• GERMANIC MIGRATIONS AND
  • FRANKISH KINGDOM
  • JOHANNES REUCHLIN
  • THE WEIMAR CONSTITUTION
  • W
  • INFLATION, REPARATIONS, AND
  • THE STRESEMANN ERA, 19231929
  • STABILIZATION AND LOCARNO,
  • CULTURE AND SOCIETY
  • ROAD TO DICTATORSHIP,
  • T
  • CONSOLIDATION OF POWER
  • THE NAZI TOTAL STATE
  • ULRICH VON HUTTEN
  • PERSECUTION OF THE JEWS
  • RELIGION AND THE CHURCHES
  • FOREIGN POLICY
  • W
  • THE BATTLE OF BRITAIN
  • INVASION OF RUSSIA
  • HITLERS PLANS FOR EUROPE
  • TURNING OF THE TIDE,
  • THE HOME FRONT
  • THE RESISTANCE
  • PHILIP MELANCHTHON
  • D-DAY TO DEFEAT NAZI GERMANY
  • THE HOLOCAUST
  • A
  • ALLIED PLANS AND CONFERENCES
  • DENAZIFICATION
  • POLITICAL PARTIES AND TRADE
  • LOCAL STATE FORMATION
  • PARLIAMENTARY COUNCIL AND THE
  • ECONOMIC RECONSTRUCTION
  • T
  • ERASMUS OF ROTTERDAM
  • BUNDESTAG ELECTION AND
  • REGAINING SOVEREIGNTY AND INTEGRATION
  • RECONSTRUCTION AND THE ECONOMIC
  • TRANSITIONAL YEARS AND
  • THE GRAND COALITION AND YOUTH
  • THE SOCIAL-LIBERAL COALITION
  • OSTPOLITIK (FOREIGN POLICY
  • CULTURE AND SOCIETY
  • SOCIAL STRUCTURE
  • SCHMIDT ERA: SOCIAL UNREST,
  • PRINTING AND MEDICINE
  • THE KOHL ERA, 19821998
  • T
  • UPRISING OF JUNE 17, 1953
  • ECONOMIC SYSTEM
  • SOCIETY, EDUCATION, AND
  • RELATIONS WITH THE FEDERAL
  • R
  • CONSEQUENCES AND PROBLEMS OF
  • ECONOMIC UNIFICATION,
  • P
  • RENAISSANCE ART
  • UNIFICATION POLITICS AND ITS
  • FOREIGN POLICY
  • GOVERNMENT AND ELECTIONS,
  • HISTORICAL DICTIONARY A
  • A
  • Abwehr
  • Adenauer, Konrad
  • Afrika Korps
  • Agadir Incident
  • Agrarian League
  • NEED FOR CHURCH REFORM
  • Agricola, Rudolf
  • Air Force
  • Albert (Albrecht) of
  • Albert V
  • Algeciras, Conference of
  • Allied Control Council
  • Alsace-Lorraine
  • Altdorfer, Albrecht
  • Amiens, Battle of
  • Anabaptists
  • P
  • Anglo-German Naval Treaty
  • Anschluss
  • Anti-Comintern Pact
  • anti-Semitism/Jew hatred
  • anti-Semitism
  • Anti-Socialist Law
  • Ardennes, Battle of the
  • Arendt, Hannah
  • Armed Forces (Wehrmacht)
  • Armed Forces (Bundeswehr):
  • LUTHER AND MELANCHTHON
  • Army (Prussian to 1860)
  • Army (Second Empire,
  • Asylum Law
  • Atlantic, Battle of the
  • Auerstadt, Battle of
  • Augsburg, Diet of
  • Augsburg, Religious Peace of
  • Augsburg, War of the League
  • Augsburg Confession
  • Augspurg, Anita
  • LUTHER AND ZWINGLI
  • Auschwitz-Birkenau
  • Austerlitz, Battle of
  • Austria
  • Austrian Succession, War of
  • autarchy
  • autobahns
  • Axis, The
  • B
  • Baden-Württemberg
  • Ballin, Albert
  • CAROLINGIAN EMPIRE
  • KNIGHTS REVOLT AND GREAT
  • Barbie, Klaus
  • Barmen Declaration
  • Barth, Karl
  • Basic Treaty
  • Bauernschutz
  • Bauhaus
  • Baumer, Gertrud
  • Bavaria
  • Bavarian Peoples Party (BVP)
  • Bavarian Succession, War of
  • REFORMATION AND THE TOWNS
  • Bayer AG
  • Bayreuth
  • Bebel, August
  • Beck, Ludwig August Theodor
  • Beckmann, Max
  • Beer-Hall Putsch of 1923
  • Beethoven, Ludwig van
  • Benjamin, Walter
  • Benn, Gottfried
  • Bennigsen, Rudolf von
  • ANABAPTISM AND MÜNTZER
  • Benz, Carl Friedrich
  • Bergen-Belsen
  • Berghof
  • Berlin
  • Berlin, Battle for (Fall of)
  • Berlin, Congress of
  • Berlin-Baghdad Railway
  • Berlin Blockade
  • Berlin Conference
  • Berlin Wall
  • CALVINISM IN GERMANY
  • Bernstein, Eduard
  • Bethmann Hollweg, Theobald
  • Biedermeier
  • Biermann, Wolf
  • Bismarck, Otto Eduard Leopold
  • blank check
  • Bleichröder, Gerson von
  • Blenheim, Battle of
  • Blomberg, Werner von
  • Blücher, Gebhard
  • CHARLES V AND THE REFORMATION
  • Böll, Heinrich
  • Bonhoeffer, Dietrich
  • Bonn
  • Bormann, Martin
  • Born, Max
  • Borsig, August
  • Bosch, Robert
  • Bosnia-Herzegovina
  • Brahms, Johannes
  • Brandenburg
  • C
  • Brauchitsch, Walther von
  • Braun, Eva
  • Braun, Karl Ferdinand
  • Braun, Otto
  • Braun, Wernher von
  • Brecht, Bertolt
  • Bremen/Bremerhaven
  • Brentano, Elizabeth Bettina
  • Breslau
  • The Bridge
  • THE THIRTY YEARS WAR
  • Britain, Battle of
  • Brüning, Heinrich
  • Buchenwald
  • Bülow, Bernhard von
  • Bundesrat
  • Bundestag
  • Burschenschaft
  • C
  • Canisius, Peter
  • canton system
  • A
  • Carlsbad Decrees
  • Celtis, Conrad
  • Center Party
  • Chamberlain, Houston Stewart
  • Charles V
  • Charles VI
  • Charles VII
  • Charlottenburg, Palace of
  • Christian Democratic Union
  • Christian Social Union
  • LITERATURE
  • Civil Code, German (Revised
  • Clausewitz, Carl von
  • Concordat of 1933
  • Condor Legion
  • The Confederation of the Rhine was a
  • Confessing Church
  • Congress of Vienna
  • conservatism
  • constitutional traditions
  • Counter-Reformation
  • MUSIC
  • Cranach, Lucas, the Elder
  • cultured elites
  • D
  • Daimler, Gottlieb
  • Danish War
  • Danzig
  • Dawes Plan
  • D-Banks
  • D-Day
  • Degenerate Art
  • SAXON AND SALIAN DYNASTIES,
  • SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION
  • denazification
  • Denck, Hans
  • Depression, The Great
  • Depressions
  • détente
  • Diesel, Rudolf
  • Dietrich, Josef Sepp
  • Diplomatic Revolution of 1756
  • Dix, Otto
  • Döblin, Alfred
  • GOTTFRIED WILHELM VON LEIBNIZ
  • Dönitz, Karl
  • Dresden
  • Droste-Hülshoff, Annette
  • Dual Alliance
  • Dürer, Albrecht
  • Düsseldorf
  • E
  • Edict of Toleration
  • Ehrlich, Paul
  • Eichendorff, Joseph von
  • PIETISM
  • Eichmann, Adolf
  • Eicke, Theodor
  • Einsatzgruppen
  • Einstein, Albert
  • Eisner, Kurt
  • El Alamein, Battles of
  • Elbe River
  • Ems Telegram
  • Enabling Act
  • Engels, Friedrich
  • ROCOCO
  • ENIGMA/ULTRA
  • Enlightenment
  • Erasmus, Desiderius
  • Erfurt Program
  • Erhard, Ludwig
  • Ernst, Max
  • Erzberger, Matthias
  • Eugene, prince of Savoy
  • European Coal and Steel
  • European Defense Community
  • A
  • European Economic Community
  • European Union
  • euthanasia
  • expressionism
  • Falkenhayn, Erich von
  • F
  • Fatherland Party
  • Federal Constitutional Court
  • Federal Republic of Germany
  • Federation of German Industry
  • TURKISH WARS
  • Federation of German Womens
  • feminism, 18151945
  • feminism, 19452005
  • Ferdinand II
  • Feuerbach, Ludwig Andreas
  • Fichte, Johann Gottlieb
  • Final Solution
  • Fischer, Josef Joschka
  • Fischer von Erlach, John
  • Fontane, Theodor
  • WARS OF AUSTRIAN SUCCESSION
  • Four Year Plan
  • Francis II
  • Frank, Anne
  • Frank, Hans
  • Frankfurt am Main
  • Frankfurt Parliament
  • Frederick I
  • Frederick II, The Great
  • Frederick III
  • Frederick III, The Wise
  • STATE REFORMS
  • Frederick William
  • Frederick William I
  • Frederick William II
  • Frederick William III
  • Frederick William IV
  • Free Corps
  • Free Democratic Party
  • Freemasonry/Illuminati
  • French Revolutionary Wars
  • Freytag, Gustav
  • FOREIGN POLICY AND KAUNITZ
  • Friedrich, Caspar David
  • Fritsch, Werner von
  • Fugger, Jacob the Rich
  • Führerprinzip
  • G
  • Galen, Clemens August von
  • Gellert, Christian
  • General Directory
  • Genscher, Hans-Dietrich
  • Gentz, Friedrich
  • JOSEPH II AND REFORM
  • German Christians
  • German Communist Party
  • German Confederation
  • German Conservative Party
  • German Democratic Party
  • German Democratic Republic
  • German Labor Front
  • German National Peoples
  • German Peoples Party
  • German Progressive Party
  • HOHENSTAUFEN DYNASTY,
  • VIENNA AND ARCHITECTURE
  • German Reich (Imperial) Party
  • German Womens Bureau
  • German Workers Party
  • Germany Treaty
  • R
  • FREDERICK III
  • FREDERICK WILLIAM I, THE
  • FREDERICK THE GREAT
  • SEVEN YEARS WAR
  • S
  • ECONOMY
  • POLITICAL DECENTRALIZATION
  • SOCIAL STRUCTURE
  • HABSBURG DYNASTY
  • CULTURE
  • THE ENLIGHTENMENT
  • LITERATURE AND DRAMA
  • PHILOSOPHY
  • SECRET SOCIETIES
  • T
  • R
  • THE ROMANTIC MOVEMENT
  • NATIONALISM AND LIBERALISM
  • EARLY INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
  • CITIES AND CRAFT GUILDS
  • REVOLUTIONS OF 1848
  • ARMY REFORM AND PARLIAMENTARY
  • O
  • THE DANISH WAR, 1864
  • AUSTRO-PRUSSIAN WAR, 1866
  • THE FRANCO-PRUSSIAN WAR,
  • COLLAPSE OF THE SECOND FRENCH
  • I
  • N
  • ART AND ARCHITECTURE
  • ORIGINS OF CAPITALISM
  • SOCIAL STRUCTURE AND WOMEN
  • EDUCATION
  • T
  • POLITICAL PARTIES
  • THE KULTURKAMPF, SOCIALISM,
  • FOREIGN POLICY AND ALLIANCE
  • BISMARCKS DISMISSAL
  • WILHELMINE GERMANY
  • T
  • THE QUESTION OF
  • LATE MEDIEVAL CULTURE
  • CONDUCT OF THE WAR
  • PEACE RESOLUTION, REFORM, AND
  • AN UNPLANNED REVOLUTION
  • N
  • POLITICAL PARTIES UNPREPARED
  • A REVOLUTIONARY PATTERN
  • WORKERS AND SOLDIERS
  • KURT EISNER AND REVOLUTION IN
  • A REPUBLIC PROCLAIMED
  • A SEVERE ARMISTICE
  • T
  • ESTABLISHMENT OF A REVOLUTIONARY
  • EBERT MAKES A DEAL WITH THE
  • THE SPARTACISTS
  • INTERPRETATION OF THE
  • A VENGEFUL PEACE
  • V
  • THE GOALS OF THE PEACEMAKERS
  • TERMS OF THE TREATY
  • WAR GUILT AND REPARATIONS
  • DENUNCIATION AND RELUCTANT
  • GERMANIC MIGRATIONS AND
  • R

    style='font-size:31.5pt;font-family:ATClassicRoman;color:black'>EVOLUTION AND REUNIFICATION

    Berlin Wall. In Hungary that summer a reformist government decided to dismantle

    its fortified boundary with Austria. This presented the 220,000 East Germans

    vacationing there with the opportunity to flee to freedom. Some 20,000

    decided to take that path. They were jubilantly received into refugee camps in

    Austria with offers of jobs. Now the process expanded to include others who

    decided to flee for Hungary via Czechoslovakia, while others invaded the West

    German embassies in Prague and Warsaw. While the West German government

    began to worry how it would handle these thousands of émigrés, the government

    of the GDR realized that it was in a state of crisis.

    Besides the drama surrounding the émigrés, other sources of protest for

    internal reform began to be heard. One such source was in the Protestant

    Churches, where discussions and prayer vigils were being held. In the

    Nicholas Church in Leipzig Monday evening services were followed by

    demonstration marches demanding political reforms. Security forces tried to

    control these demonstrations, but soon the hundreds of marchers turned into

    hundreds of thousands. There was fear that the marchers would be suppressed

    by the army as was the case in China. On October 9, 1989, an event

    of great significance occurred; the East German authorities renounced the use

    of force against their own people. It was a major turning point and indicated

    that a peaceful revolution might be possible. Earlier, on September 25, the

    GDR had celebrated its 40th anniversary. With Gorbachev in attendance,

    what Honecker believed would crown his career turned out to be the beginning

    of his demise. Gorbachev insisted that changes be made in the leadership.

    In order to forestall a revolution by the people from below, the Politburo

    on October 18 replaced Honecker, as general secretary of the SED, with Egon

    Krenz, who was a hard-liner and had been Honeckers handpicked successor.

    Demonstrations now continued in cities and towns throughout the GDR with

    an estimated 500,000 people participating in Berlin. Meanwhile, in September

    and October a number of new political parties were established, the most

    important being New Forum. Krenz was unable to convince the populace that

    real changes were possible. On November 7 the government headed by Willi

    Stoph resigned and a new government headed by Hans Modrow, a reformist

    party secretary from Dresden, was elected by the parliament (Volkskammer)

    on November 13.

    On November 9 a dramatic turn of events occurred. Egon Krenz had

    drafted a new travel regulation that enabled East Germans to cross over into

    West Berlin with visas granted upon short-notice applications. When this was

    announced at a press meeting on the evening of the 9th, it was incorrectly

    interpreted as beginning right away instead of the next day. The border crossing

    was overwhelmed with people as East and West Berliners rushed to the

    Wall. The border guards opened the gates letting everyone through. A party

    atmosphere ensued as revelers danced on top of the Wall. The next day the

    press announced that the Berlin Wall was gone! During the following days

    East Berliners shopped the streets of West Berlin, taking back home all sorts

    of consumer items. During the ensuing weeks the crisis deepened. The

    demonstrations continued. The debate over reforms by the new government

    was broadened when Chancellor Helmut Kohl of the Federal Republic

    186 Germany

    announced his Ten-Point plan for the two Germanies, but it envisaged a federation

    and not complete unity. Now the debate was internationalized as the

    solution to the German question involved the Allied powers, NATO, and the

    Warsaw Pact.

    As the revolutionary events unfolded, domestic political change occurred

    peacefully and rapidly. Egon Krenz was replaced by the young Gregor Gysi. The

    SED adopted a new image, calling itself the Party of Democratic Socialism

    (PDS). It became apparent how artificial the large membership of the SED had

    been when in January 1990 a shocking 50 percent of the membership resigned.

    The former parties subservient to the SED now were also reorganizing with new

    programs, joined by New Forum, Democracy Now, and Democratic Awakening,

    as well as the SPD. Then a group called the Round Table under sponsorship of

    the church was organized with the goal of democratizing the GDR. As the Modrow

    cabinet tried to cope with a rapidly declining economy, it also had to deal

    with a medical crisis that was due to the huge exodus of workers and medical

    personnel. During all of 1989 some 344,000 had left the GDR, but by mid-March

    another nearly 150,000 had disappeared westward. Now sentiment was increasing

    for unification and not reform. Whereas in the early days of the revolution

    the marchers chanted We are the people! by the end of November the chant

    had changed to We are one people! expressing sentiments for unification. In

    December 1989 Kohl and Modrow met and agreed on a treaty community,

    which had been part of the Kohl proposals for a gradual process aiming at unification,

    but one that would realistically have taken years. Yet events were to

    outrun their plans. In the middle of January Stasi headquarters was stormed and

    under pressure from the Round Table, which represented reform groups and

    demanded that the Stasi be disbanded. Discussions between the government and

    opposition groups grew more strained. Elections were then scheduled for March

    18. While these events were taking place, the economy was collapsing, with

    West German money and goods flooding the country, which was further complicated

    by an illegal currency market and smuggling. By February 1990 even

    Modrow admitted that the economic situation in the GDR was so desperate that

    he had changed his mind in favor of economic and monetary union.

    As the power of the SED-PDS declined and New Forum failed to seize the

    initiative to replace the once dominant Communist Party, the West German

    political parties entered into the election campaign with their strong organizations

    and well-financed campaigns. The CDU, SPD, and FDP found new partners

    in the GDR. The CDU formed the Alliance for Germany with the old CDU,

    the German Social Union (DSU), and the Democratic Awakening. The FDP

    united liberals in a League of Free Democrats. What had been New Forum

    became Alliance 90, teaming up with other smaller groups such as Democracy

    Now and Peace and Human Rights Initiative. Helmut Kohls Alliance for Germany

    campaigned on a platform of unification and rapid economic integration.

    The Alliance did not win an absolute majority, but did win 192 out of 400 seats

    and was able to form a cabinet with the SPD (88 seats) and the League of Free

    Democrats (21 seats). Lothar de Maizière, leader of the CDU, led the new government.

    The election spelled the end of the GDR as the other political groups

    won only a small number of seats.

    Revolution and Reunification 187

    The idea of German unification received the support of the United States,

    but was resisted by Mikhail Gorbachev and Margaret Thatcher of Great Britain.

    Kohl realized that he had a narrow window of opportunity to realize political

    unification and seized it. That February it had been agreed that Two-Plus-Four

    talks would take place between the two Germanies and the former allied powers.

    The strength of the German mark made unification appealing. On April

    23 it was agreed that the exchange rate would be 1:1 on wages and private savings.

    The next day Kohl and Maizière agreed on a monetary union, which was

    to take place on July 1, 1990. The border was opened at midnight on June 30,

    the currency shared, and shops opened for business. In the meantime Kohl was

    busy obtaining the agreement of the Soviet Union to unification. He understood

    Russian objections to a united Germany within NATO. When he visited Gorbachev

    in mid-July, he was surprised when the Soviet leader gave his approval

    to Germanys NATO membership. The Two-Plus-Four talks were concluded in

    Moscow on September 12, followed by the signing of a German-Soviet cooperation

    treaty concerning Soviet troop withdrawal and German economic assistance.

    The treaty of German unification was signed on August 31, and on

    October 23, 1990, Germany was reunified and Berlin made its capital again.

    The former GDR was divided into the states of Brandenburg, Mecklenburg-

    Western Pomerania, Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, and Thuringia. In the federal

    elections of December 2, 1990, the CDU/CSU won 43.8 percent of the vote,

    which gave Helmut Kohl a strong majority in the first parliament of the united

    Germany.

    were   GERMANC   Germany   Party   their   Prussians   army   state   government   became   they   during   Austrian   CHURCHES   French   political   Frederick   Nazis   Social   Hitler   after   against   economic   some   republican