Stuttgart. The age of

    absolutism reflected BAROQUE CULTURE at its

    height. Some rulers also were exponents of

    enlightened absolutism, encouraging science

    and philosophy and establishing various

    academies and universities.

    Through complete control of commerce and

    trade the absolutist states were able to increase

    their economic power. Thus, states such as

    Bavaria, BRANDENBURG (later Prussia), Saxony,

    and HANOVER were able to develop into independent

    centers of power. Austria, now the residence

    of the Habsburg emperors, repelled the

    Turks and acquired Hungary as well as parts of

    the former Turkish Balkan countries, enabling it

    to become a major power. It was challenged by

    PRUSSIA, which, under FREDERICK THE GREAT,

    became a leading military power.

    The success of the Bavarian and Austrian

    rulers in depriving the estates of political power

    was complete. No diets were called in Bavaria

    after 1667, and religious uniformity was strictly

    enforced when, in the Upper Palatinate, which

    Bavaria acquired after the THIRTY YEARS WAR,

    Protestantism was purged from the province. In

    the late 17th century the model of princely absolutism

    was provided by the great French king

    Louis XIV. In the 18th century it was the enlightened

    absolutism of Frederick the Great and his

    Austrian disciple, Emperor JOSEPH II, who provided

    the example of the rational organization

    of the state.

    (Amt Auslandsnachrichten und Abwehr)

    The Abwehr was the office of intelligence of the

    High Command of the German Armed Forces

    (OKW: Oberkommando der Wehrmacht). The

    intelligence office was the largest office in the

    OKW and was under the command of Admiral

    Wilhelm Canaris. It controlled the collection

    and dissemination to the armed services of all

    clandestine military intelligence and conducted

    military sabotage and counterintelligence

    efforts.

    The activities of the Abwehr were well organized

    under Canaris but soon received interference

    from the Security Service of the SS (SD:

    Sicherheitsdienst) under Reinhard HEYDRICH,

    which was supposed to ferret out all the enemies

    of the state. The overlapping functions of

    the two groups caused an intense rivalry until

    Heydrich became the dominant figure on

    September 27, 1939, when he was placed in

    charge of the RSHA (Reich Security Main

    Office), the organization coordinating the

    police and security operations of the Reich and

    Nazi Party under the supervision of Heinrich

    HIMMLER.

    204 Abwehr

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