• GERMANIC MIGRATIONS AND
  • FRANKISH KINGDOM
  • JOHANNES REUCHLIN
  • THE WEIMAR CONSTITUTION
  • W
  • INFLATION, REPARATIONS, AND
  • THE STRESEMANN ERA, 19231929
  • STABILIZATION AND LOCARNO,
  • CULTURE AND SOCIETY
  • ROAD TO DICTATORSHIP,
  • T
  • CONSOLIDATION OF POWER
  • THE NAZI TOTAL STATE
  • ULRICH VON HUTTEN
  • PERSECUTION OF THE JEWS
  • RELIGION AND THE CHURCHES
  • FOREIGN POLICY
  • W
  • THE BATTLE OF BRITAIN
  • INVASION OF RUSSIA
  • HITLERS PLANS FOR EUROPE
  • TURNING OF THE TIDE,
  • THE HOME FRONT
  • THE RESISTANCE
  • PHILIP MELANCHTHON
  • D-DAY TO DEFEAT NAZI GERMANY
  • THE HOLOCAUST
  • A
  • ALLIED PLANS AND CONFERENCES
  • DENAZIFICATION
  • POLITICAL PARTIES AND TRADE
  • LOCAL STATE FORMATION
  • PARLIAMENTARY COUNCIL AND THE
  • ECONOMIC RECONSTRUCTION
  • T
  • ERASMUS OF ROTTERDAM
  • BUNDESTAG ELECTION AND
  • REGAINING SOVEREIGNTY AND INTEGRATION
  • RECONSTRUCTION AND THE ECONOMIC
  • TRANSITIONAL YEARS AND
  • THE GRAND COALITION AND YOUTH
  • THE SOCIAL-LIBERAL COALITION
  • OSTPOLITIK (FOREIGN POLICY
  • CULTURE AND SOCIETY
  • SOCIAL STRUCTURE
  • SCHMIDT ERA: SOCIAL UNREST,
  • PRINTING AND MEDICINE
  • THE KOHL ERA, 19821998
  • T
  • UPRISING OF JUNE 17, 1953
  • ECONOMIC SYSTEM
  • SOCIETY, EDUCATION, AND
  • RELATIONS WITH THE FEDERAL
  • R
  • CONSEQUENCES AND PROBLEMS OF
  • ECONOMIC UNIFICATION,
  • P
  • RENAISSANCE ART
  • UNIFICATION POLITICS AND ITS
  • FOREIGN POLICY
  • GOVERNMENT AND ELECTIONS,
  • HISTORICAL DICTIONARY A
  • A
  • Abwehr
  • Adenauer, Konrad
  • Afrika Korps
  • Agadir Incident
  • Agrarian League
  • NEED FOR CHURCH REFORM
  • Agricola, Rudolf
  • Air Force
  • Albert (Albrecht) of
  • Albert V
  • Algeciras, Conference of
  • Allied Control Council
  • Alsace-Lorraine
  • Altdorfer, Albrecht
  • Amiens, Battle of
  • Anabaptists
  • P
  • Anglo-German Naval Treaty
  • Anschluss
  • Anti-Comintern Pact
  • anti-Semitism/Jew hatred
  • anti-Semitism
  • Anti-Socialist Law
  • Ardennes, Battle of the
  • Arendt, Hannah
  • Armed Forces (Wehrmacht)
  • Armed Forces (Bundeswehr):
  • LUTHER AND MELANCHTHON
  • Army (Prussian to 1860)
  • Army (Second Empire,
  • Asylum Law
  • Atlantic, Battle of the
  • Auerstadt, Battle of
  • Augsburg, Diet of
  • Augsburg, Religious Peace of
  • Augsburg, War of the League
  • Augsburg Confession
  • Augspurg, Anita
  • LUTHER AND ZWINGLI
  • Auschwitz-Birkenau
  • Austerlitz, Battle of
  • Austria
  • Austrian Succession, War of
  • autarchy
  • autobahns
  • Axis, The
  • B
  • Baden-Württemberg
  • Ballin, Albert
  • CAROLINGIAN EMPIRE
  • KNIGHTS REVOLT AND GREAT
  • Barbie, Klaus
  • Barmen Declaration
  • Barth, Karl
  • Basic Treaty
  • Bauernschutz
  • Bauhaus
  • Baumer, Gertrud
  • Bavaria
  • Bavarian Peoples Party (BVP)
  • Bavarian Succession, War of
  • REFORMATION AND THE TOWNS
  • Bayer AG
  • Bayreuth
  • Bebel, August
  • Beck, Ludwig August Theodor
  • Beckmann, Max
  • Beer-Hall Putsch of 1923
  • Beethoven, Ludwig van
  • Benjamin, Walter
  • Benn, Gottfried
  • Bennigsen, Rudolf von
  • ANABAPTISM AND MÜNTZER
  • Benz, Carl Friedrich
  • Bergen-Belsen
  • Berghof
  • Berlin
  • Berlin, Battle for (Fall of)
  • Berlin, Congress of
  • Berlin-Baghdad Railway
  • Berlin Blockade
  • Berlin Conference
  • Berlin Wall
  • CALVINISM IN GERMANY
  • Bernstein, Eduard
  • Bethmann Hollweg, Theobald
  • Biedermeier
  • Biermann, Wolf
  • Bismarck, Otto Eduard Leopold
  • blank check
  • Bleichröder, Gerson von
  • Blenheim, Battle of
  • Blomberg, Werner von
  • Blücher, Gebhard
  • CHARLES V AND THE REFORMATION
  • Böll, Heinrich
  • Bonhoeffer, Dietrich
  • Bonn
  • Bormann, Martin
  • Born, Max
  • Borsig, August
  • Bosch, Robert
  • Bosnia-Herzegovina
  • Brahms, Johannes
  • Brandenburg
  • C
  • Brauchitsch, Walther von
  • Braun, Eva
  • Braun, Karl Ferdinand
  • Braun, Otto
  • Braun, Wernher von
  • Brecht, Bertolt
  • Bremen/Bremerhaven
  • Brentano, Elizabeth Bettina
  • Breslau
  • The Bridge
  • THE THIRTY YEARS WAR
  • Britain, Battle of
  • Brüning, Heinrich
  • Buchenwald
  • Bülow, Bernhard von
  • Bundesrat
  • Bundestag
  • Burschenschaft
  • C
  • Canisius, Peter
  • canton system
  • A
  • Carlsbad Decrees
  • Celtis, Conrad
  • Center Party
  • Chamberlain, Houston Stewart
  • Charles V
  • Charles VI
  • Charles VII
  • Charlottenburg, Palace of
  • Christian Democratic Union
  • Christian Social Union
  • LITERATURE
  • Civil Code, German (Revised
  • Clausewitz, Carl von
  • Concordat of 1933
  • Condor Legion
  • The Confederation of the Rhine was a
  • Confessing Church
  • Congress of Vienna
  • conservatism
  • constitutional traditions
  • Counter-Reformation
  • MUSIC
  • Cranach, Lucas, the Elder
  • cultured elites
  • D
  • Daimler, Gottlieb
  • Danish War
  • Danzig
  • Dawes Plan
  • D-Banks
  • D-Day
  • Degenerate Art
  • SAXON AND SALIAN DYNASTIES,
  • SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION
  • denazification
  • Denck, Hans
  • Depression, The Great
  • Depressions
  • détente
  • Diesel, Rudolf
  • Dietrich, Josef Sepp
  • Diplomatic Revolution of 1756
  • Dix, Otto
  • Döblin, Alfred
  • GOTTFRIED WILHELM VON LEIBNIZ
  • Dönitz, Karl
  • Dresden
  • Droste-Hülshoff, Annette
  • Dual Alliance
  • Dürer, Albrecht
  • Düsseldorf
  • E
  • Edict of Toleration
  • Ehrlich, Paul
  • Eichendorff, Joseph von
  • PIETISM
  • Eichmann, Adolf
  • Eicke, Theodor
  • Einsatzgruppen
  • Einstein, Albert
  • Eisner, Kurt
  • El Alamein, Battles of
  • Elbe River
  • Ems Telegram
  • Enabling Act
  • Engels, Friedrich
  • ROCOCO
  • ENIGMA/ULTRA
  • Enlightenment
  • Erasmus, Desiderius
  • Erfurt Program
  • Erhard, Ludwig
  • Ernst, Max
  • Erzberger, Matthias
  • Eugene, prince of Savoy
  • European Coal and Steel
  • European Defense Community
  • A
  • European Economic Community
  • European Union
  • euthanasia
  • expressionism
  • Falkenhayn, Erich von
  • F
  • Fatherland Party
  • Federal Constitutional Court
  • Federal Republic of Germany
  • Federation of German Industry
  • TURKISH WARS
  • Federation of German Womens
  • feminism, 18151945
  • feminism, 19452005
  • Ferdinand II
  • Feuerbach, Ludwig Andreas
  • Fichte, Johann Gottlieb
  • Final Solution
  • Fischer, Josef Joschka
  • Fischer von Erlach, John
  • Fontane, Theodor
  • WARS OF AUSTRIAN SUCCESSION
  • Four Year Plan
  • Francis II
  • Frank, Anne
  • Frank, Hans
  • Frankfurt am Main
  • Frankfurt Parliament
  • Frederick I
  • Frederick II, The Great
  • Frederick III
  • Frederick III, The Wise
  • STATE REFORMS
  • Frederick William
  • Frederick William I
  • Frederick William II
  • Frederick William III
  • Frederick William IV
  • Free Corps
  • Free Democratic Party
  • Freemasonry/Illuminati
  • French Revolutionary Wars
  • Freytag, Gustav
  • FOREIGN POLICY AND KAUNITZ
  • Friedrich, Caspar David
  • Fritsch, Werner von
  • Fugger, Jacob the Rich
  • Führerprinzip
  • G
  • Galen, Clemens August von
  • Gellert, Christian
  • General Directory
  • Genscher, Hans-Dietrich
  • Gentz, Friedrich
  • JOSEPH II AND REFORM
  • German Christians
  • German Communist Party
  • German Confederation
  • German Conservative Party
  • German Democratic Party
  • German Democratic Republic
  • German Labor Front
  • German National Peoples
  • German Peoples Party
  • German Progressive Party
  • HOHENSTAUFEN DYNASTY,
  • VIENNA AND ARCHITECTURE
  • German Reich (Imperial) Party
  • German Womens Bureau
  • German Workers Party
  • Germany Treaty
  • R
  • FREDERICK III
  • FREDERICK WILLIAM I, THE
  • FREDERICK THE GREAT
  • SEVEN YEARS WAR
  • S
  • ECONOMY
  • POLITICAL DECENTRALIZATION
  • SOCIAL STRUCTURE
  • HABSBURG DYNASTY
  • CULTURE
  • THE ENLIGHTENMENT
  • LITERATURE AND DRAMA
  • PHILOSOPHY
  • SECRET SOCIETIES
  • T
  • R
  • THE ROMANTIC MOVEMENT
  • NATIONALISM AND LIBERALISM
  • EARLY INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
  • CITIES AND CRAFT GUILDS
  • REVOLUTIONS OF 1848
  • ARMY REFORM AND PARLIAMENTARY
  • O
  • THE DANISH WAR, 1864
  • AUSTRO-PRUSSIAN WAR, 1866
  • THE FRANCO-PRUSSIAN WAR,
  • COLLAPSE OF THE SECOND FRENCH
  • I
  • N
  • ART AND ARCHITECTURE
  • ORIGINS OF CAPITALISM
  • SOCIAL STRUCTURE AND WOMEN
  • EDUCATION
  • T
  • POLITICAL PARTIES
  • THE KULTURKAMPF, SOCIALISM,
  • FOREIGN POLICY AND ALLIANCE
  • BISMARCKS DISMISSAL
  • WILHELMINE GERMANY
  • T
  • THE QUESTION OF
  • LATE MEDIEVAL CULTURE
  • CONDUCT OF THE WAR
  • PEACE RESOLUTION, REFORM, AND
  • AN UNPLANNED REVOLUTION
  • N
  • POLITICAL PARTIES UNPREPARED
  • A REVOLUTIONARY PATTERN
  • WORKERS AND SOLDIERS
  • KURT EISNER AND REVOLUTION IN
  • A REPUBLIC PROCLAIMED
  • A SEVERE ARMISTICE
  • T
  • ESTABLISHMENT OF A REVOLUTIONARY
  • EBERT MAKES A DEAL WITH THE
  • THE SPARTACISTS
  • INTERPRETATION OF THE
  • A VENGEFUL PEACE
  • V
  • THE GOALS OF THE PEACEMAKERS
  • TERMS OF THE TREATY
  • WAR GUILT AND REPARATIONS
  • DENUNCIATION AND RELUCTANT
  • GERMANIC MIGRATIONS AND
  • THE KOHL ERA, 19821998

    Chronic economic problems and the end of détente had undermined support

    for the Social-Liberal coalition that had been in power since 1969. After the

    FDP agreed on a program with the CDU/CSU, Helmut Kohl on October 1, 1982,

    was elected the next chancellor following a constructive vote of no confidence

    against Schmidt. The new government decided to call early elections for March

    6, 1983. The CDU/CSU increased its share of the vote to 48.8 percent, and the

    Green Party passed the 5 percent hurdle and became the fourth party in the

    Parliament for the first time since the 1950s. Structural problems in the economy

    proved that the economic miracle was over and that the two oil shocks

    of the 1970s had disrupted world trade. So the voters protested against the inaction

    of the Schmidt-Genscher government, which had failed to effectively deal

    with the problems.

    When Helmut Kohl became chancellor, little did he realize that he would

    become the longest-serving official in that capacity in the history of the Federal

    Republic. Kohl had begun his political career when he was elected to the

    state legislature of the Rhineland-Palatinate in 1959, where he then served as

    minister-president from 1969 to 1976. In the 1970s he directed the reorganization

    of the CDUs organization and was selected leader of the party in 1973.

    174 Germany

    Running unsuccessfully for chancellor in 1976 and deferring to Franz Josef

    Strausss candidacy in 1980, Kohl in 1982 became the youngest chancellor in

    the Republics history.

    Kohl was committed to two ideals, that of states rights against the centralizing

    tendencies of the SPD, and binding the Federal Republic to the Common

    Market. Based on the program of the CDU, which was adopted in 1978 at the

    Ludwigshafen convention, Kohl defended the free market economy and

    insisted on reducing the welfare budget. In doing so his conservative government

    tried to reduce the size of government but did not pursue radical economic

    restructuring and privatization. In order to stimulate the economy and

    increase investment, tax cuts and other incentives were introduced. Although

    a difficult challenge, the government tried to change the expectations that Germans

    had about social welfare. In other areas the government also implemented

    environmental reforms. Low-emission car engines and unleaded

    gasoline were among the measures that were introduced. Underlying structural

    problems in the economy nevertheless persisted, especially in the labor market,

    where job losses increased in the traditional sectors of shipping, coal, and

    steel, negatively affecting areas in the north and west. Strikes actually

    increased, and laws were proposed to limit them. The unemployment rate did

    not go down even though new jobs were created in high-tech industries. Most

    of these problems were due to changes in the world economy. In regard to the

    European Community, in December 1985 Kohl and other heads of government

    approved the revisions for the Treaty of Rome, which provided for the completion

    for an internal market, the development of monetary union, and

    expanded power for European institutions.

    In foreign policy Kohl refused to accept the division of Germany, demanding

    self-determination for the people of the GDR, and he proclaimed that there

    was only one German nation. In the area of foreign policy Kohl was weak,

    and his foreign minister, Genscher, was responsible for seeing the positive

    potential in the reforms of Gorbachev. Yet, no sooner had Kohl taken office

    than he was faced with a crisis concerning the great missile debatewhether

    or not the Americans could place missiles on German soil. A mass of 400,000

    people demonstrated against the American policy, but Kohl successfully pushed

    the missile bill through the Bundestag in November 1983. Under Kohl the military

    alliance with the United States was strengthened, and he committed Germany

    more closely to the European Union. On the other hand, NATOs force

    modernization program placed a strain on relations with the Soviet Union and

    the GDR.

    Kohl also tried to create a more positive national identity for the German

    people, rejecting the concept of collective guilt for the Nazi crimes of the past.

    A wave of Nazi revivalism, including the publication of the forged diaries of

    Adolf Hitler, embarrassed his administration. Anguish over the Nazi past was

    also manifested in Kohls attempt during his visit to Israel to avoid responsibility

    for the crimes of the Nazi regime. Kohl also attempted reconciliation with

    France at the 1916 battlefield of Verdun, and in 1985 with the United States at

    the military cemetery at Bitburg, where he shook hands with President Ronald

    Reagan on the 40th anniversary of the end of World War II. For this effort Kohl

    The Federal Republic 175

    was misunderstood, and he was criticized as insensitive to the Nazi past.

    Debates by leading historians over German responsibility for the Holocaust

    occurred between 1985 and 1988 in what came to be known as the Historikerstreit.

    Scholars such as Ernst Nolte, Andreas Hillgruber, Klaus Hildebrand,

    Hagen Schulze, and Michael Stürmer all questioned whether all Germans could

    be held responsible for Nazi crimes and whether Nazi crimes were unique. The

    philosopher Jürgen Habermas, who initiated the debate with these conservative

    historians, accused them of moral relativization and neonationalism. Even

    the respected president of the Republic, Ernst von Weizsäcker, felt he had to

    publicly remind his countrymen of the tyranny and brutality of the Nazi

    regime. Scandals and corruption also plagued Kohls administration. In 1988

    176 Germany

    German chancellor

    Helmut Kohl stands

    behind U.S. president

    Ronald Reagan

    during Reagans visit

    to Bonn.

    (Reuters/Landov)

    the ministry of defense permitted plans for submarines to be delivered to South

    Africa. Other serious embarrassments concerned Iraq, to which Germany had

    sold weapons and contributed to its poison gas arsenal while German companies

    had even built Saddam Husseins bunkers.

    Kohls greatest achievement was his leading role in the reunification of Germany,

    an achievement that favorably compares to those of Konrad Adenauer.

    Although Kohls popularity was waning and the CDU suffered electoral setbacks

    in 1987, the changes propose by the Soviet leader, Gorbachev, were

    inevitably leading to the end of the cold war. As a good politician Kohl sensed

    the inevitability of reunification and proposed his Ten Point program, in which

    he envisaged a confederation of the two Germanies. As the crisis of population

    loss and economic instability continued in the GDR during 198990, the

    emphasis on unity became predominant. As demonstrations were taking place

    in the GDR during fall 1989, the crowds at first chanted We are the people,

    but by the end of November they declared We are one people, expressing sentiments

    for unification. At Christmas 1989 Helmut Kohl was given a tremendous

    welcome in Dresden, and he seized the initiative for unity, with American

    backing. In the campaign for the March 1990 elections to the Peoples Chamber

    (Volkskammer) Kohl promised East Germans quick unification and rapid

    economic integration as well as currency parity. The CDU backed the East German

    Alliance for Germany, which was victorious. The Two-Plus-Four talks

    began in May between the two Germanies and the four great powers, the

    United States, the Soviet Union, France, and Great Britain. Kohl and Genscher

    ably handled the talks; they agreed to guarantee the German frontier with

    Poland. During the summer, on July 14, Kohl and Genscher met with Mikhail

    Gorbachev, who did not object to a united Germany within NATO. Then the

    Caucasus Agreements allowed for unification in return for economic and military

    concessions. Shortly thereafter, on September 12, Germany was recognized

    as a sovereign state. The Treaty of Unification was signed on August 31.

    In the first all-German elections on December 2, 1990, Kohl was elected the

    first chancellor of a united Germany. A reunified Germany now had to face the

    problems of creating a common democracy, economic reconstruction of the

    bankrupt East, and the reestablishment of social relations between societies that

    had many differences.

    The Federal Republic 177

    As Germany lay in ruins in 1945, no one was certain what the future would

    hold. Although the emergence of the cold war made the division of Germany

    inevitable, that was not the intention of the Western Allies nor Stalin. The disagreements

    about the future of Germany were already evident during the conferences

    that the Allies held in Teheran (1943) and Yalta (February 1945).

    While there was agreement on dividing Germany into zones of occupation, differences

    arose over the issues of reparations and the western boundaries of a

    reconstituted Poland. At the Potsdam Conference from July to August 1945, it

    was, however, agreed that Germany would be denazified, demilitarized, and

    democratized. This did not mean that a uniform policy would be applied in the

    four zones of occupation. The agreements of the Potsdam Conference were

    applied in each zone as the occupying power saw fit. No peace treaty could be

    signed since no German government existed.

    In the Russian zone, however, the most radical changes were implemented.

    Under the instruction of the Russians the German Communist leaders began to

    take some control. Many of these leaders, such as Walter Ulbricht (18931973),

    had been imprisoned in Nazi concentration camps or they had spent their years

    of exile in Moscow. Walter Ulbricht became the German Communist Partys

    effective leader in 1945 and remained its first secretary until 1953. With the

    backing of the Russians the German Communist leaders punished the former

    Nazis and their accomplices. Full-scale communization was to take place later.

    Initially, some multiparty pluralism was permitted with the Christian

    Democrats and the Liberal Party competing in the early elections. Walter

    Ulbricht believed that a one-party system could not be imposed as under

    Nazism, but as he said in May 1945: It must look democratic, but the power

    must be in our hands. As early as April 1946, however, the Communists forced

    the Socialists to merge with them and created the Socialist Unity Party (SED),

    which became the ruling party in the GDR. On May 24, 1949, when the Federal

    Republic was formally set up in Bonn and the Basic Law went into force,

    the Russians reacted swiftly and established a state of their own. Consequently,

    the German Democratic Republic was set up on October 7, 1949, proclaimed

    by the East German Peoples Council (Volkskammer) after so-called elections

    with one list of candidates. The Socialist Unity Party (SED) consolidated its

    power, setting up a National Front organization to supervise society at the local

    level. It also purged thousands of pro-Westerners from public positions. In 1951

    Soviet-style collectives were introduced in the factories, and a year later the collectivization

    of agriculture was intensified. All of these measures involved the

    178

    were   GERMANC   Germany   Party   their   Prussians   army   state   government   became   they   during   Austrian   CHURCHES   French   political   Frederick   Nazis   Social   Hitler   after   against   economic   some   republican