• GERMANIC MIGRATIONS AND
  • FRANKISH KINGDOM
  • JOHANNES REUCHLIN
  • THE WEIMAR CONSTITUTION
  • W
  • INFLATION, REPARATIONS, AND
  • THE STRESEMANN ERA, 19231929
  • STABILIZATION AND LOCARNO,
  • CULTURE AND SOCIETY
  • ROAD TO DICTATORSHIP,
  • T
  • CONSOLIDATION OF POWER
  • THE NAZI TOTAL STATE
  • ULRICH VON HUTTEN
  • PERSECUTION OF THE JEWS
  • RELIGION AND THE CHURCHES
  • FOREIGN POLICY
  • W
  • THE BATTLE OF BRITAIN
  • INVASION OF RUSSIA
  • HITLERS PLANS FOR EUROPE
  • TURNING OF THE TIDE,
  • THE HOME FRONT
  • THE RESISTANCE
  • PHILIP MELANCHTHON
  • D-DAY TO DEFEAT NAZI GERMANY
  • THE HOLOCAUST
  • A
  • ALLIED PLANS AND CONFERENCES
  • DENAZIFICATION
  • POLITICAL PARTIES AND TRADE
  • LOCAL STATE FORMATION
  • PARLIAMENTARY COUNCIL AND THE
  • ECONOMIC RECONSTRUCTION
  • T
  • ERASMUS OF ROTTERDAM
  • BUNDESTAG ELECTION AND
  • REGAINING SOVEREIGNTY AND INTEGRATION
  • RECONSTRUCTION AND THE ECONOMIC
  • TRANSITIONAL YEARS AND
  • THE GRAND COALITION AND YOUTH
  • THE SOCIAL-LIBERAL COALITION
  • OSTPOLITIK (FOREIGN POLICY
  • CULTURE AND SOCIETY
  • SOCIAL STRUCTURE
  • SCHMIDT ERA: SOCIAL UNREST,
  • PRINTING AND MEDICINE
  • THE KOHL ERA, 19821998
  • T
  • UPRISING OF JUNE 17, 1953
  • ECONOMIC SYSTEM
  • SOCIETY, EDUCATION, AND
  • RELATIONS WITH THE FEDERAL
  • R
  • CONSEQUENCES AND PROBLEMS OF
  • ECONOMIC UNIFICATION,
  • P
  • RENAISSANCE ART
  • UNIFICATION POLITICS AND ITS
  • FOREIGN POLICY
  • GOVERNMENT AND ELECTIONS,
  • HISTORICAL DICTIONARY A
  • A
  • Abwehr
  • Adenauer, Konrad
  • Afrika Korps
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  • Agrarian League
  • NEED FOR CHURCH REFORM
  • Agricola, Rudolf
  • Air Force
  • Albert (Albrecht) of
  • Albert V
  • Algeciras, Conference of
  • Allied Control Council
  • Alsace-Lorraine
  • Altdorfer, Albrecht
  • Amiens, Battle of
  • Anabaptists
  • P
  • Anglo-German Naval Treaty
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  • Anti-Comintern Pact
  • anti-Semitism/Jew hatred
  • anti-Semitism
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  • Ardennes, Battle of the
  • Arendt, Hannah
  • Armed Forces (Wehrmacht)
  • Armed Forces (Bundeswehr):
  • LUTHER AND MELANCHTHON
  • Army (Prussian to 1860)
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  • Asylum Law
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  • LUTHER AND ZWINGLI
  • Auschwitz-Birkenau
  • Austerlitz, Battle of
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  • autarchy
  • autobahns
  • Axis, The
  • B
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  • Ballin, Albert
  • CAROLINGIAN EMPIRE
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  • Beckmann, Max
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  • ANABAPTISM AND MÜNTZER
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  • Bernstein, Eduard
  • Bethmann Hollweg, Theobald
  • Biedermeier
  • Biermann, Wolf
  • Bismarck, Otto Eduard Leopold
  • blank check
  • Bleichröder, Gerson von
  • Blenheim, Battle of
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  • Blücher, Gebhard
  • CHARLES V AND THE REFORMATION
  • Böll, Heinrich
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  • Bormann, Martin
  • Born, Max
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  • Bosnia-Herzegovina
  • Brahms, Johannes
  • Brandenburg
  • C
  • Brauchitsch, Walther von
  • Braun, Eva
  • Braun, Karl Ferdinand
  • Braun, Otto
  • Braun, Wernher von
  • Brecht, Bertolt
  • Bremen/Bremerhaven
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  • Breslau
  • The Bridge
  • THE THIRTY YEARS WAR
  • Britain, Battle of
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  • Buchenwald
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  • Bundesrat
  • Bundestag
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  • C
  • Canisius, Peter
  • canton system
  • A
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  • LITERATURE
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  • Clausewitz, Carl von
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  • MUSIC
  • Cranach, Lucas, the Elder
  • cultured elites
  • D
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  • Diesel, Rudolf
  • Dietrich, Josef Sepp
  • Diplomatic Revolution of 1756
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  • Döblin, Alfred
  • GOTTFRIED WILHELM VON LEIBNIZ
  • Dönitz, Karl
  • Dresden
  • Droste-Hülshoff, Annette
  • Dual Alliance
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  • Düsseldorf
  • E
  • Edict of Toleration
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  • PIETISM
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  • A
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  • euthanasia
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  • Falkenhayn, Erich von
  • F
  • Fatherland Party
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  • feminism, 18151945
  • feminism, 19452005
  • Ferdinand II
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  • G
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  • R
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  • FREDERICK THE GREAT
  • SEVEN YEARS WAR
  • S
  • ECONOMY
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  • O
  • THE DANISH WAR, 1864
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  • COLLAPSE OF THE SECOND FRENCH
  • I
  • N
  • ART AND ARCHITECTURE
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  • EDUCATION
  • T
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  • BISMARCKS DISMISSAL
  • WILHELMINE GERMANY
  • T
  • THE QUESTION OF
  • LATE MEDIEVAL CULTURE
  • CONDUCT OF THE WAR
  • PEACE RESOLUTION, REFORM, AND
  • AN UNPLANNED REVOLUTION
  • N
  • POLITICAL PARTIES UNPREPARED
  • A REVOLUTIONARY PATTERN
  • WORKERS AND SOLDIERS
  • KURT EISNER AND REVOLUTION IN
  • A REPUBLIC PROCLAIMED
  • A SEVERE ARMISTICE
  • T
  • ESTABLISHMENT OF A REVOLUTIONARY
  • EBERT MAKES A DEAL WITH THE
  • THE SPARTACISTS
  • INTERPRETATION OF THE
  • A VENGEFUL PEACE
  • V
  • THE GOALS OF THE PEACEMAKERS
  • TERMS OF THE TREATY
  • WAR GUILT AND REPARATIONS
  • DENUNCIATION AND RELUCTANT
  • GERMANIC MIGRATIONS AND
  • A

    style='font-size:31.5pt;font-family:ATClassicRoman;color:black'>LLIED OCCUPATION, DEMOCRATIC REBIRTH, COLD WAR

     

    ZERO HOUR AND NEW BEGINNINGS

    While after World War I the administrative apparatus of the state continued to

    function and provided stability and continuity, in 1945 the administration disintegrated

    and disappeared. German constitutional life had reached point zero

    as one commentator put it. The Allied powers were literally forced to assume

    authority over Germany. This second defeat signaled the end of the German

    nation state established by Bismarck. Prussia, the heartland of this empire, was

    divided and lost its eastern provinces, and national unity was lost.

    One lesson learned from the peacemaking after World War I was that Germany

    should be occupied until such time as a peace treaty could be signed with

    a democratic government. At a series of wartime conferences in Teheran (1943),

    Moscow (1944), and Yalta (1945), the Allied powers decided to divide Germany

    into four zones of occupation. The British received the northwestern industrial

    area; the United States occupied the southwest area, including Bavaria, Hesse, and

    part of what is now Baden-Württemberg; the French received parts of the British

    and American zones, occupying an area bordering the Rhine; the Soviet Union

    received eastern Germany, which it already occupied. The capital, Berlin, was

    subjected to a special four-power administration, though it was located entirely

    in the Soviet zone. The Western powers had agreed in principle to some territorial

    compensation for Poland at Germanys expense. This had already been

    accomplished by the Russians, who as they advanced into Germany acted unilaterally,

    taking over large parts of eastern Germany and assigning them to

    153

    Poland in compensation for eastern Polish territory seized by Russia. The Soviets

    also seized the northern part of East Prussia, including the city of Königsberg,

    which had been a center of German commerce and culture since the Middle

    Ages. All in all the Soviets severed from Germany territory east of the Oder River

    and Neisse River. Although this was supposed to be only provisional, it turned

    out to be permanent. Germany lost one-quarter of its prewar territory and some

    9.5 million of its population.

    were   GERMANC   Germany   Party   their   Prussians   army   state   government   became   they   during   Austrian   CHURCHES   French   political   Frederick   Nazis   Social   Hitler   after   against   economic   some   republican